Phosphorus-zinc interaction and its
management in maize-wheat cropping system
Ramesh Kumar Singh
10260
Division of Agronom...
Outline
 Introduction
 Maize-wheat system
 P and Zn status
 Significance of P and Zn in plant nutrition
 P x Zn inter...
Introduction
Maize–wheat: Third
dominant cropping
system of India covering
1.8 mha with 2.3%
contribution in national
foo...
Phosphorus in Indian soils
 Soil sample analysed- 3,650,004
(Motsara, 2002)
 80% deficient soil sample (Tewatia,
2012)
...
 High & very high available
P: most part of farm
 Low level available P:
Todapur block
 Build up of P due to
continuous...
Zinc deficiency map of world soil
50% analysed soil
sample deficient in
Zn (Alloway, 2008)
Wide spread
deficiency: cerea...
 Soil samples analysed-251660
(Singh, 2001)
 49% deficient soil sample
 86% Maharashtra
 72.8% Karnataka
 20% Delhi
...
Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IARI, New Delhi
Zinc in IARI farm
 Farm adequate in
available Zn
 M...
Role of phosphorus in plants
 Energy storage and transfer
 Photosynthesis
 Transformation of sugars and starches
 Incr...
Plants take up P as:
HPO4
= (pH > 7.0)H2PO4
- (pH < 7.0)
equal at pH 7.2
P deficiency in maize
P deficiency in wheat
10
Causes of low availability of phosphorus
Causes of low
availability of P
Nature and
amount of
soil minerals
Soil pH
Ionic ...
Role of zinc in plants
 Diverse enzymatic activity
 Protein synthesis
 Structural and functional integrity of cell memb...
Plants take up Zn as:
Zn2+
Zn deficiency in maize
Zn deficiency in wheat
13
Causes of low availability of zinc
Causes of
low
availability
of Zn
Soil pH
Soil with
restricted
root zones
Low zinc
conte...
Nutrient interaction
Growth
15
P-Zn Antagonism
Cellular level
imbalance
Increased -ve
surface charge
on soil
High P induced
less
mycorrhizal
root infecti...
Increased negative charge
i. Increased –ve surface charge on soil
 Due to high P fertilization (Shivay, 2013)
 Negativel...
ii. P-Zn interaction in soil (Ghanem
& Mikkelsen, 1988)
<5 pH hydrated Fe and Al-oxides
Calcareous soil: formation of
Zn...
iv. Slower rate of Zn translocation
(Terman et al., 1972)
 P reduces the Zn absorption by
roots (Safaya, 1976)
 The high...
v. Cellular level nutrients imbalance
(Webb and Loneragan , 1988)
P toxicity is resembles as Zn
deficiency
vi. High P fer...
P-Zn interaction management
Soil pH correction
Balance fertilization
Crop rotation
Organics
Bio-fertilizers
Other agronomi...
1. Soil pH correction
 Gypsum
 Lime
 Organics
2. Balance fertilization
 4R Principles
right source
at right ratio
a...
3. Crop rotation
 Inclusion of legumes in rotation
More efficient in absorption divalent cations
Legumes roots secretes...
Pseudomonas, Bacillus and
Enterobacter along with Penicillium
and Aspergillus fungi are the most
powerful P solubilizers ...
Mechanism of PSB
Source: http://www.springerplus.com/content/download/figures/2193-1801-2-587-2.pdf
25
 Zn-solubilizer- Bacillus sp.
(ZSB-O-1), Pseudomonas sp.
(ZSBS-2 and ZSB-S-4)
(Saravanan et al., 2003)
Dosages:
 Soil ap...
 Use of efficient varieties
Genotype
of Maize
Shoot
dry
wt.
(g/pot)
P conc.
In shoot
(mg/pot)
Root
length
(cm)
P uptake
i...
Sowing/planting method
 Bed planting and FIRBS
 Zero till sowing
 Ridge sowing
 Dibbling
Application method
Band pl...
Integrated nutrient management (INM):
 Applying 0, 4, 8 and 16 t FYM /ha in conjunction of 100, 50, 25
and 0 % of zinc r...
30
Effect of different planting methods on yield and P
contents of maize
Planting
methods
Grain
yield
(t/ha)
Biological
yield...
Effect of balanced fertilization on yields of maize
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
100% NPK 100% NPKS 100% NPKSZn
Grain yie...
Effect of methods of Zn application on yield and Zn
concentration in grains of wheat varieties
Source: www.zinccrops2011.o...
Zn, P & lime interaction effect on wheat-maize system
Wheat grain yield (t/ha)
LSD (0.05) Lime = 0.044; Zn = 0.066; P = 0....
LSD (0.05) Lime = 1.40; Zn = 2.10; P = 2.10; Lime x Zn = 4.20; Lime x P = 4.20; Zn x P = 6.40
Zn (kg
/ha)
No lime Lime @ 5...
36
Zn (kg /ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha
P (kg/ha) P levels (kg/ha)
0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean
0 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.41 0.42 0....
Effect of application methods P on P uptake, PUE, AEP
and grain yield of wheat
Fertilizer
application
P rate
(kg/ha)
Time
...
Plant part Yield (t/ha)
P extraction
(kg/ha)
Zn extraction
(g/ha)
Traditional cultivars
Grain yield 1.0 25 23
Stover 1.5 1...
Effects of different long-term fertilizer treatments on available P and
DTPA extractable Zn in soil under maize-wheat syst...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12
Maize yield (t/ha) Wheat yield (t/ha)
T0: Control T7: N @ 120 kg...
Growth response of wheat (panicle initiation stage) on
inoculation with Bacillus aryabhattai strains
Strains
Shoot dry
wei...
Conclusion
 Zinc and P application has antagonistic effect on each other
with respect to their concentration and absorpti...
Thank you
43
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Phosphorus zinc interaction

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Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend. Fiori & Paol] is the third and second most important cereal crop of India, respectively. Maize–wheat system is the third dominant cropping system of India covering 1.8 mha with 2.3% contribution in food grain production (Jat et al., 2013).
Interactions between nutrients in plants occur when the supply of one nutrient affects the absorption, distribution and functions of another nutrient. Generally P and Zn interact negatively, which depends upon a number of physico-chemical properties of soil. Antagonistic P×Zn interaction has been subject of intensive research in several countries and has been thoroughly reviewed. Although some positive interactions of P and Zn are also reported (Shivay, 2013).
The maximum available P and Zn content in the soil was recorded with super-optimal dose (150% NPK) and optimal dose (100% NPK) along with Zn, respectively (Verma et al., 2012). Zinc and P application has antagonistic effect on each other with respect to their concentration and absorption by wheat and maize (Verma and Minhas, 1987). The three Bacillus aryabhattai strains (MDSR7, MDSR11 and MDSR14) were consistent in enhancement of root and shoot dry weight and zinc uptake in wheat (Ramesh et al., 2014).
Management of P×Zn interaction is a challenging task in the era of sustainable food and nutritional security. Use of efficient varieties and application of inorganic P and Zn fertilizer in conjunction with bio-inoculants can increase the crop yield and efficiency of added fertilizers to save precious input.

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  • Maize in India, contributes nearly 9 % in the national food basket and more than Rs. 100 billion to the agricultural GDP at current prices apart from the generating employment to over 100 million man-days at the farm and downstream agricultural and industrial sectors. In addition to staple food for human being and quality feed for animals, maize serves as a basic raw material as an ingredient to thousands of industrial products that includes starch, oil, protein, alcoholic beverages, food sweeteners, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, film, textile, gum, package and paper industries etc.
  • Primary orthophosphate ion secondry orthophosphate ion and both equally present at neutral pH
  • concentration of P decreased with the application of Zn and increased with the application of P in grain wheat and maize both under limed and unlimed conditions
    the concentration of Zn, the P concentration in grain and straw of wheat and maize was higher under limed condition than under unlimed condition
    From the preceding results, it can be inferred that Zn and P have an antagonistic relationship with respect to the growth of wheat plant and the concentration of Zn and P
    Similarly, residual Zn-P antagonism was also quite evident in the growth and the concentration of Zn and P in maize plant. The increase in P concentration was much higher in the absence of added Zn, compared with 40 kg per ha added Zn
  • There is mainly due to substantial build-up of available P content
  • Phosphorus zinc interaction

    1. 1. Phosphorus-zinc interaction and its management in maize-wheat cropping system Ramesh Kumar Singh 10260 Division of Agronomy Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi – 110 012 1
    2. 2. Outline  Introduction  Maize-wheat system  P and Zn status  Significance of P and Zn in plant nutrition  P x Zn interaction  Management strategies  Research findings  Conclusion 2
    3. 3. Introduction Maize–wheat: Third dominant cropping system of India covering 1.8 mha with 2.3% contribution in national foodgrain production (Jat et al., 2013) Maize and wheat is third and second most important cereal crop of India, respectively 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Area (mh) production (mt) Yield (q/ha) Maize (2011-12) DMR, 2012-13 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Area (mh) production (mt) Yield (q/ha) Wheat (2012-13) http://www.indiastat.com/dacnet 3
    4. 4. Phosphorus in Indian soils  Soil sample analysed- 3,650,004 (Motsara, 2002)  80% deficient soil sample (Tewatia, 2012)  Category wise deficient sample (Motsara, 2002) Low- 42% Medium- 38% High- 20%  Low- 98% of districts (Tiwari, 2001)  Low-Maharashtra (86%), Haryana (81%), Punjab (29%)  Medium- Punjab (49%), Karnataka (48%), Tamil Nadu (41%)  High- Kerala (53%), West Bengal (39%),Tamil Nadu (35%) bnnnnnnnn nnbnbbnnb bbnbnnbbn nbnbnbnbn bnhjjhjhjhhg jhjjhjhhjjhjhj hjhjhjhjhjhjh nbnmmnhjj hjhhjjhjhhjjh jhhj Source: http://www.rainfedfarming.org/documents/ETD_2011_7_12_17%20india's%20soil%20crisis.pdf4
    5. 5.  High & very high available P: most part of farm  Low level available P: Todapur block  Build up of P due to continuous application  Use P solubilizer/mobilizer to exploit the reserve Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IARI, New Delhi Phosphorus in IARI farm 5
    6. 6. Zinc deficiency map of world soil 50% analysed soil sample deficient in Zn (Alloway, 2008) Wide spread deficiency: cereal production areas Average total Zn conc. cultivated soils is around 65 mg/kg (Alloway, 2009) Most deficient: Iraq, Turkey, China, Pakistan, India, Korea, Syria and Italy 6 Alloway (2008) Micronutrient Deficiencies in Global Crop Production
    7. 7.  Soil samples analysed-251660 (Singh, 2001)  49% deficient soil sample  86% Maharashtra  72.8% Karnataka  20% Delhi  8% Puducherry  According to Rattan (1999) in Indian soil total Zn is 55 mg/kg and available Zn is 0.54 mg/kg Gupta et al. (2007) Zinc in Indian soils 7
    8. 8. Division of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, IARI, New Delhi Zinc in IARI farm  Farm adequate in available Zn  Marginal deficiency: WTC , some part of NBPGR and Todapur farm  High reserve of Zn due to continuous application  Use of Zn solubilizer to exploit the reserve 8
    9. 9. Role of phosphorus in plants  Energy storage and transfer  Photosynthesis  Transformation of sugars and starches  Increases water use efficiency- reduces water stress  Helps in seed formation  Promotes early root formation and growth  Early crop maturity  Transfer of genetic characteristics 9
    10. 10. Plants take up P as: HPO4 = (pH > 7.0)H2PO4 - (pH < 7.0) equal at pH 7.2 P deficiency in maize P deficiency in wheat 10
    11. 11. Causes of low availability of phosphorus Causes of low availability of P Nature and amount of soil minerals Soil pH Ionic effects Extent of P saturation Organic matter Temperature Agricultural management 11
    12. 12. Role of zinc in plants  Diverse enzymatic activity  Protein synthesis  Structural and functional integrity of cell membranes  Detoxification of reactive oxygen species(ROS)  Carbohydrate metabolism  Synthesis and protection of IAA  Reduces heavy metal accumulation 12
    13. 13. Plants take up Zn as: Zn2+ Zn deficiency in maize Zn deficiency in wheat 13
    14. 14. Causes of low availability of zinc Causes of low availability of Zn Soil pH Soil with restricted root zones Low zinc content in soil Low organic matter Water logging/ flooding of soils Zinc interaction with other nutrients High P fertilization Cool soil temperature 14
    15. 15. Nutrient interaction Growth 15
    16. 16. P-Zn Antagonism Cellular level imbalance Increased -ve surface charge on soil High P induced less mycorrhizal root infection Slower translocation of Zn in plants P-Zn interaction in soil Dilution effect P-Zn interaction hypotheses This study first started by Barnette et al. (1936) in corn 16
    17. 17. Increased negative charge i. Increased –ve surface charge on soil  Due to high P fertilization (Shivay, 2013)  Negatively charged phosphate ion attract by Al, Fe and Ca ions (Morris et al., 1977) 17
    18. 18. ii. P-Zn interaction in soil (Ghanem & Mikkelsen, 1988) <5 pH hydrated Fe and Al-oxides Calcareous soil: formation of Zn3(PO4)2.4H2O, adsorption of Zn to clay or CaCO3, sparingly soluble Zn(OH)2 or ZnCO3 (Trehan and Sekhon, 1977) Adapted from Kalendova , 1972 Solubility of Zn3(PO4)2 is depend on the pH value of aqueous H2SO4 solution pH Solubility (ppm) 6.7 66 6.3 89 4.7 398 4.2 797 iii. Simple dilution effect (Loneragan et al., 1979; Neilsen and Hogue, 1986)  P enhanced growth BiomassincreasedduetoP Insolubility and dilution 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 10 20 30 40 Zn concentration 18
    19. 19. iv. Slower rate of Zn translocation (Terman et al., 1972)  P reduces the Zn absorption by roots (Safaya, 1976)  The high P increased the amount of ethanol soluble and pectate fractions of Zn in the root cell wall (Youngdahl et al., 1977)  Complexed by low-molecular weight organic solutes (Kochian, 1991) Translocation 19
    20. 20. v. Cellular level nutrients imbalance (Webb and Loneragan , 1988) P toxicity is resembles as Zn deficiency vi. High P fertilization inhibit mycorrhizal growth (Singh et al., 1986) Reduced the Zn absorption In wheat, reduce root colonization with AM by 33 to 75% (Ryan et al., 2008) Cellular level imbalance & Reduced uptake 20
    21. 21. P-Zn interaction management Soil pH correction Balance fertilization Crop rotation Organics Bio-fertilizers Other agronomic management Physiological management 21
    22. 22. 1. Soil pH correction  Gypsum  Lime  Organics 2. Balance fertilization  4R Principles right source at right ratio at right time at right place 22
    23. 23. 3. Crop rotation  Inclusion of legumes in rotation More efficient in absorption divalent cations Legumes roots secretes acid phosphatase enzyme (Yadav and Tarafdar, 2001) 4. Organics source of nutrients Manures: FYM Compost: Vermicompost, NADEP Residue recycling Green manuring 23
    24. 24. Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter along with Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi are the most powerful P solubilizers (Whitelaw, 2000) Root colonization with AMF can enhance the uptake of P & Zn by plant roots (Shenoy and Kalagudi, 2005) Dosages: Soil application formulation: 25-30 kg per acre Liquid formulations: Apply 3-4 mL per litre of water as foliar application 5. Bio-fertilizer Solid formulation Liquid formulation 24
    25. 25. Mechanism of PSB Source: http://www.springerplus.com/content/download/figures/2193-1801-2-587-2.pdf 25
    26. 26.  Zn-solubilizer- Bacillus sp. (ZSB-O-1), Pseudomonas sp. (ZSBS-2 and ZSB-S-4) (Saravanan et al., 2003) Dosages:  Soil application formulation: Approximately 5 kg per acre  Liquid formulation: Apply 3-4 mL per litre of water as foliar application Solid formulation Liquid formulation 26
    27. 27.  Use of efficient varieties Genotype of Maize Shoot dry wt. (g/pot) P conc. In shoot (mg/pot) Root length (cm) P uptake in shoot (mg/pot) Short growth duration Kuwari 15.23 0.11 156 13.7 Agati-76 19.45 0.12 186 19.5 Vikram 22.50 0.11 192 24.8 Normal growth duration Pragati 25.48 0.11 234 30.6 HQPM 1 16.87 0.12 182 18.9 MRM3845 16.87 0.11 194 25.1 MRM3842 22.15 0.11 194 24.3 MRM3838 22.46 0.11 194 24.7 Parewa et al. (2010) The P uptake efficiency of the varieties of wheat: PBW 343 (26.25 kg/ha)  WH 711 (24.10 kg/ ha) HD 2329 (23.06 kg/ha) Hindi 62 (21.74 kg/ha) WH 147 (19.31 kg/ha) (Gill et al. (2004) 6. Other agronomic management 27
    28. 28. Sowing/planting method  Bed planting and FIRBS  Zero till sowing  Ridge sowing  Dibbling Application method Band placement Starter or seed treatment-leads early stimulation of crop growth is often termed “pop-up effect” Foliar application Fertigation Better Crops 83 (1), 1999 28
    29. 29. Integrated nutrient management (INM):  Applying 0, 4, 8 and 16 t FYM /ha in conjunction of 100, 50, 25 and 0 % of zinc requirements were found optimum for soybean– wheat, rice-wheat, maize- wheat and other cropping systems (Singh, 2004) Water management Under reduced condition Zn precipitate as franklinite (ZnFe2O4) and ZnS (Sajwan and Lindsay, 1986) 7. Physiological management  Spray of hormone: auxin, cytokinin (kinetin) Zn deficiency caused by the oxidative degradation of the auxin growth hormone (Cakmak, 2000)  Cytokinin-induced nutrient mobilization (Taiz and Zeiger, 2003) 29
    30. 30. 30
    31. 31. Effect of different planting methods on yield and P contents of maize Planting methods Grain yield (t/ha) Biological yield (t/ha) P content (%) in roots P content (%) in leaves P content (%) in grains Flat sowing 5.77 28.92 0.09 0.71 0.12 Ridge sowing 7.01 36.05 0.13 0.91 0.23 Bed planting 5.86 31.76 0.10 0.78 0.22 LSD (P=0.05) 0.18 2.85 0.02 0.03 0.03 Khan et al. (2012) The J. of An. & Pl. Scs., 22(2): 309-317 31
    32. 32. Effect of balanced fertilization on yields of maize 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 100% NPK 100% NPKS 100% NPKSZn Grain yield (t/ha) Stover yield (t/ha) Sharma and Jain (2014) Indian Journal of Agronomy 59 (1): 26-33 32
    33. 33. Effect of methods of Zn application on yield and Zn concentration in grains of wheat varieties Source: www.zinccrops2011.org/presentations/2011_zinccrops2011_dhar.pdf Shiva Dhar et al. (2011) Treatments Grain yield (t/ha) Straw yield (t/ha) Zn conc. in grain (mg/kg) Varieties PBW 175 4.16 7.11 43.74 HD 2687 4.31 7.50 48.32 HD 2733 3.85 6.95 43.95 LSD (P=0.05) 0.096 0.23 - Zn application Control 3.94 6.66 41.09 Soil applied 25 kg ZnSO4 /ha 3.99 6.85 43.78 Soil applied 50 kg ZnSO4 /ha 4.09 7.13 44.50 Foliar 2.0 kg ZnSO4/ha at boot and after anthesis 4.08 7.20 47.27 Soil applied 25 kg ZnSO4 /ha + 2 foliar spray at boot and other after anthesis @ 2.0 kg ZnSO4/ha each 4.21 7.55 47.54 2 foliar spray at boot and after anthesis @ 0.2 % ZnSO4 each until all leaves are totally wet 4.32 7.74 47.83 LSD (P=0.05) 0.06 0.19 - 33
    34. 34. Zn, P & lime interaction effect on wheat-maize system Wheat grain yield (t/ha) LSD (0.05) Lime = 0.044; Zn = 0.066; P = 0.066; Lime x Zn = 0.132; Lime x P = 0.132; Zn x P = 0.198 Verma & Minhas (1987) Fertilizer Research 13:77-86 Zn (kg/ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha P (kg/ha) P (kg/ha) 0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean 0 4.06 4.24 4.51 4.27 4.50 5.52 5.75 5.26 20 4.33 4.56 4.75 4.55 4.80 5.70 5.94 5.48 40 4.37 4.58 4.51 4.49 5.21 5.96 5.93 5.70 Mean 4.25 4.46 4.59 4.84 5.73 5.87 Maize grain yield (t/ha) LSD (0.05) Lime = 0.066; Zn = 0.110; P = 0.110; Lime × Zn = 0.220; Lime × P = 0.220; Zn x P = 0.328 Zn (kg/ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha P (kg/ha) P (kg/ha) 0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean 0 1.02 1.95 2.23 1.73 1.19 2.05 2.65 1.96 20 1.03 1.98 2.31 1.78 1.35 2.23 2.80 2.13 40 0.85 1.86 2.21 1.64 1.36 2.29 2.99 2.22 Mean 0.97 1.93 2.25 1.30 2.19 2.82 34
    35. 35. LSD (0.05) Lime = 1.40; Zn = 2.10; P = 2.10; Lime x Zn = 4.20; Lime x P = 4.20; Zn x P = 6.40 Zn (kg /ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha P (kg/ha) P (kg/ha) 0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean 0 41.2 32.0 26.5 33.2 36.1 30.7 22.4 29.7 20 52.5 46.1 38.4 45.6 47.5 39.8 31.3 39.5 40 62.2 56.3 49.6 56.0 55.2 48.2 41.0 48.1 Mean 52.0 44.8 38.2 46.2 39.5 31.5 LSD (0.05) Lime = 1.66; Zn = 2.50; P = 2.50; Lime x Zn = 5.00; Lime x P = 5.00; Zn x P=7.10 Zn conc. in maize grain (ppm) Zn conc. in wheat grain (ppm) Zn, P & lime interaction effect on wheat-maize system Zn (kg /ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha P (kg/ha) P (kg/ha) 0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean 0 30.4 24.5 19.2 24.7 25.0 19.12 14.3 19.5 20 42.2 35.4 28.4 35.3 35.4 28.2 21.5 28.4 40 58.0 50.3 43.1 50.5 51.1 44.0 35.4 43.5 Mean 43.5 36.7 30.2 37.2 30.4 23.7 Verma & Minhas (1987) Fertilizer Research 13:77-86 35
    36. 36. 36 Zn (kg /ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha P (kg/ha) P levels (kg/ha) 0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean 0 0.39 0.41 0.43 0.41 0.42 0.44 0.46 0.44 20 0.37 0.40 0.41 0.39 0.40 0.42 0.45 0.42 40 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.41 0.39 Mean 0.37 0.39 0.40 0.40 0.42 0.44 Zn (kg /ha) No lime Lime @ 5 t /ha P (kg/ha) P levels (kg/ha) 0 60 120 Mean 0 60 120 Mean 0 0.44 0.48 0.48 0.48 0.46 0.49 0.53 0.49 20 0.42 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.49 0.46 40 0.39 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.41 Mean 0.41 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.45 0.48 LSD (0.05) Lime = 0.012; Zn = 0,018; P = 0,018; Limex Zn = 0,036; Lime x P = 0.036; Zn x P = 0,054 P conc. in wheat grain (ppm) P conc. in maize grain (ppm) Zn, P & lime interaction effect on wheat-maize system LSD (0.05) Lime = 0.010; Zn = 0.015; P = 0,015; Lime × Zn = 0.030; Lime × P = 0.030; Zn x P = 0.045 Verma & Minhas (1987) Fertilizer Research 13:77-86
    37. 37. Effect of application methods P on P uptake, PUE, AEP and grain yield of wheat Fertilizer application P rate (kg/ha) Time Grain yield (kg/ha) P uptake (kg/ha) PUE (%) AEP (kg/ha) Source Control - - 3966d 13.88c - - DAP 44 1st irrigation 4882ab 19.78a 13.41 20.82 DAP 44 Basal 4516bc 17.05b 7.20 12.50 DAP 33 1st irrigation 4443c 17.38b 10.60 14.45 SSP 44 1st irrigation 5249a 19.70a 13.23 29.15 SSP 44 Basal 4665bc 19.00ab 11.64 15.88 SSP 33 1st irrigation 4854abc 18.99ab 15.48 26.91 Iqbal et al. (2003) Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 25(6) : 697-702 37
    38. 38. Plant part Yield (t/ha) P extraction (kg/ha) Zn extraction (g/ha) Traditional cultivars Grain yield 1.0 25 23 Stover 1.5 15 40 Total 2.5 40 63 Improved cultivars Grain yield 4.0 63 93 Stover 4.0 37 108 Total 8.0 100 201 Hybrids Grain yield 7.0 128 163 Stover 7.0 72 189 Total 14.0 200 352 Comparison of different type of cultivars of maize Jat et al. (2013) Indian J. Fert. 9(4): 80-94 Shift in cultivars development took place The nutrient removal increased 5 times with hybrid compared to local varieties Residue recycling may infuse 72 kg P and 189 g Zn/ha 38
    39. 39. Effects of different long-term fertilizer treatments on available P and DTPA extractable Zn in soil under maize-wheat system (1972-2008) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Available P (kg/ha) DTPA extractable Zn (mg/kg) AvailableP(kg/ha) DTPAextractableZn(mg/kg) Verma et al. (2012) Plant Soil Environ. 58(12): 529–533 39
    40. 40. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T0 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 Maize yield (t/ha) Wheat yield (t/ha) T0: Control T7: N @ 120 kg/ha + PSB T1: N @120 kg/ha T8: N @ 120 kg/ha + VAM T2: N @ 120 kg/ha, SSP @ 60 kg/ha T9: N @ 120 kg/ha, SSP @ 30 kg P2O5/ha + PSB T3: SSP @ 60 kg P2O5/ha T10: N @ 120 kg/ha, SSP @ 30 kg P2O5/ha + VAM T4: RP @ 60 kg P2O5/ha T11: N @ 120 kg/ha, RP @ 30 kg P2O5/ha + PSB T5: PSB T12: N @ 120 kg/ha,RP @ 30 kg P2O5/ha + VAM T6:VAM Grain yield of maize and wheat as influenced by inorganic and bio-fertilizers in sequence Singhal et al. (2012) Indian J. Agric. Res. 46(2) :167-172 40
    41. 41. Growth response of wheat (panicle initiation stage) on inoculation with Bacillus aryabhattai strains Strains Shoot dry weight (g/plant) Shoot Zn content (µg/g) Root dry weight (g/plant) Root Zn content (µg/g) Un- inoculated control 6.4 ± 0.1d 14.0± 8d 1.0 ± 0.2d 19.5±0.7d MDSR7 8.7 ± 0.2b 19.7 ± 0.9b 1.8 ± 0.1b 25.1 ± 1.3b MDSR11 7.0 ± 0.1c 17.7 ± 0.5c 1.2 ± 0.1c 23.5 ± 0.9c MDSR14 9.1 ± 0.1a 23.5± .6a 1.9 ± 0.1a 29.0±0.7a Ramesh et al. (2014) Applied Soil Ecol. 73:87– 96 41
    42. 42. Conclusion  Zinc and P application has antagonistic effect on each other with respect to their concentration and absorption by wheat and maize  Modification of soil reaction, crop rotation and use of efficient varieties will increase the concentration and uptake of nutrients  Right source of nutrients, at right ratio, at right time and at right place is expected to increase nutrient use efficiency and productivity of crops  The application of inorganic P and Zn fertilizer in conjunction with bio-inoculants can increase the crop yield and efficiency of added fertilizers to save precious input 42
    43. 43. Thank you 43
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