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System of Rice Intensification
 

System of Rice Intensification

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    System of Rice Intensification System of Rice Intensification Presentation Transcript

    • Presented by: Raghuveer M, M.Sc (Agri), Agronomy, CPGS, CAU, Umiam, Meghalaya
    • SRI  System of Rice Intensification  The SRI originated in Madagascar developed in 1983 by Father Henery de Laulanie and later spread to various parts of the world.
    • Ecological Strategies  To enhance rice plant health, a focus on realizing the full genetic potential of the plant through agro-ecological practices is needed.  Methods include planting young, ensuring minimal root trauma during crop establishment, weeding that encourages soil aeration, intermittent drainage with water levels never more than just a thin layer above the surface, planting a plant per hill, in wide spacing, and a high dependence on organic nutrient sources while greatly reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
    • Cont.  Encourage the health of the whole plant. eg. System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  Seed treatments and land preparation that are not detrimental to beneficial microorganisms are also vital in reducing seed borne diseases, ensuring the health of the rice plants
    • Table1: Comparison between the major agronomic practices for SRI and for conventional irrigated rice production Seed requirement (kg ha-1) Age of seedlings (days) Spacing (cm) Water management SRI method 5-10 8-15 25x25 to 50x50 Moist soil; intermittent drying Conventiona l method 80-120 20-30 10x10 to 20x20 Continuous flooding Source: Stoop et al. (2002)
    • SRI Nursery  Utmost care is given to raising seedlings up to 8 – 12 days. Seedlings are cultivated on dry raised nursery beds of 12 – 15 cm high or in trays. Seeds are spread taking care to have enough space between seeds
    • SRI plant physiological advantage  Plant Growth Stage  Vegetative stage o More tillers o more open plant architecture with more erect and larger leaves o higher xylem exudation rates, o deeper and better-distributed root systems o Higher water use efficiency; higher photosynthetic rate; lower transpiration
    • Cont.  Ripening stage o higher leaf chlorophyll content; delayed senescence; greater fluorescence efficiency  Harvest Stage o longer panicles, more grains per panicle and higher % of grain-filling; heavier grains Source: Thakur et al., 2009
    • SRI impact on root growth  Stoop et al. (2002) reported that when rice is grown under continuous submergence most of the rice plant’s roots remain in the top few centimeter of soil and degenerate by the reproductive phase. In SRI, deeper root systems are promoted by increased soil aeration under higher organic matter, which lead to greater exploitation of available indigenous soil resources  Satyanarayana et al. (2007) stated that highly efficient photosynthetic performance of super high-yielding rice with SRI practice is largely due to the increased cytokinin content in their roots, contributing to higher grain yield
    • Cont.  Tao et al. (2002) observed that deeper and stronger root systems in SRI are developed due to intermittent irrigation practiced on soils without physical barriers to root growth, planting of young, single seedlings with wide spacing  Thakur et al. (2009) revealed that higher photosynthetic rate with lower transpiration in SRI plants indicates that they are using water more efficiently than continuously flooded rice plants. SRI plants had significantly larger root mass and length per plant compared to conventionally managed rice per hill
    • Table 2: Comparison of root depth, root dry weight, root volume, and root length in modified SRI and RMP crops at grain depth expansion stage Cultivation method Root depth (cm) Root dry weight (g hill−1) Root volume (ml hill−1) Root length (cm hill−1) SRI 32.33 11.10 47.93 7378.53 Conventional 19.61 5.33 21.47 3560.53 Source: Stoop et al. (2002)
    • SRI impact on Water productivity  Mao (2001) evaluated Water Efficient Irrigation (WEI) and concluded that with no water layer on the fields throughout 75-85% of the rice growing season, water requirements for irrigated rice can be lowered with no loss of yield, and indeed with some enhancement. Compared to continuous flooding, irrigating with only shallow water depth reduces water requirements by 3-18%, while alternate wetting and drying reduces them by 7-25%
    • Cont.  Tabbal et al. (2002) reported that continuous flooding, wet-seeded rice yielded higher than transplanted rice (3-17%), but required 19% less water, increasing water productivity by 25-48%. Keeping soil at saturation saved 35% water
    • Cont.  At the farm level, SRI cultivation practice has a higher grain production of 26.4% compared with the traditional flooding. Compared with flooding, SRI improves WUE of 91.3% and it has 194.9% irrigation efficiency (Zhao et al., 2009). With SRI, rice root zone management was integrated from the aspect of water, plants, soil and the other soil nutrient elements. So that it can be said that besides saving water, SRI can increase the productivity of rice plants with an environment friendly manner
    • Table3: Irrigation water consumption and productivity under two different water regimes Water regimes Water consumption (mm ha-1 cropping season-1) Water productivity (Kg yield m-3 water) SRI 493.20 1.35 Conventional 784.43 0.78 Source: Hidayah et al. (2009)
    • SRI impact on CH4 emission  Dobermann (2004) stated that alternate wetting and drying is needed for aeration to improve oxygen supply to roots, and to avoid accumulation of toxic concentrations of reduced substances such as ferrous iron (Fe2+) or hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
    • Cont.  Yan et al. (2009) stated that agro-ecologically based SRI principles are well established initiatives for innovation. They offer environmentally sound practices for the conservation of natural resources such as soil, soil biota and water. The benefits potentially extend to climate change mitigation; in that avoiding continuous soil saturation reduces methane emissions from rice fields without generating offsetting nitrous oxide emissions
    • Figure1: Chart the formation of methane in paddy soil and disposal into the atmosphere
    • Table4: Total CH4 emission and yield under four different water regimes Water regimes CH4 emission (Kg ha1) 1 5 cm (continuous flooded) 254 2 1 cm (saturated irrigation) 185 3 Intermittent irrigation 136 4 Pulse irrigation 96 S. No. Source: Hidayah et al. (2009)
    • Conclusion SRI practices increased root growth and development and photosynthetic efficiency. Water productivity and WUE also increased by SRI. Intermittent irrigation can be used as mitigation of negative impacts of paddy cultivation in the irrigated rice fields. Intermittent irrigation pattern in SRI can reduce methane emissions to an average of 60% that of the conventional continuous irrigation patterns