Agr 591 course seminar on vermicompost

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Agr 591 course seminar on vermicompost

  1. 1. Course Seminar on Role of Vermicompost in Crop Production Speaker Supervisor Ramesh Kumar Singh Dr. R. P. Singh ID. No. A-1002 M.Sc. (Ag) (Prof. & Head) Department of Agronomy, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221 005
  2. 2. Skeletons of the seminar              Introduction Objectives Types of earthworms Characteristics of vermicompost Vermicomposting materials Types of vermicomposting Methods of vermicomposting Rate of application Advantages of vermicompost Effect on soil properties Effect on crop growth and yield Conclusion Future research needs
  3. 3. Introduction The word vermicompost originated from Latin word “vermes” which means “worms” Vermicomposting is a method of preparing enriched compost with the use of earthworms. It is one of the easiest methods to recycle agricultural wastes to produce quality compost. Earthworms consume biomass and excrete it in digested form called worm casts. Worm casts are popularly called as Black gold. The casts are rich in nutrients, growth promoting substances, beneficial soil micro flora and having properties of inhibiting pathogenic microbes and promote PGPR.
  4. 4. Objectives  To improve soil physico-chemical properties  To accelerate microbial processes  To enhance nutrient availability
  5. 5. Types of earthworm Epigeic (Greek for “upon the earth”) eg- Eisenia foetida, Eudrilus eugeniae Anecic (Greek for “out of the earth”) eg- Lampito mauritii Endogeic (Greek for “within the earth”) eg- Octochaetona thurstoni Card et al., 2004
  6. 6. Important characteristics of red earthworm ( Eisenia foetida ) Character Eisenia foetida Body length 3-10 cm Body weight 0.4-0.6 g Maturity 50-55 days Conversion rate 2.0q/1500 worms/2 month Cocoon production 1 in every 3 days Incubation of cocoon 20-23 days ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram
  7. 7. Characteristics of vermicompost A. Chemical Characteristics pH Value 6.8 EC (dSm-1) 28.14 Nitrogen (%) 1.02 Phosphorus (%) 0.37 Potassium (%) 0.40 Calcium (%) 1.2 Magnesium (%) 0.38 Zinc (%) 0.038 Copper (%) 0.025 Organic carbon (%) 11.88 C: N Ratio 11.64 ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram
  8. 8. Contd… B. Physical 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Porous, having particle size of 0.2-2.2 mm Dark brown in colour Odourless High CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity) High water retention capacity Vermicompost has electrically charged particles that improves adsorption of plant nutrient in soil 7) Mucus type of substance coated on each particle increases aeration in the soil, excellent water retention properties and improves drainage in heavy soil 8) Contains sufficient moisture C. Biological 1) Total Bacteria count (cfu g-1) 2) Fungi, Actinomycetes (cfu g-1) : : more than 1010 102 - 1010 Gupta, 2002
  9. 9. Best conditions for vermicomposting Condition Value References Temperature 15-25 ºC Georg , 2004 Moisture 80-90 % Dominguez and Edwards,1997 pH 5-9 (7.0-8.0 optimum) Aeration Good aerobiety Density 1-4 kg earthworm/m² of bed Georg , 2004 C: N ratio 48-170 OACC, manual Elvira et al., 1996
  10. 10. Vermicomposting materials      Farm residues Forest litter Kitchen wastes Animal excreta Earthworms
  11. 11. Types of vermicomposting Depending upon the amount of production and composting structure. It is two type 1. Small-scale vermicomposting 2. Large-scale vermicomposting
  12. 12. Methods of vermicomposting Method Size 1.Bed method 2 x 0.6 x 0.3 (m) 2.Pit method 2 x 1 x 1 (m) 3.Cement rings 4.Commercial model 5.Polybag method 0.9 (dia.) x 0.3 (ht.) (m) 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.9 (m) 8 x 4 x 2.5 (ft.)
  13. 13. Fig.1 Bed method Fig.1 Bed method Fig.2 Pit method Fig.2 Pit method
  14. 14. Fig.3 Cement rings method Fig.3 Cement rings method Fig.4 Commercial models Fig.4 Commercial models
  15. 15. Fig .5 Polybag method
  16. 16. Steps in vermicomposting:- Site selection Make vermicomposting structure of appropriate size Leave space 0.5 m Level the base of pit and spread 15-20 cm dried material at bottom of the bed Make 7-8 cm thick layer of partially/fully decomposed cow dung Repeat above two steps until the height of filling in pit is 40-60 cm Release earthworms on upper layer of bed Water the pits periodically to keep contents moist Cover the structure with gunny bag /leaves/polythene Vermicompost ready in 50-60 days Mature compost is grey to brown colour loose granular mass Harvested vermicompost sieved before application
  17. 17. Rate of application Crops Rate References Field crops 5-6 t/ha ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram Fruit crops 3-5 kg/plant ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram Pots 100-220 g/pot ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram Vegetable nursery 1 t/ha www.ejournal.icrisat.org Transplanted vegetables 400-500 g/plant www.ejournal.icrisat.org Flowers 7.5-10 q/ha www.ejournal.icrisat.org
  18. 18. Advantages of vermicompost            Rich in essential plant nutrients Provides efficient conversion of organic wastes/crop/animal residues Improves soil physico-chemical properties Reduces the incidence of pest and diseases Contains valuable vitamins, enzymes and hormones like auxins, gibberellins etc. Prevents nutrient losses and increases the efficiency of chemical fertilizers A stable soil conditioner Prevent soil degradation and enhance soil fertility status Environmentally safe nutrient supplement for organic food production An easily adoptable low cost technology Highly profitable venture, if properly taken
  19. 19. Table 1: Comparative average nutrient content of vermicompost and other composts Compost Nutrient content (% ) N P2O5 K2O Vermicompost 1.6 2.2 0.7 Rural compost 1.2 1.1 1.5 Urban compost 1.2 1.9 1.5 Paddy straw compost 0.9 2.1 0.4 Maize stalk compost 1.1 1.3 1.0 Marwah et al., 2004
  20. 20. EFFECT ON SOIL PROPERTIES
  21. 21. Table 2: Farm soil properties under organic farming and chemical farming Chemical and biological Organic farming (use of vermicompost) Chemical farming (use of chemical fertilizers) Available nitrogen (kg/ ha) 256.5 185.0 Available phosphorus (kg/ ha) 50.2 28.5 Available potash (kg/ ha) 489.5 426.5 Azotobacter (1000/gm of soil) 11.7 0.8 Phospho bacteria (100,000/kg of soil) Carbonic biomass (mg/kg of soil) 8.8 3.2 273.0 217.0 RAU, Bihar Suhane, 2007
  22. 22. Table 3: Effect of vermicompost and vermi-wash on soil physicochemical properties of samba rice cultivation during initial and final stages Treatment pH Electrical Conductivity (dSm-¹) Initial Final Initial Final Control 7.5±2.0 7.4±2.01 2.12±1.1 2.0±1.0 Vermicompost 7.4±0.01 7.1±0.01 1.02±1.0 Vermi-wash 7.3±2.0 7.2±1.02 2.1±1.1 Vermicompost & vermi-wash Water holding capacity (%) Final Moisture content (%) Initial Final Initial Final 41±0.02 44±1.02 34±2.10 39±2.0 36±1.02 41±1.1 1.01±1.0 43±0.01 47±1.0 36±1.0 41±1.0 39±1.1 44±1.0 2.0±1.1 42±1.0 46±1.1 35±1.1 40±1.1 38±1.0 43±1.1 7.0±0.03 7.0±0.03 1.01±0.01 0.02±0.01 45±0.3 49±1.0 39±0.03 44±1.0 41±1.0 46±1.0 Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu Initial Porosity (%) Tharmaraj et al ., 2011
  23. 23. Table 4: Effect of vermicompost and vermi-wash on soil chemical properties of samba rice cultivation during initial and final stages Treatment Nitrogen (ppm) Phosphorous (ppm) Potassium (ppm) Calcium (ppm) Magnesium (ppm) Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Initial Final Control 55+2.1 61±2.0 64±2.0 69±2.0 180±2.0 184±2.1 1.0±1.0 1.5±1.0 1.0±1.0 1.5±1.0 Vermicompost 59±1.1 64±1.0 68±1.1 73±1.0 184±1.0 189±1.0 2.0±1.1 2.5±1.0 2.0±1.1 3±1.0 Vermi-wash 58±1.0 63±1.1 67±1.1 72±1.1 183±1.1 188±2.0 1.5±1.1 2.0±1.0 1.2±1.1 2.0±1.0 Vermicompost & vermi-wash 63±1.1 69±0.2 72±1.0 77±1.0 188±1. 0 195±1. 0 3.2±1.0 5.0±1.0 3.1±1.1 4.0±0.1 Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu Tharmaraj et al ., 2011
  24. 24. Table 5: Effect of vermicompost, earthworm and chemical fertilizers on growth and yield attributes of wheat Treatments Shoot length(cm) Ear length (cm) Root length (cm) Wt. of 1000 grains (g) Grains/ Ear Vermicompost (@ 2.5 t/ha) 83.71 13.14 23.51 39.28 32.5 Earthworms (1000 Nos.) 67.83 9.85 18.42 36.42 30.0 NPK (90:75:60) (Reduced Dose) + VC (Full Dose) (2.5 t/ha) 88.05 14.31 29.71 48.02 34.4 NPK (120:100:80) (Full Dose) 84.42 13.82 24.12 40.42 31.2 Control 59.79 8.91 12.11 34.16 27.7 University of Rajasthan, Jaipur Sharma, 2001
  25. 25. Table 6: Effect of vermicompost on yield of farmed wheat crops upon successive applications over 4 years Treatment Input /ha Yield (q/ha) Control (No Input) 15.8 Vermicompost 20 q/ha (1st Year Farming by VC) 35.3 Vermicompost 20 q/ha (2nd Year Farming by VC) 36.2 Vermicompost 20 q/ha (3rd Year Farming by VC) 37.3 Vermicompost 20 q/ha (4th Year Farming by VC) 38.8 NPK (120:60:40) kg/ha 35.4 Chemical Fertilizers RAU (Noorsarai Campus), Bihar Singh et al., 2009
  26. 26. Table 7: Yield and quality of rice under different organics and fertilizer levels Treatment Yield (q/ha) Quality of grain Grain Straw Grain length(cm) Protein (%) FYM 41.69 72.90 7.34 8.75 Vermicompost 45.15 74.96 7.73 8.88 Celrich 43.18 72.83 7.67 8.75 Control 35.88 60.28 7.01 8.42 CD(P=0.05) 2.32 2.74 0.06 0.10 100 % Rec. 45.00 74.44 7.55 9.36 90 % Rec. 42.86 72.36 7.53 8.96 80 % Rec. 40.49 68.76 7.38 8.43 70 % Rec. 37.56 64.38 7.18 8.05 CD(P=0.05) 2.32 2.74 0.06 0.10 Organics Fertilizer levels CSAUAT, Kanpur Sharma et al., 2008
  27. 27. Table 8: Effect of vermicompost on yield characters of pea Treatment Pods/plant Grains /pod 100-Grain Yield (q/ha) fresh wt.(g) Vermicompost @10 t/ha Vermicompost @15 t/ha Vermicompost @20 t/ha Vermicompost @10 t/ ha+ NPK Vermicompost @15 t/ha+NPK Vermicompost @20 t/ha+NPK FYM@20t/ha +NPK 6.00 6.36 50.33 81.11 6.46 6.33 46.00 64.48 7.00 6.33 40.33 75.41 7.46 6.73 50.66 85.73 6.46 6.73 41.00 62.98 5.66 6.63 47.00 63.45 6.93 6.72 41.33 60.16 GBPUAT Hill Campus Ranichauri Chauhan et al., 2010
  28. 28. Table 9: Effect of vermicompost, cattle dung compost and chemical fertilizers on growth & yield of wheat Rajendra Agriculture University, Bihar Suhane et al., 2008
  29. 29. Table 10: Growth performances of corn plants influenced by earthworms (with feed), vermicompost and conventional compost Treatment Height (cm) After 6 weeks After 14 weeks (A)-Earthworm(50 Nos.)&Feed material(400g) 57 82 (B)-Conventional compost 70 78 104 135 (C)-Vermicompost Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia Sinha et al., 2007
  30. 30. Conclusion    The effect of vermicompost on plants are not solely attribute to the quality of mineral nutrition, but also provides growth promoting substances such as PGRs (GA3, IAA, cytokinin), enzymes (phosphatase), vitamins, antibiotics in traces. Application of vermicompost+vermiwash has long term effect on physico-chemical and biological properties of soil, if it is solely applied in soil, it increases the beneficial microbial activity as well as microbial biomass . The integrated application of vermicompost with chemical fertilizer produced maximum no. of yield attributing characters which results more yield than sole application of chemical fertilizers or organic manure.
  31. 31. Future Research Needs  Needs for assessments and efficient utilisation of native species for litter decomposition and nutrient recycling etc.  Improve complementary interaction between native and exotic species  Focused on large scale operating system under adverse weather condition  Better bed design to minimise operation problems:  Inadequate drainage  Difficulties in applying wastes to the beds  Labour and time consuming process for wastes processing
  32. 32. Never ending….……….

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