Vertical Transportation Systems in Buildings by Ramesh Nayaka

9,162 views
8,810 views

Published on

Stair
Elevator
Escalator
Ramps

Published in: Engineering, Business, Technology
0 Comments
14 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,162
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
15
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
991
Comments
0
Likes
14
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Vertical Transportation Systems in Buildings by Ramesh Nayaka

  1. 1. Mr. Ramesh Nayaka, (M.Tech. - IITM) Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala India - 673601 Module – 3 Vertical Transportation (Building Services) CE2007 - Functional Design of Buildings
  2. 2. Vertical Transportation ?? • To provide an accessible path, leading from one level to another by targeting to meet the needs of all target groups.
  3. 3. Outline • Stairs • Elevators • Escalators • Ramps
  4. 4. What is a stair and it’s components?? A stair is a series of steps, each elevated a measured distance, leading from one level of a structure to another.  Stair parts and terms • Headroom • Tread • Riser • Unit rise • Unit run • Total rise • Stringer • Stair well • Total run http://atjenese.wordpress.com
  5. 5. Cont’d… • Platform • Winding stairs • Run of stairs or flight • Straight run • Winders http://atjenese.wordpress.com
  6. 6. Cont’d….. • Handrail • Wall rail • Baluster • Balustrade • Newel Post • Nosing http://atjenese.wordpress.com
  7. 7. Terminologies 1. Headroom: The clear space between the floor line and ceiling. 2. Tread: Horizontal walking surface of a stair 3. Riser: The vertical stair member between two consecutive stair treads. 4. Unit rise: The height of the stair riser; the vertical distance between two treads. 5. Unit run: The width of a stair tread minus the nosing. 6. Total rise: Vertical distance from one floor to another 7. stringer: A stringer to which blocking has been added to form a base for adding treads and risers. 8. Stairwell: The rough opening in the floor above to provide headroom for stairs. 9. Total run: The horizontal distance occupied by the stairs; measured from the foot of the stairs to a point directly beneath where the stairs rest on a floor or landing above. 1. Platform: A horizontal section between two flights of stairs. Also called a landing. 2. Winding stairs: A curving stairway that gradually changes direction; usually circular or elliptical in shape. Also called geometrical. 3. Run of stairs: A series of steps that is a continuous section without breaks formed by landings or other constructions. Also called a flight of stairs. 4. Straight run: A stairway that does not change direction. 5. Winders: Wedge-shaped treads installed where stairs turn. 6. Handrail: A pole installed above and parallel to stair steps to act as a support for persons using the stairs. also called a stair rail. 7. Baluster: The vertical member (spindle) supporting the handrails on open stairs. 2. Newel: The main post at the start of a stair and the stiffening post at the landing. 3. Nosing: The part of a stair tread that projects beyond the riser Balustrade: An assembly with a railing resting on a series of balusters that, in turn, rest on a base, usually the treads • Wall rail: In closed stairs, the support rail that is
  8. 8. Types of Stairs  STRAIGHT STAIRS:- • All steps lead in one direction • This may be continuous with two flights with an intermediate landing • Adopted when staircase is narrow and long • Provided mostly in porch, entrance etc.  DOG-LEGGED STAIRS:- • Consist of two straight flights running in opposite directions • There is no space between the flights in plan • Landing is provided at level which direction of flight changes
  9. 9. Types of Stairs  GEOMETRICAL STAIRS :- • These stairs may have any geometrical shape and they require no newel post • This type of stair is similar to open newel stair except the well formed between forward and backward flight is curved • Change of direction in such stairs is achieved by winders and not by landings  CIRCULAR STAIRS:- • all the steps are radiate from a newel post or well hole • all the steps are winders • this is provided where space is limited and traffic is casual • mostly located at rear of building
  10. 10. Types of Stairs http://atjenese.wordpress.com  QUARTER TURN NEWEL:- • A stair turning through 90° with the help of level landing • Used in shops and public buildings  OPEN NEWEL STAIRS:- • Popularly known as open well stairs • A well or opening is left between forward and backward flight • The opening is generally used for installation of lift • A short flight may or may not provided in these stairs
  11. 11. Design Consideration Landing the width of the landing should not be less than the width of stairs Width of stairs Residential:-0.8 to 1 m Public :- 1.8 to 2 m Tread Residential:-220-250 mm Public:- 250-300mm Not less than 200mm in any case  Riser residential:-150-180 mm Public:- 120-150mm Not more than 200mm in any case Pitch Should not be more than 38°
  12. 12. Dimensions of a Step  Comfortable ascent and descent  Thumb Rules  (2 x Rise in cm) + (Going (tread) in cm) = 60  (Rise in cm) + (Going in cm) = 40 to 45  (Rise in cm) x (Going in cm) = 400 to 450  Adopt Rise = 14 cm and Going = 30 cm as standard; then for every 20 mm subtracted from going, add 10 mm to the rise.  Residential building = 16 cm x 26 cm  Public building = 17 cm x 24 cm
  13. 13. Requirements of a Good Stair Provide easy, quick and safe mode of communication between the floors. Following are the general requirements which a stair should fulfill.  Location :  It should be so located as to provide easy access to the occupants building.  It should be so located that it is well lighted and ventilated directly from the exterior.  It should be so located as to have approaches convenient and spacious.  Width of Stair:  It should be wide enough to carry the user without much crowd and in convenience.
  14. 14. Cont’d….  Depends upto its location in the building and type of the building.  In a domestic building, a 90cm wide stair in sufficient while in public building, 1.5 m to 1.8 m width may be required.  Length of flight:  The number of steps are not more than 12 and not less than 3.  Pitch of stair:  a comfortable slope is achieved when twice rise plus going is equal to 60 cm approx. pitch should however, be limited to 30o degree to 45O  Head Room:  Clear space between tread and soffit of the flight immediately above it should not be less than 2.1 to 2.3 m.
  15. 15. Cont’d..  Balustrade:  Open well stair should always be provided with balustrade, to provide safety to users.  Step dimensions:  the rise and tread should be of such dimensions as to provide comfort to the users. Their proportion should also be such as to provide pitch of the stair. The going should not be less than 25 cm, though 30 cm going is quite comfortable. The rise should be between 10 cm to 15 cm. The width of landing should not be less than width of stair.  Materials of Construction :  The materials used for stair construction should be such as to provide a) Sufficient strength and b) fire resistance
  16. 16. Stairs of Different Materials  TIMBER  Light in weight and easy construct, but poor fire resistance  Used for small rise residential buildings, unsuitable for high rise residential and public buildings. Hardwood ( oak, mahogany etc.)  It should be free from fungal decay and insect attack.  STONE  Widely used where ashlar stone is readily available.  Quite strong and rigid, though they are very heavy.  Stone should be hard, strong and resistance to wear and fire resistance also. Stone stairs may have following types of steps: 1. Rectangular steps with rebated joint.
  17. 17. Cont’d.. 2. Spandril steps 3. Tread and riser steps 4. Cantilever tread steps 5. Built – up steps  BRICKS  Very common except at entrance.  It contains either solid wall or arched openings may be left for obtaining storage space.  Frequent maintenance.  STEEL  Mild steel or cast iron steel are used only as emergency stairs.  Not common, though they are strong and fire resistant.
  18. 18. Cont’d..  R.C.C  R.C.C stairs are the one which widely used for residential, public and industrial buildings.  Strong, hard wearing and fire resisting.  Usually cast in situ, and a variety of finishes can be made on these. R.C.C stairs may be divided into two categories 1. Stair with slab spanning horizontally. 2. Stair with slab spanning longitudinally.
  19. 19. Design of a staircase.  Plan a dog legged stair for a building in which the vertical distance between the floor is 3.6 m. the stair hall measures 2.5 m x 5m.  Shows the plan of a stair hall of a public building, which measures 4.25 m x 5.25 m. the vertical distance between the floor is 3.9 m.
  20. 20. Outline • Stairs • Elevators • Escalators • Ramps
  21. 21. Elevator Elevator has been used in buildings having more than 4 stories.  Lift — An appliance designed to transport persons or materials between two or more levels in a vertical or substantially vertical direction by means of a guided car or platform. The word ‘elevator’ is also synonymously used for ‘lift’.  Lift Car — The load carrying unit with its floor or platform, car frame and enclosing bodywork.  Lift Landing — That’ portion of a building or structure used for discharge of passengers or goods or both into or from a lift car.  Lift Machine — The part of the lift equipment comprising the motor and the control gear therewith, reduction gear (if any), brake(s) and winding drum or sheave, by which the lift car is raised or lowered.
  22. 22. Elevator  Lift Pit — The space in the lift well below the level of the lowest lift landing served.  Lift Well — The unobstructed space within an enclosure provided for the vertical movement of the lift car(s) and any counterweight(s), including the lift pit and the space for top clearance.  Lift Well Enclosure — Any structure which separates the lift well from its surroundings.  Passenger Lift — A lift designed for the transport of passengers.  Position and/or Direction Indicator — A device which indicates on the lift landing or in the lift car or both, the position of car in the lift well or the direction or both in which the lift car is traveling.
  23. 23. Elevator  Rated Load (Lift) — The maximum load for which the lift car is designed and installed to carry safely at its rated speed.  Rated Speed (Lift) — The mean of the maximum speed attained by the lift car in the upward and downward direction with rated load in the lift car.
  24. 24. Elevator
  25. 25. Overview of Types of ElevatorsOverview of Types of Elevators Generally Two CategoriesGenerally Two Categories  Traction (Electric)  Virtually limitless rise (high & mid rise)  High speeds, but high installation cost  Hydraulic  Limited to heights of about 60 ft. (6 stories)  Lower speeds  Lower initial cost – higher power consumption The systems are distinguished primarily by their hoisting mechanisms.
  26. 26. Overview of Types of Elevators Generally Two CategoriesGenerally Two Categories • Traction (Electric)  Geared Traction Drive shaft is connected to the sheave by gears in a gear box. Geared traction systems are designed to operate in the range of 100 to 500 fpm, which restricts their use to mid rise buildings.
  27. 27. Overview of Types of ElevatorsOverview of Types of Elevators Generally Two CategoriesGenerally Two Categories • Traction (Electric)  Geared Traction  Gearless Traction Gearless traction systems are designed to operate in the range of 350 to 1200 fpm and typically installed in high-rise buildings. Greater speeds are also available.
  28. 28. Overview of Types of ElevatorsOverview of Types of Elevators Generally Two CategoriesGenerally Two Categories • Hydraulic  Holed Hydraulic In-ground cylinder extends to a depth equal to the rise of the elevator cab. Current codes require double-bottom cylinders with leak detection and containment.
  29. 29. Overview of Types of Elevators Generally Two CategoriesGenerally Two Categories • Hydraulic  Holed Hydraulic  Holeless Hydraulic Holeless hydraulic elevators use a telescoping hydraulic piston as the driving machine, eliminating the need for an in-ground cylinder. Currently limited to a height of about 3 stories.
  30. 30. Overview of Types of ElevatorsOverview of Types of Elevators Generally Two CategoriesGenerally Two Categories • Hydraulic  Holed Hydraulic  Holeless Hydraulic  Roped Hydraulic Roped holeless hydraulic elevators use a telescoping hydraulic piston and a hoist rope and pulley system to increase speed and travel heights.
  31. 31. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Machine RoomMachine Room •• CabsCabs •• HoistwayHoistway/Pits/Pits Major ComponentsMajor Components Machine rooms for traction elevators generally located directly above the hoistway. Hydraulic elevator machine rooms typically located at the basement or lowest level adjacent to the hoistway.
  32. 32. Hydraulic ElevatorsHydraulic Elevators Telescoping Plunger Above-Ground Cylinder Hydraulic Tank / Controller Car Buffer
  33. 33. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Hoist MachineHoist Machine Machine RoomMachine Room Can be geared traction machines in which the power from the motor is transmitted to the drive sheave through reduction gears, or a gearless machine in which the hoist ropes pass over a traction drive sheave which is an integral part of the armature. The grooved wheel of a traction-type hoisting machine over which the hoist ropes pass, and by which motion is imparted to the car and counterweight by the hoist ropes.
  34. 34. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Hoist MachineHoist Machine •• Hoist MotorHoist Motor Machine RoomMachine Room Also called drive machines and used for traction elevators. They are the power units that apply the energy to the hoist machines. Can be AC or DC.
  35. 35. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Hoist Machine • Hoist Motor •• GeneratorGenerator Machine RoomMachine Room Generators are electro- mechanical devices that convert mechanical energy to electrical energy (usually direct current).
  36. 36. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• HoistHoist MachineMachine •• Hoist MotorHoist Motor •• GeneratorGenerator •• GovernorGovernor Machine RoomMachine Room A mechanical speed control mechanism. Usually a wire-rope driven centrifugal device used to stop and hold the movement of its driving rope. This initiates the activation of the car safety device. It opens a switch which cuts off power to the drive motor and brake if the car travels at a preset overspeed in the down direction.
  37. 37. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Hoist MachineHoist Machine •• Hoist MotorHoist Motor •• GeneratorGenerator •• GovernorGovernor •• ControllersControllers Machine RoomMachine Room A device, or group of devices, which serve to control, in a predetermined manner, the floor selection, drive speeds, car selection and general operation of the elevators.
  38. 38. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• HoistHoist MachineMachine •• Hoist MotorHoist Motor •• GeneratorGenerator •• GovernorGovernor •• ControllersControllers •• DisconnectsDisconnects Machine RoomMachine Room Switches to disconnect the power to the controller and cab lights and located in the machine room.
  39. 39. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Roller GuidesRoller Guides HoistwayHoistway / Pits/ Pits Roller guides or guide rails are steel T-section with machined guiding surfaces installed vertically in a hoistway to guide and direct the course of travel of an elevator car and elevator counterweights.
  40. 40. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Roller GuidesRoller Guides •• CounterweightsCounterweights HoistwayHoistway / Pits/ Pits A weight that counter-balances the weight of an elevator car plus approximately 40% of the capacity load.
  41. 41. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Roller GuidesRoller Guides •• CounterweightsCounterweights •• Door InterlocksDoor Interlocks HoistwayHoistway / Pits/ Pits An electro-mechanical device that prevents operation of an elevator unless the hoistway doors are in the closed and locked position; and prevents opening of a hoistway door from the landing side unless the elevator is in the landing zone and is either stopped or being stopped.
  42. 42. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Roller GuidesRoller Guides •• CounterweightsCounterweights •• Door InterlocksDoor Interlocks •• TopTop--ofof--Car StationCar Station HoistwayHoistway / Pits/ Pits Controls on the top of the car used by an elevator maintenance contractor to operate the car at inspection speed. It provides a means of operating an elevator from on top of the car at slow speed during adjustment, inspection, maintenance and repair.
  43. 43. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Roller GuidesRoller Guides •• CounterweightsCounterweights •• Door InterlocksDoor Interlocks •• Top of Car StationTop of Car Station •• BuffersBuffers HoistwayHoistway / Pits/ Pits A device designed to stop a descending car beyond its normal limit of travel by storing or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car. Spring buffers are used for elevators with speeds less than 200 fpm. Oil buffers (for speeds greater than 200 fpm) use a combination of oil and spring to cushion the elevator.
  44. 44. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Cab FinishesCab Finishes Elevator CabsElevator Cabs Decorative features in a passenger elevator including carpet or other flooring, wall panels, door finishes, ceilings and lighting.
  45. 45. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Cab FinishesCab Finishes •• Cab ControlsCab Controls Elevator CabsElevator Cabs A car-operating panel with a faceplate that is mounted in a fixed (non-swing) panel or sidewall.
  46. 46. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Cab FinishesCab Finishes •• Cab ControlsCab Controls •• Safety FeaturesSafety Features  PhonesPhones  Door Safety EdgesDoor Safety Edges Elevator CabsElevator Cabs Two way communication devices in the cab required by ADA and national elevator codes for safety.
  47. 47. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Cab FinishesCab Finishes •• Cab ControlsCab Controls •• Safety FeaturesSafety Features  PhonesPhones  Door Safety EdgesDoor Safety Edges Elevator CabsElevator Cabs A door protective and automatic door reopening device, used with automatic power door operators.
  48. 48. Elevator Components & DescriptionsElevator Components & Descriptions •• Cab FinishesCab Finishes •• Cab ControlsCab Controls •• Safety FeaturesSafety Features  PhonesPhones  Door Safety EdgesDoor Safety Edges •• Door OperatorsDoor Operators Elevator CabsElevator Cabs The Door Operator monitors the speed and position of the car doors and compares performance against standards. Deviations in kinetic energy during door travel is corrected within milliseconds.
  49. 49. Preliminary Design or Design ConsiderationPreliminary Design or Design Consideration P.S: Complete description refer NBCP.S: Complete description refer NBC--2005 (Part2005 (Part –– 8)8) •• No. of lifts andNo. of lifts and hhandling capacityandling capacity  NumberNumber of floors to be served by theof floors to be served by the lift; Floorlift; Floor toto floor distance;floor distance;  Population of each floor to be serve~Population of each floor to be serve~ and Maximumand Maximum peak demand; this demandpeak demand; this demand maybe unidirectionalmaybe unidirectional, as, as in up and downin up and down peak periodspeak periods, or a two, or a two--way trafficway traffic movement.movement. •• Preliminary LiftPreliminary Lift PlanningPlanning  population or the number of peoplepopulation or the number of people who requirewho require liftlift serviceservice
  50. 50. Design ConsiderationDesign Consideration  handlinghandling capacity of the maximum flowcapacity of the maximum flow rate requiredrate required by these people.by these people.  intervalinterval or the quality of service requiredor the quality of service required.. •• PopulationPopulation AverageAverage population densitypopulation density can vary from about one person per 4 mcan vary from about one person per 4 m22 to oneto one person per 20 mperson per 20 m22 •• Quantity of serviceQuantity of service
  51. 51. Design ConsiderationDesign Consideration •• Quality of serviceQuality of service •• Traffic peakTraffic peak •• CapacityCapacity The minimum size of car recommended for a single purpose buildingsThe minimum size of car recommended for a single purpose buildings is one suitable for a duty load of 884 kg. Generally, for large officeis one suitable for a duty load of 884 kg. Generally, for large office buildings cars with capacities up to 2040 kg are recommendedbuildings cars with capacities up to 2040 kg are recommended according to the requirements.according to the requirements.
  52. 52. Design ConsiderationDesign Consideration •• SpeedSpeed •• LayoutLayout
  53. 53. Design ConsiderationDesign Consideration
  54. 54. The handling capacity is calculated byThe handling capacity is calculated by the following formula:the following formula: H=(H=(3OOXQX1OO/(3OOXQX1OO/(TxPTxP)) wherewhere H = Handling capacity as the percentage of theH = Handling capacity as the percentage of the peak population handled during 5peak population handled during 5 min periodmin period,, Q = Average number of passengers carried inQ = Average number of passengers carried in a cara car,, T = Waiting interval in seconds, andT = Waiting interval in seconds, and P = Total population to be handled during peakP = Total population to be handled during peak morning period. (It is related to themorning period. (It is related to the area servedarea served by aby a particular bank ofparticular bank of lifts).lifts). Preliminary Design of ElevatorPreliminary Design of Elevator
  55. 55. ••The waiting interval is calculated by the followingThe waiting interval is calculated by the following formula:formula: T= RTT/NT= RTT/N wherewhere T = Waiting interval in seconds,T = Waiting interval in seconds, N = Number of lifts, andN = Number of lifts, and RTTRTT == RoundRound triptrip time,time, thatthat is,is, thethe averageaverage timetime requiredrequired byby eacheach liftlift inin takingtaking oneone fullfull loadload ofof passengerspassengers fromfrom groundground floor,floor, dischargingdischarging themthem inin variousvarious upperupper floorsfloors andand comingcoming backback toto groundground floorfloor forfor takingtaking freshfresh passengerspassengers forfor thethe nextnext triptrip Preliminary Design of ElevatorPreliminary Design of Elevator
  56. 56. ExampleExample
  57. 57. Outline • Stairs • Elevators • Escalators • Ramps
  58. 58. Escalator Escalator — A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway used for raising or lowering passengers.  Named Escalator by Charles Seeberger in 1897 by combining the latin word for steps “scala” and elevator  Charles Seeberger sold rights to Otis Elevator Company in 1902 which is currently the dominant player in the industry.  Most applications include department stores, airports, shopping malls, convention centers, hotels, and public buildings  One of the largest, most expensive machines people use on a regular basis, but also one of the simplest.
  59. 59. Escalator Installation It includes the escalator, the track, the trusses or girders, the balustrading, the step treads and landings and all chains, wires and machinery directly connected with the operation of the escalator.
  60. 60. Features of escalator (Benefits)  Escalators are required to provide continuous mass transport of people.  Escalators in department stores rise at an angle of between (30°-35°). The 35° escalator is more economical, as it takes up less surface area.  Have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as one might install a staircase.  Have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic)  They can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and may be weatherproofed for outdoor use.  Escalator speeds vary from 90 – 180 ft per minute, an escalator moving 145 ft per minute can carry more that 10,000 people in an hour
  61. 61. Escalator operation and operating guidelines  As the escalators operate at a constant speed, serve only two levels and have a known maximum capacity, the traffic study is rather easy. Provided the population to be handled in a given time is known, it is easy to predict the rate at which the population can be handled.  Regularly (at least monthly) apply a silicone friction reducer on skirt panels  Document any unusual noises or vibrations.  Remove any debris  Monitor for broken comb teeth  Always remove the start-up key from the "on” direction.  If an escalator or moving walkway makes an automatic emergency stop, perform a detailed equipment check before returning to operation.  Do not permit overloading of passengers or freight.  Do not permit the use of an inoperative escalator as a stairway
  62. 62. Design Consideration  For normal peak periods, the recommended handling capacities for design purposes should be taken as 3200 to 6400 persons per hour depending upon the width of the escalator.  In accordance with a worldwide standard, the width of the step to be used is 60 cm (for one person width)80 cm (for one- to two people width) and 100 cm (for two people width).  The theoretical capacity then is: 3 600x (rated speed in m/s x k)/O.4  K = 1, 1.5 or 2 for 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 m step widths.
  63. 63. Escalator Arrangements
  64. 64. Crisscross Arrangement
  65. 65. Parallel Arrangement
  66. 66. Escalator Arrangements
  67. 67. Ramps  Ramps are sloping surface that can be used to provide an easy connection from floor to floor especially when large numbers of people or vehicles are moving from time to time.  Ramps are adopted for buildings, such as stadiums, railroad stations, exhibition halls, garage buildings, etc.  it is generally built with slopes up to 15% (15 cm in 100 cm) but 10% is preferred. With 10% slope and a storey height of 12 feet a ramp connecting two floors would have to be 120 feet long.  It can be curved, zigzagged, u-shaped or spiraled and bin all cases should be constructed with a non-slip surface.
  68. 68. Design Consideration  An exterior location is preferred for ramps. Indoor ramps are not recommended because they take up a great deal of space.  Ideally, the entrance to a ramp should be immediately adjacent to the stairs.  Ramps configuration
  69. 69. Design Consideration  Width The minimum width should be 0.90 m.  Slope
  70. 70. Design Consideration  Landings  Ramps should be provided with landings for resting, maneuvering and avoiding excessive speed.  Landings should be provided every 10.00 m, at every change of direction and at the top and bottom of every ramp.  Handrail A protective handrail at least 0.40 m  Surface The ramp surface should be hard and non-slip.  Tactile marking A colored textural indication at the top and bottom of the ramp should be placed to alert sightless people as to the location of the ramp. The marking strip width should not be less than 0.60 m.
  71. 71. Moving walks
  72. 72. Inclined ramps
  73. 73. References  B.C. Punmia; Ashok Kumar Jain; Arun Kumar Jain (2005). “Building Construction." . Lakshmi Publishers Limited, New Delhi – 110002.  National Building Code (2005) Published By Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, NEW DELHI 110002.  http://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en
  74. 74. Thank you

×