3G and 4G Wireless  – Advances and Challenges Suresh R. Borkar Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill Instt. of Tech. [email_ad...
3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges <ul><li>Where are we? </li></ul><ul><li>3G Wireless Summary </li></ul><ul><li...
Where are We? <ul><li>Classic Wireline MaBell Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Universal ...
Representative Wireless Standards <ul><li>GSM/TDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiplexing based access </li></ul...
TDMA/FDMA Give the same air to all
CDMA X I I I All persons are created equal Channelization code: Separate xmissions from a single source from each other Sc...
Multipath Arrival of Signals
CDMA Rake Receiver
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) <ul><li>Successor to Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence CDMA </li></u...
3G Services Who is first? – the customer;  who is second?  -  No one
Key Mobility Services <ul><li>Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, sounds, images, and video </...
Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) <ul><li>CAMEL =  IN  + Service portability (incl mobility and roa...
GSM Network C, D Gw-MSC C E, ISUP PSTN/ISDN ISUP GSM 04.08 Call MSC VLR A UE SMS-GW SCP IN gsm SCF SSP Circuit domain BSS ...
GSM & GPRS   C, D Gw-MSC C E, ISUP PSTN/ISDN ISUP GSM 04.08+ Call MSC VLR A UE SMS-GW GGSN PDN Gi Gb SGSN Data,  voice,  v...
WCDMA/UMTS   C+, D+ Gw-MSC C E+, ISUP PSTN/ISDN ISUP GSM 04.08++ Call 3G-MSC VLR Iu-cs UE SMS-GW GGSN PDN Gi+ Iu-ps 3G-SGS...
GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services High Bit Rate, Kbps Low Text Messaging Mobility Voice 76.0 GPRS 384.0 EDGE UMTS 2...
3G Evolution GSM HSCSD 15.2 kbps GPRS 170 kbps EDGE 473 kbps EDGE Ph2 GRAN 473 kbps TDMA CDPD 43.2 kbps TD-SCDMA 284 kbps ...
Some Representative Current Wireless Options <ul><li>3G Cellular (WCDMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Division Duplex (...
3G WCDMA <ul><li>Release 99 </li></ul><ul><li>Release 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Release 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Domains, Protocols, ...
Release 99 <ul><li>Radio Bearer Negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Scrambling </li><...
Release 4 <ul><li>Bearer Independent Core Network </li></ul><ul><li>Tandem Free Operation (TFO), Transcoder Free Operation...
Release 5 <ul><li>IP Transport in UTRAN </li></ul><ul><li>High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (upto 10 Mbps) </li></...
HSDPA <ul><li>Peak Data rate > 10 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Same spectrum by both voice and data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to ...
WCDMA Domains Standardization of architecture (domains) and standardization of protocols (strata)
WCDMA Protocol Layers
WCDMA L1, L2, and RRC Sublayer
WCDMA Channels Transport Channels: how information transferred over the radio interface Logical Channels: Type of informat...
Mapping Between Channels N to M
WCDMA Channel Usage Examples Flexibility comes with responsibility
Radio Resource Management <ul><li>Power Control </li></ul><ul><li>Handover </li></ul><ul><li>Access Control </li></ul><ul>...
WCDMA Power Control (near = far) Uplink and downlink (1500 Hz) Open Loop Power Control Closed Loop Power Control Outer Loo...
WCDMA Handovers Hard and Inter-frequency handovers Intersystem cell-reselection “ Equivalent PLMN mode” (autonomous cell r...
Handover Algorithm A relay race with multiple batons
Network Dimensioning and Optimization <ul><li>Dimensioning Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage, Capacity, Quality of S...
WCDMA Quality of Service (Qos) <ul><li>Dynamic Negotiations of properties / Services of radio bearer </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Location Services (LCS) Cell ID based Observed Time Difference Arrival – Idle Period Downlink (OTDOA-IPDL) Network Assiste...
Why Move Towards 4G? <ul><li>Limitation to meet expectations of applications like multimedia, full motion video, wireless ...
Where Do We Want to Go? <ul><li>Seamless Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated “standard” Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile...
Upcoming <ul><li>3.5 G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved radio Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP based core network </li...
3G All-IP Reference Architecture Iu Gi R Uu Gn Gc Gp Signalling and Data Transfer Interface Signalling Interface Gr Other ...
WCDMA 3G Evolution to All-IP Network UTRAN N_B PSTN/ISDN N_B RNC RNC Iub Iub Iur Internet/Intranet/ISP Application servers...
3.5G Radio Network Evolution <ul><li>High Data rate, low latency, packet optimized radio access </li></ul><ul><li>Support ...
3.5G WCDMA Evolved System Architecture Source: www.3gpp.org
Key 3G and 4G Parameters All IP (IPv6.0) Multiple versions IP 2 – 8 GHz 1.6 - 2.5 GHz Frequency Band 4G 3G Attribute Smart...
Key 4G Mobility Concepts <ul><li>Mobile IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move around wi...
4G Networks Advances <ul><li>Seamless mobility (roaming) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roam freely from one standard to another </...
4G Networks Advances – cont’d <ul><li>Diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successor to “Radius” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unif...
Key Challenges <ul><li>Spectral Efficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge Shannon’s fundamental law of data communicati...
Key Challenges -  cont’d - 1 <ul><li>Signal Processing and optimizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling extremely large nu...
Key Challenges -  cont’d - 2 <ul><li>Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N Dimensional v...
Key Challenges -  cont’d - 3 <ul><li>More Efficient and Sensitive Transreceiver Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise figure...
4G RF/IF Architecture Example Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
4G Transreceiver Processing Example Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
Key Challenges -  cont’d - 4 <ul><li>All IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunneling and Firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Key Challenges -  cont’d - 5 <ul><li>Distribute intelligence to the edges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Smart User equipment;...
Key Challenges -  cont’d - 6 <ul><li>Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart applica...
4G Forums <ul><li>Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Next-Generation Internet (NGI) </li></u...
Summary <ul><li>Mobile Intelligent Internet and multi media applications </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless Roaming, substantially...
Back-up
1 st  Generation Analog Cellular Systems
2 nd  Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems
3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards
Cdma2000 Layered Structure
UMTS Spectrum Allocation
WCDMA Circuit Switched Protocols PHY Phy-up MAC RLC RRC MM CM ATM AAL2 FP AAL5 SSCOP SSCF-UNI SSCOP PHY AAL5 SSCF-UNI ALCA...
WCDMA PACKET CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOLS Uu Iub Iu-ps SM GMM RRC RLC MAC-cd PHY-up FP FP PHY-up MAC-cd RLC RRC NBAP ALCAP ALCA...
WCDMA PACKET USER PLANE PROTOCOLS IP RLC PDCP MAC PHY-up FP ALCAP PHY-up MAC RLC PDCP AAL2 SAAL AAL2 SAAL FP ALCAP ATM ATM...
HSDPA Protocol Architecture
IMS Architecture
Standards <ul><li>IEEE 802.11a and b: Wireless LAN (WiFi) </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15: Wireless PAN (Bluetooth) </li></u...
Glossary 3GPP:3G Partnership Project AAA:Authentication, Authorization, Accounting AMR:Adaptive Multi Rate (Speech Codec) ...
References 1.  www.3gpp.org 2. WCDMA for UMTS, Ed.: H. Holma and A. Toskala, John Wiley, 2001 3. UMTS - Mobile Communicati...
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  1. 1. 3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges Suresh R. Borkar Adjunct Faculty, Dept of ECE, Ill Instt. of Tech. [email_address] Apr 14, 2006
  2. 2. 3G and 4G Wireless – Advances and Challenges <ul><li>Where are we? </li></ul><ul><li>3G Wireless Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we Want to go? </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution to Seamless Networking </li></ul><ul><li>4G Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul>The one who stays still is left behind
  3. 3. Where are We? <ul><li>Classic Wireline MaBell Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Universal coverage achieved early 1980’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Wireless” First Generation Analog Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AMPS, TACS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation Digital Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDMA, D-AMPS, TDMA, GSM, DECT, PDC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.5 Generation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Speed Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GPRS, EDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ INTERNET” on Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiFi/HyperLAN <-> WiMAX/HyperWAN <-> CDMA2000/WCDMA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution to All IP Network including VoIP </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Representative Wireless Standards <ul><li>GSM/TDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Multiplexing based access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CDMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Code Division Multiplexing based access </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OFDM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing </li></ul></ul>Many toys to play with
  5. 5. TDMA/FDMA Give the same air to all
  6. 6. CDMA X I I I All persons are created equal Channelization code: Separate xmissions from a single source from each other Scrambling code: separate different sources from each other Spreading Code = Channelization code x Scrambling code
  7. 7. Multipath Arrival of Signals
  8. 8. CDMA Rake Receiver
  9. 9. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) <ul><li>Successor to Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>Capability to cancel multipath distortion in a spectrally efficient manner without requiring multiple local oscillators (802.11a and 802.16) </li></ul><ul><li>Based on use of IFFT and FFT </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency orthogonality as compared to code orthogonality in CDMA using Walsh Code </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3G Services Who is first? – the customer; who is second? - No one
  11. 11. Key Mobility Services <ul><li>Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, sounds, images, and video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transition from Short Message Service (SMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Internet standards for messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless Markup Language (WML) with signals using Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location Communications Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location Awareness Based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalization of information presentation format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service capability negotiations (MExE environment) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) <ul><li>CAMEL = IN + Service portability (incl mobility and roaming) </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Private Network (VPN) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile user <-> ISP <-> corporate server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility, Security, Capacity and quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prepaid, Usage Limitations, Advanced Routing Services </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Home Environment (VHE) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriber profile, charging information, Service information, numbering information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of array of services, content conversion to heterogeneous services, network user profile, location aware services </li></ul></ul></ul>Take the claims with a grain of salt
  13. 13. GSM Network C, D Gw-MSC C E, ISUP PSTN/ISDN ISUP GSM 04.08 Call MSC VLR A UE SMS-GW SCP IN gsm SCF SSP Circuit domain BSS HLR AuC Billing Center STP
  14. 14. GSM & GPRS C, D Gw-MSC C E, ISUP PSTN/ISDN ISUP GSM 04.08+ Call MSC VLR A UE SMS-GW GGSN PDN Gi Gb SGSN Data, voice, video call GSM 04.08+ Gr Gc Gn CGw Ga Ga SCP IN gsm SCF SSP IP Services Circuit domain Packet domain BSS HLR AuC Billing Center STP
  15. 15. WCDMA/UMTS C+, D+ Gw-MSC C E+, ISUP PSTN/ISDN ISUP GSM 04.08++ Call 3G-MSC VLR Iu-cs UE SMS-GW GGSN PDN Gi+ Iu-ps 3G-SGSN Data, voice, video call GSM 04.08++ Gr+ Gc+ Gn+ CGw Ga+ Ga+ SCP IN, CAMEL gsm SCF SSP IP Services Circuit domain Packet domain UTRAN HLR+ AuC Billing Center STP
  16. 16. GSM/UMTS Bit rate, Mobility and Services High Bit Rate, Kbps Low Text Messaging Mobility Voice 76.0 GPRS 384.0 EDGE UMTS 2 Mb/s 9.6 14.4 HSCSD CS Data Fax GSM HSCSD GPRS (stationary) (Car / Train) EDGE UMTS
  17. 17. 3G Evolution GSM HSCSD 15.2 kbps GPRS 170 kbps EDGE 473 kbps EDGE Ph2 GRAN 473 kbps TDMA CDPD 43.2 kbps TD-SCDMA 284 kbps TD-SCDMA Ph 2 2 Mbps PDA/PDC-P 14.4 kbps WCDMA FDD 2 Mbps WCDMA TDD 2 Mbps WCDMA HSDPA 10 Mbps cdmaOne 76.8 kbps CDMA2000 1x 307 kps 1XEV-DO (HDR) 2.4 Mbps 1XEV-DV (HDR) 5.4 Mbps WLAN IEEE 802.11b 11 Mbps HyperLAN2 54 Mbps IEEE 802.11 a/h 54 Mbps Harmonized HyperLAN2 And IEEE 802.11a Ref: Honkasalo et al, WCDMA and WLAN for 3G and Beyond, IEEE Wireless Communication, Apr 2002 3.5G 2.5G WiMAX/HyperMAN also in the mix
  18. 18. Some Representative Current Wireless Options <ul><li>3G Cellular (WCDMA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Division Duplex (FDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in frequency – (“symmetric”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Division Duplex (TDD): Uplink and Downlink are separated in time – allows “asymmetric” traffic (adjust time slots in uplink and downlink) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G Cellular (CDMA2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Wi Fi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.11a and 802.11b; HyperLAN2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz band </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WiMAX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>802.16d (fixed); 802.16e (“portable”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.8 GHz band; 10 – 20 Mbps symmetrical BW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blue Tooth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RF based LAN technology; 20-30 feet coverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.4 GHz band </li></ul></ul>Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and Survival of the fittest
  19. 19. 3G WCDMA <ul><li>Release 99 </li></ul><ul><li>Release 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Release 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Domains, Protocols, and Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>Network Dimensioning and Optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Service (QoS0 and Location Services </li></ul>The favored twin sister of CDMA2000
  20. 20. Release 99 <ul><li>Radio Bearer Negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Complex Scrambling </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Codec – (eight) Adaptive Multi Rate (AMR) </li></ul><ul><li>Battery Life </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission “spatial/antenna” diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed Mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurements in multiple frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of transmission time reduction techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li># PDP Contexts per IP Address </li></ul><ul><li>QPSK; coherent detection; Rake receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Short and Long Spreading Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Multicall – several simultaneous CS calls with dedicated bearers of independent traffic and performance characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3 </li></ul>A lot to gobble
  21. 21. Release 4 <ul><li>Bearer Independent Core Network </li></ul><ul><li>Tandem Free Operation (TFO), Transcoder Free Operation (TrFO), and Out of Band Transcoder Control (OoBTC) </li></ul><ul><li>Low Chip Rate TDD Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Network Assisted Cell Change </li></ul><ul><li>FDD Repeater </li></ul><ul><li>NodeB Synchronization for TDD </li></ul><ul><li>IPv6 packet switched network supporting both real time and non-real time traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) replacing SS7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home Subscriber Server (HSS) </li></ul><ul><li>MSC/VLR -> MSC server (mobility management) and MGW (Connection management subtasks) </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia Message Service (MMS) environment </li></ul>
  22. 22. Release 5 <ul><li>IP Transport in UTRAN </li></ul><ul><li>High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) (upto 10 Mbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Intra Domain Connection to Multiple CN Nodes (Iuflex) </li></ul><ul><li>IP Multimedia CN Subsystem (IMS) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Guaranteed” End to End (E2E) QoS in the PS domain </li></ul><ul><li>Global Text Telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Support for Real Time Services in packet domain </li></ul><ul><li>CAMEL Phase 4 </li></ul>
  23. 23. HSDPA <ul><li>Peak Data rate > 10 Mbps </li></ul><ul><li>Same spectrum by both voice and data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 12 spreading codes for High Speed DSCH (HS-DSCH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast link Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both code and time division for channel sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmission Time interval 2 ms </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest (HARQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic optimizations to Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>QPSK and 16 QAM modulation at 3.84 Mhz symbol; spreading factor fixed to 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental Redundancy or chase combining (CH) </li></ul><ul><li>New DPCCH2 in uplink primarily for HARQ channel state info </li></ul>
  24. 24. WCDMA Domains Standardization of architecture (domains) and standardization of protocols (strata)
  25. 25. WCDMA Protocol Layers
  26. 26. WCDMA L1, L2, and RRC Sublayer
  27. 27. WCDMA Channels Transport Channels: how information transferred over the radio interface Logical Channels: Type of information transferred over the radio interface Channels made by soft hats
  28. 28. Mapping Between Channels N to M
  29. 29. WCDMA Channel Usage Examples Flexibility comes with responsibility
  30. 30. Radio Resource Management <ul><li>Power Control </li></ul><ul><li>Handover </li></ul><ul><li>Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Load and Congestion Control </li></ul><ul><li>Packet Scheduling </li></ul>
  31. 31. WCDMA Power Control (near = far) Uplink and downlink (1500 Hz) Open Loop Power Control Closed Loop Power Control Outer Loop Power Control Equal Opportunity Administration (EOA)
  32. 32. WCDMA Handovers Hard and Inter-frequency handovers Intersystem cell-reselection “ Equivalent PLMN mode” (autonomous cell re-selection (packet) idle mode) Softer Soft
  33. 33. Handover Algorithm A relay race with multiple batons
  34. 34. Network Dimensioning and Optimization <ul><li>Dimensioning Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage, Capacity, Quality of Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Link budget, capacity (hard and soft) and load factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimation of average interference power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage end Outage probabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna adjustments, neighbor lists, scrambling codes </li></ul></ul>Don’t force a round peg in a square hole
  35. 35. WCDMA Quality of Service (Qos) <ul><li>Dynamic Negotiations of properties / Services of radio bearer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thruput, transfer delay, data error rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentications </li></ul></ul>One way communications is no communications
  36. 36. Location Services (LCS) Cell ID based Observed Time Difference Arrival – Idle Period Downlink (OTDOA-IPDL) Network Assisted GPS You can run but you cannot hide
  37. 37. Why Move Towards 4G? <ul><li>Limitation to meet expectations of applications like multimedia, full motion video, wireless teleconferencing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wider Bandwidth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Difficult to move and interoperate due to different standards hampering global mobility and service portability </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily Cellular (WAN) with distinct LANs’; need a new integrated network </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations in applying recent advances in spectrally more efficient modulation schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Need all all digital network to fully utilize IP and converged video and data </li></ul>Incessant human desire to reach the sky
  38. 38. Where Do We Want to Go? <ul><li>Seamless Roaming </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated “standard” Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Intelligent Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Onwards to (Ultra) Wideband Wireless IP Networks </li></ul>We are no longer in Kansas, Toto
  39. 39. Upcoming <ul><li>3.5 G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolved radio Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP based core network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Air Interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very high bit rate services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convergence of Wireline, Wireless, and IP worlds </li></ul></ul>And Now for Something Completely Different
  40. 40. 3G All-IP Reference Architecture Iu Gi R Uu Gn Gc Gp Signalling and Data Transfer Interface Signalling Interface Gr Other PLMN Gn Applications & Services SCP CAP TE MT SGSN GGSN HLR SGSN GGSN Multimedia IP Networks UTRAN R-SGW Gi Mr Gi Ms MGW MGCF MRF PSTN/ Legacy/External Mm Mw Legacy mobile signaling Network Mc Cx Alternative Access Network Mh CSCF Mg T-SGW CSCF HSS MSC Server Gi MGW GMSC Server Nb Mc Mc Nc T-SGW Iu
  41. 41. WCDMA 3G Evolution to All-IP Network UTRAN N_B PSTN/ISDN N_B RNC RNC Iub Iub Iur Internet/Intranet/ISP Application servers Wireless Data Server www, email IP SGSN GGSN IP Firewall HLR AuC PCM SS7 3G-MSC ATM GTP+/IP N_B Internet/Intranet/ISP PSTN/ISDN Application servers N_B RNC RNC Iub Iub Iur ATM GTP+/IP Wireless Data Server www, email IP PCM SS7 IP Firewall GGSN IP PSTN/ISDN MGCF HSS CSCF SGW MGW MRF (G)MSC Server MGW 3G-MSC SGSN GGSN
  42. 42. 3.5G Radio Network Evolution <ul><li>High Data rate, low latency, packet optimized radio access </li></ul><ul><li>Support flexible bandwidth upto 20 MHz, new transmission schemes, advanced multi-antenna technologies, and signaling optimization </li></ul><ul><li>Instantaneous peak DL 100 Mb/s and UP 50 Mb/S within 20 MHz spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Control plane latency of < 100 ms (camped to active) and < 50 ms (dormant to active) </li></ul><ul><li>> 200 users per cell within 5 MHz spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Spectrum flexibility from 1.25 MHz to 20 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate “dedicated” channels; avoid macro diversity in DL </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate towards OFDM in DL and SC-FDMA in UL </li></ul><ul><li>Support voice services in the packet domain </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Modulation and Coding using Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) measurements </li></ul>
  43. 43. 3.5G WCDMA Evolved System Architecture Source: www.3gpp.org
  44. 44. Key 3G and 4G Parameters All IP (IPv6.0) Multiple versions IP 2 – 8 GHz 1.6 - 2.5 GHz Frequency Band 4G 3G Attribute Smart antennas; SW multi-band; wideband radios Optimized antenna; multi-band adapters Component Design Hybrid – integration of Wireless Lan (WiFi), Blue Tooth, Wide Area Wide area Cell based Network Architecture Converged data and VoIP Predominantly voice- data as add-on Major Characteristic ~2010 ~2003 Operational 200 kmph 200 kmph Mobile top Speed Packet Circuit/Packet Switching Concatenated Coding Convolution code 1/2, 1/3; turbo Forward Error Correction MC-CDMA or OFDM WCDMA/CDMA2000 Access 20 – 100 Mbps 385 Kbps - 2 Mbps Data Rate 100+ MHz 5 – 20 MHz Bandwidth
  45. 45. Key 4G Mobility Concepts <ul><li>Mobile IP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to move around with the same IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP tunnels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligent Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence Awareness Technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing who is on line and where </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio Router </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bringing IP to the base station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart Antennas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique spatial metric for each transmission </li></ul></ul>Wireless IP <---> IP Wireless
  46. 46. 4G Networks Advances <ul><li>Seamless mobility (roaming) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roam freely from one standard to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate different modes of wireless communications – indoor networks (e.g., wireless LANs and Bluetooth); cellular signals; radio and TV; satellite communications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100 Mb/se full mobility (wide area); 1 Gbit/s low mobility (local area) </li></ul><ul><li>IP-based communications systems for integrated voice, data, and video </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP RAN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open unified standards </li></ul><ul><li>Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successor to “SS7”; replacement for TCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain several data streams within a single connection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Service Location Protocol (SLP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic resource discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make all networked resources dynamically configurable through IP-based service and directory agents </li></ul></ul>The demise of SS7
  47. 47. 4G Networks Advances – cont’d <ul><li>Diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successor to “Radius” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrated LAN card and Subscriber Identity Modules (SIMs) </li></ul><ul><li>HSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified Subscriber Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application developers, Service providers, and content creators </li></ul>Expand beyond the circle
  48. 48. Key Challenges <ul><li>Spectral Efficiencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge Shannon’s fundamental law of data communications (BW, Sig/No) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware Frequency Synthesis techniques esp. for Frequency Hop (FH) systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic characteristics management (burstiness, directionality) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi Carrier Modulation (MCM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseband process using parallel equal bandwidth subchannels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MC-CDMA; OFDM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK); Multilevel Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM); Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add cyclic extension or guard band to data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) and Peak to Average Ratio (PAVR) </li></ul></ul>No pain, no gain
  49. 49. Key Challenges - cont’d - 1 <ul><li>Signal Processing and optimizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling extremely large number of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous and asynchronous transmissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthogonality / correlation of large number of codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi path re-enforcement / interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi User Detection (MUD) and Adaptive Interference suppression techniques (ISI and MAI) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Key Challenges - cont’d - 2 <ul><li>Extremely Fast Arithmetic (esp. multiplication) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N Dimensional vector spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFFT, FFT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced DSP’s for parsing and processing data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart / Intelligent Antennas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamically adjust beam pattern based on CQI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Switched beam Antennas; adaptive arrays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coverage limitations due to high frequencies (> 5 GHz) </li></ul></ul>Manage Entropy
  51. 51. Key Challenges - cont’d - 3 <ul><li>More Efficient and Sensitive Transreceiver Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise figure, gain, group delay, bandwidth, sensitivity, tunable filters, spurious rejection, power consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Reuse; linearity techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tight closed Loop power control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Frequency selection and packet assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi band, wide band, and flexible radios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error Correction Coding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Perfect” Synchronization / phase alignment between Xmitter and Receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clock recovery algorithms (e.g., as times-two, zero crossing) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptive digitization of speech and multi media signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A/D and D/A transformations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. 4G RF/IF Architecture Example Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
  53. 53. 4G Transreceiver Processing Example Source: http://www.mobileinfo.com/3G/4G_CommSystemArticle.htm
  54. 54. Key Challenges - cont’d - 4 <ul><li>All IP Network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunneling and Firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast Handoff control, authentication, realtime location tracking, distributed policy management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Gateways for handling packet switched traffic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trasnscoders, echo cancellations, media conversions Planetary Interoperability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Integration across different topologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Disciplinary Cooperation </li></ul></ul>WPAN WLAN WWAN WMAN There is packet at the end of the tunnel + IP
  55. 55. Key Challenges - cont’d - 5 <ul><li>Distribute intelligence to the edges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very Smart User equipment; away from “network Centric” architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miniaturization esp User Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security and Levels of Quality of Service (QoS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption Protocols; Security and “trust of information” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different rates, error profiles, latencies, burstiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic optimization of scarce resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced Used interactions / presentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved User interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>advanced Speech recognition and synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible displays </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Key Challenges - cont’d - 6 <ul><li>Web AI service / Interactive Intelligent Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart applications in the web; intelligent agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web Adaptiveness – global database schemes, global error corrective feedback, logic layer protocol, learning algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic manipulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive specifically targeted knowledge from diverse information sources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardizations and Regulatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation techniques, switching schemes, roaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperation/coordination among global Spectrum Regulators </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. 4G Forums <ul><li>Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Next-Generation Internet (NGI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by and focused on US Fed Agencies (DoD, DoE, NASA, NIH etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Performance networks: vBNS (NSF), NREN (NASA), DREN (DoD), ESnet (DoE), </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internet2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US Universities Initiated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Gigabit/sec Points of Presence (gigaPoPs) </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Summary <ul><li>Mobile Intelligent Internet and multi media applications </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless Roaming, substantially high and selectable user bandwidth, customized QoS, Intelligent and responsive user interface </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile IP, Radio Routers, smart Antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Continued advances and challenges from 1G -> 4G </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulation techniques, transreceiver advances, fast manipulations, user interfaces, IP tunelling and firewalls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum usage, regulatory decisions, “one” standard, authentication and security, multi disciplinary co-operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Packing so much intelligence in smaller and smaller physical space, esp. User Equipment (UE) </li></ul><ul><li>IP + WPAN + WLAN + WMAN + WWAN + any other stragglers = 4G </li></ul><ul><li>IP in the sky with diamonds </li></ul>
  59. 59. Back-up
  60. 60. 1 st Generation Analog Cellular Systems
  61. 61. 2 nd Generation Cellular and Cordless Systems
  62. 62. 3G WCDMA and CDMA2000 Standards
  63. 63. Cdma2000 Layered Structure
  64. 64. UMTS Spectrum Allocation
  65. 65. WCDMA Circuit Switched Protocols PHY Phy-up MAC RLC RRC MM CM ATM AAL2 FP AAL5 SSCOP SSCF-UNI SSCOP PHY AAL5 SSCF-UNI ALCAP NBAP Phy-up MAC RLC RRC PHY ATM Q.2630.1 Q.2150.1 MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 Iu UP AAL2 PHY ATM Q.2630.1 Q.2150.1 MTP3b SSCF-NNI SSCOP AAL5 UE Node B RNC Core CODEC Iu UP AAL2 PHY ATM AAL2 FP AAL5 SSCOP SSCF-UNI SSCOP PHY AAL5 SSCF-UNI ALCAP NBAP RANAP AAL5 SSCOP SSCF-NNI SCCP MTP3B RANAP AAL5 SSCOP SSCF-NNI MM CM SCCP MTP3B
  66. 66. WCDMA PACKET CONTROL PLANE PROTOCOLS Uu Iub Iu-ps SM GMM RRC RLC MAC-cd PHY-up FP FP PHY-up MAC-cd RLC RRC NBAP ALCAP ALCAP NBAP AAL2 SSSAR AAL2 SSSAR SAAL SAAL SAAL SAAL AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 ATM ATM PHY PHY PHY CDMA PHY CDMA UE/MTE NODE B RNC SGSN
  67. 67. WCDMA PACKET USER PLANE PROTOCOLS IP RLC PDCP MAC PHY-up FP ALCAP PHY-up MAC RLC PDCP AAL2 SAAL AAL2 SAAL FP ALCAP ATM ATM PHY PHY PHY CDMA PHY CDMA UE/MTE NODE B RNC SGSN Uu Iub Iu-ps
  68. 68. HSDPA Protocol Architecture
  69. 69. IMS Architecture
  70. 70. Standards <ul><li>IEEE 802.11a and b: Wireless LAN (WiFi) </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.15: Wireless PAN (Bluetooth) </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.16d and e: Wireless MAN (WiMAX) </li></ul><ul><li>IS-41: Inter-systems operation (TIA/EIA-41) </li></ul><ul><li>IS-54: 1 st Gen (US) TDMA; 6 users per 30 KHz channel </li></ul><ul><li>IS-88: CDMA </li></ul><ul><li>IS-91: Analog Callular air interface </li></ul><ul><li>IS-93: Wireless to PSTN Interface </li></ul><ul><li>IS-95: TIA for CDMA (US) (Cdmaone) </li></ul><ul><li>IS-124: Call detail and billing record </li></ul><ul><li>IS-136: 2 nd Genr TDMA (TDMA control channel) </li></ul><ul><li>IS-637: CDMA Short Message Service (SMS) </li></ul><ul><li>IS-756: TIA for Wireless Network Portability (WNP) </li></ul><ul><li>IS-2000: cdma2000 air interface (follow on to TIA/EIA 95-B) </li></ul>
  71. 71. Glossary 3GPP:3G Partnership Project AAA:Authentication, Authorization, Accounting AMR:Adaptive Multi Rate (Speech Codec) ANSI:American National Standards Institute ARIB:Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan) BRAN:Broadband Radio Access Network (HYPERLAN 2) 2.5 Mbps CAMEL:Customized Application for Mobile Enhanced Logic CDMA:Code Division Multiple Access CWTS: China Wireless Telecommunications Standards group (China) ECMA:European Computer Manufacturers Association EDGE:Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution ETSI:European Telecommunications Standards Institute FDD:Frequency Division Duplex FDMA:Frequency Division Multiple Access GGSN:Gateway GPRS Support Node GMSC:Gateway MSC GPRS:General Packet Radio Service GSM:Global System for Mobile communication GTP:GPRS Tunneling Protocol HIPERLAN:High Performance Radio Local Area Network HLR:Home Location Register HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data HYPERLAN: High Performance Radio Access network IMSI:International Mobile Subscriber Identity IMT:International Mobile Telecommunications ITU:International Telecommunications Union OVSF:Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor PDN:Public Data Network PLMN:Public Land Mobile Network PSTN:Public Switched Telephone Network QoS:Quality of Service RAB:Radio Access Bearer RNC:Radio Network Controller RRC:Radio Resource Control SGSN:Servicing GPRS Support Node SIM:Subscriber Identity Module TDD:Time Division Duplex TDMA:Time Division Multiple Access TTA:Telecommunications Technology Association (Korea) TTC:Telecommunications Technology Commission (Japan) UMTS:Universal Mobile Telecommunications System UTRAN:UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network VoIP:Voice over Internet Protocol WCDMA:Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network WWAN: Wireless Wide Area Network
  72. 72. References 1. www.3gpp.org 2. WCDMA for UMTS, Ed.: H. Holma and A. Toskala, John Wiley, 2001 3. UMTS - Mobile Communications for the Future, Ed. F.Muratore, John Wiley, 2001 4. WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet, Eds E.Djanpera and R.Prasad, Artech House, 2001 5. IS-95 CDMA and CDMA2000, V.K.Garg, Publishing House of Electronics Industry, Beijing, 2002 6. IP Telephony, O. Hersent, D. Gurle Et, and J-P Petit, Addison-Wesley, 2000 7. www.mobileinfo.com

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