Topic:Marxism
Presentation Outline Introduction of MarxismNeo- MarxismMarxism Vs. Neo- MarxismCriticismConclusion
Introduction of        MarxismPresented By          Usman Wajeeh
IntroductionFounders of Marxism:Karl   Marx   &   Friedrich   Engels(1818-1883)          (1820-1895)
Introduction of MarxismEssentially   an   economic    interpretation   ofhistory based on the works of Karl Marx andFrede...
Definition – MarxismDefinition of Marxism:    “The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and  Friedrich Engels in...
Marxism Bourgeoisie: Owns the means of production Proletariat: Owns only labor power The Sociological Theory   Economi...
Marxism            Marxism Historical Theory                      MaterialismProgress    is   achieved     through   crea...
MarxismMarxist Economic TheoryTheory of Work: People want to work, “self-creation”Theory of Self–Alienation: Workers becam...
Neo-Marxism   Presented byGhaffar Baloch
Neo- MarxismNeo-Marxism:Neo-Marxism is a loose term for various twentieth-century approaches that;Amend or extend Marxism...
Neo-Marxism Frankfurt School has become one of the mostly widely   adopted forms of neo-Marxism Marxism had become too c...
Neo-MarxismNEO-MARXISTS:After   seeing   the   failure   of   working-classrevolutions in Western Europe after World War I...
Marxism      Vs.Neo Marxism   Presented by  Kashif Raza
Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismMarxism Vs. Neo- Marxism:Fundamental difference between Marxism and Neo-                           ...
Marxism Vs. Neo Marxism Marxist believed that society is structured around  contradictions that could only be resolved on...
Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismNeo- Marxist theorized that under capitalism, our labor is sold as acommodity through;Theory of va...
Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismMajor Relationship between Marxism Vs. NeoMarxism:The contradictory relationship between;elite cla...
Criticism on Marxism Criticism on Marxism
Criticism on Marxism1) Materialistic Approach   Equality in terms of Wealth  Health, Education, Religion,       Distribut...
Criticism on Marxism3) Ignore the role and position of women insociety   Women tend to be marginalized   Focus upon work...
Criticism on MarxismMarxist ideas on how to change society are alsostrongly criticised by the Anarchists;Violent Revoluti...
Criticism on MarxismMarxism has mainly been rejected for tworeasons:1)It failed to allow people to express themselves in t...
ConclusionTheory of Marxism is aimed that to bringabout;classless societybased on the common ownership of the means ofpr...
Q&A
Marxism by Rameez Ahmed
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Marxism by Rameez Ahmed

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Marxism Presentation in NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD by Rameez Ahmed Sheikh

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Marxism by Rameez Ahmed

  1. 1. Topic:Marxism
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Introduction of MarxismNeo- MarxismMarxism Vs. Neo- MarxismCriticismConclusion
  3. 3. Introduction of MarxismPresented By Usman Wajeeh
  4. 4. IntroductionFounders of Marxism:Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels(1818-1883) (1820-1895)
  5. 5. Introduction of MarxismEssentially an economic interpretation ofhistory based on the works of Karl Marx andFrederich EngelsPosits a materialist model of societal changeMarxism is the most intellectually ambitious,systematic and influential political philosophy inthe contemporary world.
  6. 6. Definition – MarxismDefinition of Marxism: “The political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of class struggle plays a central role in understanding societys allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society.”Three major factors  Industrial Revolution  Defeat of Napoleon  Science with solution of all human problemCapitalism Should be Abandoned for equitable system.
  7. 7. Marxism Bourgeoisie: Owns the means of production Proletariat: Owns only labor power The Sociological Theory  Economic Determinism  What we value and what we do politically is determined by our economic circumstances Society:  Foundation  Super Structure  Economics Means of Production Relation of Production  Owner of means of production is most influential
  8. 8. Marxism Marxism Historical Theory MaterialismProgress is achieved through creative tensionengendered by competing phenomenonMaterialism is substituted for spiritualismVictory of the proletariat.
  9. 9. MarxismMarxist Economic TheoryTheory of Work: People want to work, “self-creation”Theory of Self–Alienation: Workers became alienated from workbecause of three factors;1.Working conditions intolerable,2.Exploited for profit,3.Mechanizing productionMarxist Theory of Revolution:Vacillated over whether violence was necessary to achievesocialist goals .Competition would force to buy more machineryHuman labor can provides surplus valueUnemployment will increaseWealth could be control by fewer peopleThe principle of class consciousness
  10. 10. Neo-Marxism Presented byGhaffar Baloch
  11. 11. Neo- MarxismNeo-Marxism:Neo-Marxism is a loose term for various twentieth-century approaches that;Amend or extend MarxismMarxist theoryusually by incorporating elements from otherintellectual traditions,  such as: critical theory,  psychoanalysis  Existentialism(in the case of Sartre).
  12. 12. Neo-Marxism Frankfurt School has become one of the mostly widely adopted forms of neo-Marxism Marxism had become too close to communism Neo-Marxists view class divisions under capitalism as more important than gender/sex divisions or issues of race and ethnicity The current of Neo-Marxist thought that is probably the most important and influential historically and today is dependency theory.
  13. 13. Neo-MarxismNEO-MARXISTS:After seeing the failure of working-classrevolutions in Western Europe after World War I,chose the parts of Marxs thought that mightclarify social conditions that were not presentwhen Marx was alive.Neo-Marxism is based on the total political-economic-cultural system.
  14. 14. Marxism Vs.Neo Marxism Presented by Kashif Raza
  15. 15. Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismMarxism Vs. Neo- Marxism:Fundamental difference between Marxism and Neo- MarxismMarxism is based on economic determinism.Marxist philosophy explains that the driving force of history is neither “Great Men” nor thesuper-natural, but the development of the productive forces (industry, science, technique,etc.)Neo-Marxism is established on broader considerationof social and intellectual influences that perpetuateoppression of the working-class.
  16. 16. Marxism Vs. Neo Marxism Marxist believed that society is structured around contradictions that could only be resolved only through;  Actual social change,  Form of revolution. Marxist theory noted was between human nature and the conditions for labor in capitalism. The contradiction in the capitalist process would produce an economic crisis where the capitalist system would fail.
  17. 17. Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismNeo- Marxist theorized that under capitalism, our labor is sold as acommodity through;Theory of value (Use-Value Vs. Exchange Value),  value in use is the utilityof consuming a good, while exchange value refers to one of four major attributesof a commodity i.e., an item or service produced for, and sold on the market.Theory of accumulation, is money or a financial assetinvested for the purpose of making more money (whether in theform of profit, rent, interest, royalties, capital gain or some otherkind of return).Theory of surplus value, Although Marx did not himselfinvent the term, he developed the concept. It refers roughly to thenew value created by workers
  18. 18. Marxism Vs. Neo MarxismMajor Relationship between Marxism Vs. NeoMarxism:The contradictory relationship between;elite class (those who profit)the working class (those who provide the labor thatproduces profit)class-consciousness and ultimately revolutionThis consciousness is activated in people when they are deprived. Due to this consciousness theystarted to think rationally about their present to make planning for future. For their rights they canchallenge the oppressive status quo violently or non-violently. In result revolutions become start.
  19. 19. Criticism on Marxism Criticism on Marxism
  20. 20. Criticism on Marxism1) Materialistic Approach  Equality in terms of Wealth Health, Education, Religion, Distribution of resources and etc.  Against the Nature of Man2) Critics like Sir Karl Popper:  Marxism is not a theory that can not be tested and possibly falsified  Popper classifies Marxism as a “Faith”.
  21. 21. Criticism on Marxism3) Ignore the role and position of women insociety  Women tend to be marginalized  Focus upon work relationships4) Over-Concentration:Marxists over-exaggerate the importance of economicrelationships5) Neo-Marxism have been criticised  "left-wing" variety of Functionalism6) Economic, Social condition, intellectual andliterary production is based on ideological andimagination.
  22. 22. Criticism on MarxismMarxist ideas on how to change society are alsostrongly criticised by the Anarchists;Violent RevolutionMarx’s theory of history is contradicted;Industrialised countries have not moved closer to revolution.No laws of historyMarx was mistaken in thinking he had discovered the laws ofhistory, and in thinking that his theory was scientific.Sociologist critique on Marxism is that;Class ConflictClassless Society
  23. 23. Criticism on MarxismMarxism has mainly been rejected for tworeasons:1)It failed to allow people to express themselves in theways they wanted to,  Few Freedoms2) More importantly, I believe, it failed to provide peoplewith the standard of living that capitalism was able toprovide people living under that system.
  24. 24. ConclusionTheory of Marxism is aimed that to bringabout;classless societybased on the common ownership of the means ofproduction,distribution and exchange all the things equally in oursociety .Struggle For Power;  Economic  Social and  Political
  25. 25. Q&A
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