Surplus funds are to be invested Professionals like C.A.’s are approached by clients to give advise about investing. Pros & Cons of Investing of each type. The most attractive in terms of liquidity and returns is capital markets. To minimise Risks of volatility of stock markets, Mutual Funds investment are relevant
Rates of Interest on Company Bonds may wary
The Sample of 2004 still holds good with the decline of Inflation rates ofcourse with the exception of Gold but then it is too cumbersome and risky to hold gold as an investment.
Sensex has moved back to the same point after two years, hypothetically meaning your share price is back to the same price which it was 2 years ago.
Still the largest is UTI- UTI Liquid Cash Plan has 8863 Cr Asset Size. Next is Birla Cash Plus at 8372. Standard Chartered Liquidity Manager Plus at 7910 Cr.
Sponsor: Establishes a MF, obtains Certificate of Registration from SEBI, forms a trust, appoints board of trustees & AMC, appoints Custodian Trustees: MF managed by body of individuals or a trust company (corporate body). Guardians of assets of Unitholders. Responsible. AMC: Investment Manager of Trust. Under the supervision of Board of Directors, Trustees, SEBI. Floates & manages different schemes. Mutual Fund: Formed under Indian Trusts Act, 1982. Invites subscriptions to units. Transfer agents: Issue and Redemption of units Custodian: For safekeeping of securities, participating in clearing system
AMFI: a forum where mutual funds have been able to present their views, debate and participate in creating their own regulatory framework. the body that is consulted on matters long before regulations are framed, and it often initiates many regulatory changes that prevent malpractices that emerge from time to time. Receive Unit certificates within 6 weeks from the date your request for a unit certificate is received by the Mutual Fund. Receive dividend within 42 days of their declaration Receive the redemption or repurchase proceeds within 10 days from the date of redemption or repurchase.
dividend is always a percentage of face value. Face value is the price of unit of a fund and is Rs 10. So 10% of face value would be Re 1 per unit. NAV of the growth option will always be higher than that of the dividend option because money is going back into the scheme and not given to investors. dividend is not guaranteed, fund distributes dividends at its discretion, guarantee or assurance- funds are not obliged to declare a dividend-no legal compulsion In the dividend re-investment option, the dividend is not paid to you. Instead, additional units are purchased at the revised NAV. The bonus option is similar to dividend re-investment, except that the fund announces the bonus ratio instead of dividend., the scheme declares a bonus of 1:10. This means an additional unit for every 10 units held. NAV- less due to – dividend option, contra option, give some time income earned, net of recurring expenses, subject to a maximum ceiling of 2.5% in equity schemes and 2.25% in debt schemes, is shared by way of dividends or capital gains. These recurring expenses include asset management fees not exceeding 1.25%, it also is due to other expenses such as Trustee Fees, Registrar Fees and Marketing expenses etc. Total Value of Securities (Equity, Bonds, Debentures etc.)Rs. 1000 Cash Rs. 1500 LiabilitiesRs. 500 Total outstanding units 100 NAV [(1000+1500-500)/100] Rs. 20 per unit
Entry Load: If you invest Rs1,000 in a mutual fund with a 2% front-end load, Rs20 will pay for the sales charge, and Rs.980 will be invested in the fund. Sales Purchase = Applicable NAV x ( 1 + Sales Charge ) Repurchase Price = Application NAV x ( 1 - exit load)
Ultra Short term (180 days) debt funds called liquid funds or floating rate fund or cash funds, Bond funds– fixed return instruments, term papers, G-Secs, Corporate bonds, interest rate floating – depending on interest rate in economy – return of 5.5% per annum last year– aim: preserve the principal and earn a modest return. Savings bank rate= 3.5% p.a. Balanced funds for those who are not comfortable with 100% exposure to equity. B est of both worlds-Power of equities & stability of debt market instruments- 60:40 equity debt ratio. Performance ≈ average 30% return, Volatility (Risk) = Moderate Income: fixed income securities such as bonds, corporate debentures and Government securities. capital stability and regular income. Money Market: safer short-term instruments such as treasury bills, certificates of deposit, commercial paper and inter-bank call money. easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income. Unit Linked Insurance Plan - life insurance as well as an investment like a mutual fund. Part of the premium towards the sum assured (amount you get in a life insurance policy) and the balance invested whichever investments you desire - equity, fixed-return or a mixture of both. benefit under Section 80C. Gilt funds are those that only invest in government securities and are hence zero credit risk, very safe MIP - 5-25% in stocks, rest in fixed income instruments
Standard Deviation: how much the actual performance of a fund over a period of time deviates from the average performance. Low SD = good Sharpe Ratio : returns that a fund delivered were commensurate with the kind of volatility it exhibited; looks at both, returns and risk, and delivers a single measure that is proportional to the risk adjusted returns. High SR =Good Market Risk: overall stock or bond markets fall Non-Market Risk: Bad news about an individual company can pull down its stock price, which can negatively affect fund holdings. Credit Rate Risk: Bonds are debt obligations. corporate defaulting on their interest and principal payment obligations
Growth option : No change. Over time, the NAV will grow. Whenever you redeem the units, you get your entire earnings by way of capital appreciation. Dividend payout : The unit holder will get Rs 100 as dividend while the NAV falls to Rs 19. Dividend re-investment : The dividend of Rs 100 is not paid in cash but is used to purchase 5.2631 more units. Bonus option : You get 10 more units, because of which the NAV falls to Rs 18.1818.
Diversified equity fund - invests in the stocks of various companies of various sectors. invest across industries as well as various market segments i.e. large cap, mid cap and small cap. Index- sensex, nifty- same proportion of equity as the index Mid-Cap - mid-cap companies, appetite for risk ELSS- tax saving, mirror image of a diversified equity fund, lock-in period of three years. tax benefit under Section 80C Opportunity : by definition diversified, but are aggressive by nature. emphasis on generating superior returns rather than risk containment. Sector : invest based on a particular dominant “prime-mover of profitability”. Theme : diversified across sectors. “outsourcing” is a theme: IT companies make money from it, so do medical companies, so do automobile ancillary companies and even textile companies. invest in any of the above-mentioned industries or all of them themes underlying the current economic resurgence of India are outsourcing, services (as opposed to manufacturing), infrastructure, debt restructuring, mergers & acquisitions etc Dividend Yield Funds : A dividend yield fund invests in shares of companies having high dividend yield. Within the diversified equity funds space, dividend yield funds are considered to be the medium risk proposition Contra Fund: Invests in out-of-favour companies but at the same time have unrecognized value. The reasoning behind this approach is the belief that sooner or later other investors will realize the true value of these companies and buy their shares, thereby increasing the stock prices. Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) is a fund that combines the features of an index fund as well as stocks. These funds are listed on the stock exchanges and their prices are linked to the underlying index. Traded on exchange at prices that are expected to be closer to the NAV at the end of the day
spare cash languishing in your savings account, but don't want to block it in a fixed deposit or risk an investment in shares Cash funds are known as ultra short-term bond funds or liquid funds that invest in fixed return instruments of short maturities. aim is to preserve the principal and earn a modest return Safety : highly unlikely that your principal amount will get eroded
Age 25-35: 35-40 % debt, 60% in equity Age 35-45: 45-50 debt, less than 50% in equity Age 55: mostly in debt IPO: Growth in the NAV depends on the quality of the portfolio, its exposure to various industries and segments of the market, strategy of the fund manager. Market timing – a strategy in which one tries to invest before the market goes up and sell before it declines remains one of the most tempting.
Contra with Contra… and not contra with SEBI -mandatory for funds to have a benchmark– lets say Sensex… fund should beat Sensex if the Sensex drops by 10% over a period of two months and during that time, the fund's NAV drops by only 6%, then the fund is said to have outperformed the benchmark. Report submitted to SEBI every 6 months
AMFI: Under the heading Investors Zone, you will find another one called ARN Search . This refers to the AMFI Registration Number. Click on it and you will arrive at a search page. You can locate an agent in your vicinity by just putting in your PIN code or name of your city
Human Life Cycle Education Earning Years Post Retirement Years Phase I Phase II Phase III Age- 22 yrs Age- 60 yrs Marriage Child birth Child’s Education Child’s Marriage Housing 22 yrs 38 yrs 10- 20 yrs
Individual Investor: Life Stages 60 Retirement 40 Middle Age 27 Young Married 22 Young Independent Earnings Consumption Savings All individuals have a finite period to save for their investment goals
Value of Money over time Impact of inflation on monthly expenses of Rs. 30,000 today Value of Rs. 100,000 over time At inflation of 5% Investors need to beat inflation 30,000 38,288 62,368 79,599 Today 5 years 15 years 20 years 100,000 78,353 48,102 37,689 Today 5 years 15 years 20 years
A Mutual Fund is a trust that pools the savings of a number of investors who share a common financial goal.
Anybody with an investible surplus of as little as a few thousand rupees can invest in Mutual Funds.
These investors buy units of a particular Mutual Fund scheme that has a defined investment objective and strategy.
The money collected is invested by the fund manager in different types of securities. These could range from shares to debentures to money market instruments, depending upon the scheme’s stated objectives.
The income earned through these investments and the capital appreciation realized by the scheme are shared by its unit holders in proportion to the number of units owned by them.
First Phase – 1964-87 Unit Trust of India (UTI) was established on 1963 by an Act of Parliament. At the end of 1988 UTI had Rs.6,700 crores of assets under management.
Second Phase-1987-1993 (Entry of Public Sector Funds) marked the entry of non- UTI, public sector mutual funds set up by public sector banks and Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC). SBI Mutual Fund was the first non- UTI Mutual Fund established in June 1987. At the end of 1993, the mutual fund industry had assets under management of Rs.47,004 crores.
Third Phase-1993-2003(Entry of Private Sector Funds) 1993 was the year in which the first Mutual Fund Regulations came into being, under which all mutual funds, except UTI were to be registered and governed. The erstwhile Kothari Pioneer (now merged with Franklin Templeton) was the first private sector mutual fund registered in July 1993. As at the end of January 2003, there were 33 mutual funds with total assets of Rs. 1,21,805 crores.
Fourth Phase – since February 2003 In February 2003, following the repeal of the Unit Trust of India Act 1963. UTI Mutual Fund Ltd, sponsored by SBI, PNB, BOB and LIC. It is registered with SEBI and functions under the SEBI Mutual Fund Regulations
MUTUAL FUND DATA April 30th, 2009 54807 460557 515364 538520 688353 688234 Grand Total (B+C+D) 38958 356452 395410 402265 513694 513575 Total Private Sector D 18703 180163 198866 198352 250760 250760 Predominantly Indian 986 22857 23843 19571 23329 23329 Predominantly Foreign 19269 153432 172701 184342 239605 239486 Indian Private Sector & Joint Venture : 3023 23092 26115 48898 55866 55866 Institutions C 12826 81013 93839 87357 118793 118793 Bank Sponsored B Inflow/ Outflow as on Mar 31 , 2009 as on Apr 30 , 2009 Total Total Existing schemes Asset Under Management Redemption Sales Category
Market value of assets of scheme minus its liabilities.
Per unit NAV = Net Asset Value
No. of Units Outstanding on Valuation date
Entry Load/Front-End Load (0-2.25%)
The commission charged at the time of buying the fund.
To cover costs for selling, processing
Exit Load/Back- End Load (0.25-2.25%)
The commission or charge paid when an investor exits from a mutual fund. Imposed to discourage withdrawals
May reduce to zero as holding period increases.
Sale Price/ Offer Price
Price you pay to invest in a scheme. May include a sales load. (In this case, sale price is higher than NAV)
Re-Purchase Price/ Bid Price
Price at which close-ended scheme repurchases its units
Price at which open-ended scheme
TYPES OF MUTUAL FUNDS Type of Mutual Fund Schemes Structure Investment Objective Special Schemes Open Ended Funds Close Ended Funds Interval Funds Growth Funds Income Funds Balanced Funds Money Market Funds Industry Specific Schemes Index Schemes Sectoral Schemes
Large cap funds: Funds that invest in companies whose total market cap is above Rs40bn Mid cap funds: Funds that invest in companies whose market cap is between Rs20-40bn Small cap funds: Funds that invest in companies whose market cap is below Rs20bn
Investment amount can be so small that you do not even feel the pinch of it being directly deducted, yet the small amount is powerfully working towards your financial security
Systematic Investing, An Example 106.39 units 154.75 units When the price is highest, you buy the least number of units When the price is lowest, you buy the highest number of units
Simple plotting of closing price of BSE Sensex for the first of every month. The time period considered here is from 1/1/1990 to 02/12/2005 Source: Credence Analytics Investing at Peak – SIP is the way
Start Early : SIP A gap of 5 only years can result in a lot of difference in wealth creation ! Rs. 1000 invested per month @15% p.a. till the age of 60 yrs