Research suggests that
 There are a range of different techniques available for
qualitative data collection and analysis,...
• The process of systematically arranging and presenting
information
• to find meaning in the information collected (makin...
• Analytic induction
– developing a general hypothesis
– collecting data, analysing
– modifying and revising the hypothesi...
• Interpreting and theorising data
– forging connections between codes
– significance of findings for the lives of people ...
If you are doing research for a project or dissertation
you may not have the resources to pay for professional
transcripti...
 Usage of pre-defined dictionaries
 ‫سابقا‬ ‫معرفة‬ ‫قواميس‬ ‫استخدام‬
 only applicable for prescriptive codings
 ‫الم...
 Manual or automated coding of transcripts
documents
 ‫المكتوبة‬ ‫للوثائق‬ ‫التوماتيكي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اليدوي‬ ‫التسجيل‬
 Exampl...
 Define the population of sources and a
sampling frame
 ‫العينا ت‬ ‫أخذ‬ ‫وإطار‬ ‫المعلوما ت‬ ‫مصادر‬ ‫مجتمع‬ ‫تعريف‬
po...
Segments ‫السقسام‬
 Abstract statement
 ‫مجردة‬ ‫عبارة‬
 Orientation segments: when (time) and where (place) who
(parti...
Action research compared
‫النشط‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫مقارنة‬
Action Research
‫النشط‬ ‫البحث‬
Other research methods
‫للبحث‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫ط...
 Pattern Matching
- between prediction and facts
 Explanation Building
- initial theoretical statement
- compare finding...
• Codes enable us to retrieve and reorganise the data
according to conceptual themes
• codes can be derived from:
– the in...
• de-contextualising what is said
• losing the context
• fragmenting the data
• losing the narrative flow
• coding may be ...
• ‘code and retrieve’
• computer takes over the manual labour involved – the
researcher must still interpret the data!
• p...
• Advantages:
•Fast and efficient
• Helpful in developing explanations (e.g. use of socio demographic
variables to create ...
 These data were collected from students who, as part of a class on
Writing and Writer’s Block, were set the following pr...
 How does the technique link in with my epistemological position?
Data analysis needs to link in with the underlying phil...
11 - qualitative research data analysis ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)
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11 - qualitative research data analysis ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)

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محاضرة للدكتور إبراهيم الثنيان - الدكتور عبدالله البريدي و دكتور رمزي
( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)

Published in: Education

11 - qualitative research data analysis ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)

  1. 1. Research suggests that  There are a range of different techniques available for qualitative data collection and analysis, but qualitative management researchers often focus on using just a small selection of them.  Researchers need to be more aware of the variety of qualitative techniques of data collection and analysis that are available  This may lead to more diverse ways of addressing contemporary theoretical and practical issues.
  2. 2. • The process of systematically arranging and presenting information • to find meaning in the information collected (making sense of human action) • to conceptualise data into theory • Three stages: • coding • discovering themes • developing propositions
  3. 3. • Analytic induction – developing a general hypothesis – collecting data, analysing – modifying and revising the hypothesis as data are collected and analysed – developing a satisfactory explanation
  4. 4. • Interpreting and theorising data – forging connections between codes – significance of findings for the lives of people studied – importance of findings for the research question and the research literature • Typologies (conceptualising situations with similar/different characteristics) • Case study analysis (case summaries) • Thematic analysis (themes and illustrations; headings)
  5. 5. If you are doing research for a project or dissertation you may not have the resources to pay for professional transcription and unless you are an accurate touch typist, it may take you a lot longer than the suggested five to six hours per hour of speech. If you have access to a transcription machine with a foot operated stop-start mechanism this will make the task of transcription somewhat easier. However, the important thing to bear in mind is that you must allow sufficient time for transcription and be realistic about how many interviews you are going to be able to transcribe in the time available.
  6. 6.  Usage of pre-defined dictionaries  ‫سابقا‬ ‫معرفة‬ ‫قواميس‬ ‫استخدام‬  only applicable for prescriptive codings  ‫المنظوري‬ ‫الرصد‬ ‫في‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫سارية‬ ‫وهذه‬  Types of text analysis ‫النصوص‬ ‫تحليل ت‬ ‫أنواع‬ Language use ‫اللغة‬ ‫استخداما ت‬ - linguistic ‫اللغوي‬ ‫الجانب‬ - compare to databank of words (from a dictionary) - ‫قاموس‬ ‫من‬ ) ‫الكلما ت‬ ‫من‬ ‫بنك‬ ‫مع‬ ‫)المقارنة‬ Content of Analysis ‫التحليل‬ ‫محتوى‬ - qualitative ‫نوعي‬ - event analysis (looking for sequences) ‫تبعا ت‬ ‫عن‬ ‫الحدث)البحث‬ ‫)تحليل‬ - quantitative ‫كمي‬
  7. 7.  Manual or automated coding of transcripts documents  ‫المكتوبة‬ ‫للوثائق‬ ‫التوماتيكي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اليدوي‬ ‫التسجيل‬  Example: Measure popularity of politician by counting how often their name appears on the first page of national newspapers  ‫اسمه‬ ‫ظهور‬ ‫مرا ت‬ ‫عدد‬ ‫بحساب‬ ‫السياسيين‬ ‫أحد‬ ‫شعبية‬ ‫قياس‬ :‫مثال‬ ‫الرسمية‬ ‫الجريدة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الولى‬ ‫الصفحا ت‬ ‫على‬
  8. 8.  Define the population of sources and a sampling frame  ‫العينا ت‬ ‫أخذ‬ ‫وإطار‬ ‫المعلوما ت‬ ‫مصادر‬ ‫مجتمع‬ ‫تعريف‬ population: national newspapers  :‫الرسمية‬ ‫الجرائد‬ ‫المعلومات‬ ‫مصادر‬ ‫مجتمع‬ sample: random sample of 50 issues published in 2007  ‫العام‬ ‫في‬ ‫صادرة‬ ‫الجريدة‬ ‫من‬ ‫نسخة‬ ‫خمسين‬ ‫من‬ ‫عشوائية‬ ‫عينة‬ :‫العينة‬2007  Define coding procedure  ‫والتسجيل‬ ‫الرصد‬ ‫اجراءا ت‬ ‫تعريف‬ prescriptive (define certain words or phrases): Hillary Clinton :( )‫كلينتون‬ ‫هيلري‬ ‫معينة‬ ‫تعابير‬ ‫أو‬ ‫كلمات‬ ‫تعريف‬ ‫المنظور‬ open coding (distill message of the text): How positive is the text about Hillary Clinton :( )‫هيلري‬ ‫حق‬ ‫في‬ ‫إيجابيا‬ ‫النص‬ ‫كون‬ ‫مدى‬ ‫ما‬ ‫النص‬ ‫من‬ ‫الرسائل‬ ‫استخلص‬ ‫المفتوح‬ ‫التسجيل‬ ‫كيلنتون‬  Usage of pre-defined dictionaries  ‫سابقا‬ ‫معرفة‬ ‫قواميس‬ ‫استخدام‬ only applicable for prescriptive coding ‫المنظوري‬ ‫الرصد‬ ‫في‬ ‫فقط‬ ‫سارية‬ ‫وهذه‬
  9. 9. Segments ‫السقسام‬  Abstract statement  ‫مجردة‬ ‫عبارة‬  Orientation segments: when (time) and where (place) who (participants) of the story  ‫القصة‬ ‫في‬ (‫من‬ ) ‫والمشتركين‬ (‫)أين‬ ‫والمكان‬ (‫)متى‬ ‫الزمان‬ :‫الموجهة‬ ‫القسام‬  Complicating action: sequence of events (antecedents and cause)  ‫والسباب‬ ‫المقدما ت‬ ) ‫الحداث‬ ‫من‬ ‫سلسلة‬ :‫الحداث‬ ‫)تركيب‬  Evaluation: provide the meanings of the actions from the respondent’s perspective. ‫للدراسة‬ ‫المستجيبين‬ ‫نظر‬ ‫وجهة‬ ‫من‬ ‫الحدث‬ ‫معاني‬ ‫ويقدم‬ :‫التقييم‬  Resolution: what happened and what is the conclusion  ‫النتائج‬ ‫هي‬ ‫وما‬ ‫جرى‬ ‫الذي‬ ‫ما‬ :‫والتفصيل ت‬ ‫القرارا ت‬  Coda: importance of story for phenomena investigated  ‫الدراسة‬ ‫قيد‬ ‫للظواهر‬ ‫بالنسبة‬ ‫القصة‬ ‫أهمية‬ :‫الخاتمة‬
  10. 10. Action research compared ‫النشط‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫مقارنة‬ Action Research ‫النشط‬ ‫البحث‬ Other research methods ‫للبحث‬ ‫أخرى‬ ‫طرق‬ Addresses real-life problems and is bounded by the context ‫بالسياق‬ ‫مقيد‬ ‫وهو‬ ‫الفعلية‬ ‫الحياة‬ ‫مشاكل‬ ‫تخاطب‬ Addresses real-life as well as scientific problems, and attempt to identify general principles and their contingencies ‫وضع‬ ‫الى‬ ‫تهدف‬ ‫و‬ ،‫العلمية‬ ‫والمسائل‬ ‫الحياتية‬ ‫المشاكل‬ ‫تخاطب‬ ‫احتمالتها‬ ‫و‬ ‫عامة‬ ‫مبادئ‬ Collaborative venture of researchers, participants and practitioners ‫والممارسين‬ ‫والمشاركين‬ ‫الباحثين‬ ‫بين‬ ‫مشترك‬ ‫مشروع‬ Clear division of roles between researchers, participants and practitioners ‫والممارسين‬ ‫والمشاركين‬ ‫الباحثين‬ ‫بين‬ ‫للدوار‬ ‫واضح‬ ‫تقسيم‬ Continuous reflecting process of research and action ‫والنشاط‬ ‫للبحث‬ ‫مستمرة‬ ‫عكس‬ ‫عملية‬ Usually, clear division between the research process and implementation processes ‫التطبيقية‬ ‫والعملية‬ ‫البحثية‬ ‫العملية‬ ‫بين‬ ‫واضحا‬ ‫فصل‬ ‫تكون‬ ‫ما‬ ‫عادة‬ Credibility – the validity of action research is measured on whether the actions solve the problems and realize the desired change ‫على‬ ‫العمل‬ ‫قدرة‬ ‫بمدى‬ ‫النشط‬ ‫البحث‬ ‫مصداقية‬ ‫تقاس‬ – ‫المصداقية‬ ‫المرجوة‬ ‫التغييرات‬ ‫وتحقيق‬ ‫المشاكل‬ ‫حل‬ Credibility – the validity of research is established by statistical core figures and successful replications ‫الهامة‬ ‫الحصائية‬ ‫الرقام‬ ‫طريق‬ ‫عن‬ ‫مصداقيتها‬ ‫تقاس‬ – ‫المصداقية‬ ‫للبحث‬ ‫الناجحة‬ ‫التكرارت‬ ‫و‬
  11. 11.  Pattern Matching - between prediction and facts  Explanation Building - initial theoretical statement - compare findings with statement - revise statement - compare other details against revision  Time Series Analysis - investigate differences along time not across subjects
  12. 12. • Codes enable us to retrieve and reorganise the data according to conceptual themes • codes can be derived from: – the interviewees’ stories – research question – theoretical framework • Codes are tentative • Codes are the first step in generating theory
  13. 13. • de-contextualising what is said • losing the context • fragmenting the data • losing the narrative flow • coding may be unsuited for particular forms of data (e.g. narrative interviews, focus groups)
  14. 14. • ‘code and retrieve’ • computer takes over the manual labour involved – the researcher must still interpret the data! • packages: The Ethnograph, NVivo, Atlas.ti, NUD*IST • alternatively use word processing package (e.g. MS Word)
  15. 15. • Advantages: •Fast and efficient • Helpful in developing explanations (e.g. use of socio demographic variables to create different cases; use of ‘trees’) Concerns: • Fragmentation, de-contextualisation of data • Not suitable for certain forms of data (narrative interviews, focus group data)
  16. 16.  These data were collected from students who, as part of a class on Writing and Writer’s Block, were set the following preparatory work: “Describe in detail how you write. Pay particular attention to the details. There must be no conferring with other people. Bring your written piece to the next class.” The data were obtained from a convenience sample of ten students. Permission to use these data in a suitably anonymised form for teaching purposes was obtained. Thus, the total data set available for this exercise for the analysis of qualitative data comprises ten individual data files, each containing a short narrative.   ‫تدرس‬ ‫صفية‬ ‫شعبة‬ ‫من‬ ‫جزء‬ ‫)هم‬ ‫الطل ب‬ ‫من‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫البيانات‬ ‫هذه‬ ‫جمع‬ ‫تم‬‫وعقبات‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ‫الكاتب‬‫أدق‬ ‫تقديم‬ ‫الى‬ ‫وانتبه‬ ،‫للكتابة‬ ‫تجلس‬ ‫كيف‬ ‫بالتفصيل‬ ‫"صف‬ ‫التالي‬ ‫السؤال‬ ‫سئلوا‬ ‫الذين‬ ( ."‫القادمة‬ ‫محاضرتنا‬ ‫الى‬ ‫المكتوبة‬ ‫اجابتك‬ ‫وأحضر‬ ‫الجابة‬ ‫طريقة‬ ‫في‬ ‫أحدا‬ ‫تشاور‬ ‫ل‬ ،‫التفاصيل‬ ‫على‬ ‫الموافقة‬ ‫تحصيل‬ ‫تم‬ ‫وقد‬ ‫طل ب‬ ‫عشر‬ ‫من‬ ‫مكونة‬ ‫مناسبة‬ ‫مجموعة‬ ‫من‬ ‫البيانات‬ ‫على‬ ‫الحصول‬ ‫تم‬ ‫فإن‬ ، ‫وعليه‬ ،‫المعلومات‬ ‫سرية‬ ‫مراعاة‬ ‫مع‬ ‫علمية‬ ‫لرغراض‬ ‫الملمئم‬ ‫النحو‬ ‫على‬ ‫المعلومات‬ ‫استخدام‬ ‫ملفات‬ ‫عشر‬ ‫من‬ ‫تتكون‬ ‫النوعية‬ ‫البحاث‬ ‫بتحليل‬ ‫الخاص‬ ‫التمرين‬ ‫هذا‬ ‫في‬ ‫المستخدمة‬ ‫الكلية‬ ‫البيانات‬ ‫الكتابة‬ ‫لعملية‬ ‫سرديا‬ ‫وصفا‬ ‫تحوي‬ ‫منها‬ ‫واحدة‬ ‫كل‬ ،‫فردية‬
  17. 17.  How does the technique link in with my epistemological position? Data analysis needs to link in with the underlying philosophical stance of the research  How structured are my research aims? For example is the research aiming to develop hypotheses, answer research questions, or explore sensitising concepts?  What kind of data are being analysed?  What are my personal preferences re structured/ unstructured techniques?  Will I be using a computer package to enable my analysis?

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