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  • 1. NARRATIVE GENREFakry Hamdani
  • 2. GenreA genre (pronounced /ˈʒɑːnrə/, also / ˈdʒɑːnrə/; from French "kind" or "sort", from Latin: genus (stem gener-)) is a loose set of criteria for a category of composition; the term is often used to categorize literature and speech, but is also used for any other form of art or utterance.Page  2
  • 3.  A genre can be defined as a culturally specific text-type which results from using language (written or spoken) to (help) accomplish something. Genres are culture specific & have associated with:3. Particular purpose4. Particular stages, distinctive beginnings, middles, and ends5. Particular linguistic featuresPage  3
  • 4. Narrative A narrative or story that is created in a constructive format (written, spoken, poetry, prose, images, song, theater or dance) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. It derives from the Latin verb narrare, which means "to recount" and is related to the adjective gnarus, meaning "knowing" or "skilled. The word "story" may be used as a synonym of "narrative", but can also be used to refer to the sequence of events described in a narrative. A narrative can also be told by a character within a larger narrative. An important part of narration is the narrative mode. Along with exposition, argumentation and description, narration, broadly defined, is one of four rhetorical modes of discourse. More narrowly defined, it is the fiction-writing mode whereby the narrator communicates directly to the reader. Stories are an important aspect of culture. Many works of art, and most works of literature, tell stories; indeed, most of the humanities involve stories.Page  4
  • 5. Fiction Versus Non Fiction Fiction is an imaginative form of narrative; one of the four basic rhetorical modes. Although the word fiction is derived from the Latin fingo, fingere, finxi, fictum, "to form, create", works of fiction need not be entirely imaginary and may include real people, places, and events. Fiction may be written or oral or may be presented as a film or in theater or on radio or television. Although not all fiction is necessarily artistic, fiction is largely perceived as a form of art or entertainment. The ability to create fiction and other artistic works is considered to be a fundamental aspect of human culture, one of the defining characteristics of humanity. Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as fact. This presentation may be accurate or not; that is, it can give either a true or a false account of the subject in question.Page  5
  • 6. Types of prose fiction Flash fiction: A work of fewer than 2,000 words. (1,000 by some definitions) (around 5 pages) Short story: A work of at least 2,000 words but under 7,500 words. (5-25 pages) Novelette: A work of at least 7,500 words but under 17,500 words. (25-60 pages) Novella: A work of at least 17,500 words but under 50,000 words. (60-170 pages) Novel: A work of 50,000 words or more. (about 170+ pages)Page  6
  • 7. Forms of fictionTraditionally, fiction includes novels, short stories, fables, fairy tales, plays, poetry, but it now also encompasses films, comic books, and video games.Page  7
  • 8. Non-Fiction Almanac  Journal Autobiography  Journalism Biography  Letter Blueprint  Literary criticism Book report  Memoir Creative nonfiction  Natural history Design document  Philosophy Diagram  Photograph Diary  Science book Dictionary  Scientific paper Non-fiction films (documentaries)  Statute Encyclopedia  Textbook Essay  Travelogue HistoryPage  8  User manual
  • 9. Cinderella Once upon a time, there was a little girl called Cinderella. She was pretty, loving and clever. But she was very poor. She lived with her step mother and stepsisters. They were very mean.Page  9
  • 10. They hated Cinderella very much. Fortunately, she met a prince. He fell in love with her. Then Cinderella became a princess.Page  10
  • 11. NARRATIVE GENREPurpose:To entertain/to amuse the readers.Lexicogrammatical Features:Focus on specific ParticipantsUse of Material ProcessesUse of Relational Processes and Mental ProcessesUse of Temporal Conjunctions and Temporal CircumstancesUse of Past TensePage  11
  • 12. Cinderella Specific Participants Past Tense Once upon a time, there was a little girl called Cinderella. She was pretty, loving and clever. But she was very Material Processes poor. She lived with her step mother and stepsisters. They were very mean.Page  12
  • 13. Mental Processes They hated Cinderella very much. Fortunately, she met a prince. He fell in love with her. Then Cinderella became a princess. Material ProcessesPage  13
  • 14. GENERIC STRUCTURE Orientation Sets the scene and introduces the participants Evaluation A stepping back to evaluate the plight Complication A crisis arises Resolution The crisis is resolved, for better or for worse Reorientation OptionalPage  14
  • 15. GENERIC STRUCTURE Orientation Once upon a time, there was a little girl called Cinderella. Evaluation She was pretty, loving and clever. Complication But she was very poor. She lived with her stepmother and stepsisters. They were very wicked. Resolution Fortunately, she met a prince. He fell in love with her. Reorientation Then Cinderella became a princess.Page  15
  • 16. COMIC BOOK A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a magazine or book of narrative artwork and (virtually always) dialog and descriptive prose. The style was introduced in 1934. Despite the term, comic books do not necessarily feature humorous subject-matter; in fact, it is often serious and action-oriented. The term "comic book" arose to describe some of the earliest such publications, which reprinted newspaper comic strips, themselves so labeled for originally presenting humor exclusively.Page  16
  • 17. Japanese Comic (Manga) The first comic books in Japan appeared during the 18th century in the form of woodblock-printed booklets containing short stories drawn from folk tales, legends, and historical accounts, told in a simple visual-verbal idiom. Known as "red books" ( 赤本 akahon?), "black books" ( 黒本 kurobon?), and "blue books" ( 青本 aohon?), these were written primarily for less literate readers. However, with the publication in 1775 of Koikawa Harumachis comic book Master Flashgolds Splendiferous Dream ( 金々先生栄花の夢 Kinkin sensei eiga no yume?), an adult form of comic book originated, which required greater literacy and cultural sophistication. This was known as the kibyōshi ( 黄表紙 ?, lit. yellow cover). Published in thousands (possibly tens of thousands) of copies, the kibyōshi may have been the earliest fully realized comic book for adults in world literary history. Approximately 2000 titles remain extant.Page  17
  • 18. Semiotics Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or semiology, is the study of sign processes (semiosis), or signification and communication, signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is constructed and understood. One of the attempts to formalize the field was most notably led by the Vienna Circle and presented in their International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, in which the authors agreed on breaking out the field, which they called "semiotic", into three branches: Semantics: Relation between signs and the things they refer to, their denotata. Syntactics: Relation of signs to each other in formal structures. Pragmatics: Relation of signs to their impacts on those who use them. (Also known as General Semantics) These branches are clearly inspired by Charles W. Morris, especially his Writings on the general theory of signs (The Hague, The Netherlands, Mouton, 1971, orig. 1938).Page  18
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