10 - qualitative research  data collection ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)
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10 - qualitative research data collection ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)

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محاضرة للدكتور إبراهيم الثنيان - الدكتور عبدالله البريدي و دكتور رمزي

محاضرة للدكتور إبراهيم الثنيان - الدكتور عبدالله البريدي و دكتور رمزي
( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi)

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    10 - qualitative research  data collection ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi) 10 - qualitative research data collection ( Dr. Abdullah Al-Beraidi - Dr. Ibrahim Althonayan - Dr.Ramzi) Presentation Transcript

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    • Dimension – Data collection Narrative/Biography  Primarily interviews and documents Phenomenology  Long interviews with up to 10 people Grounded Theory  Interviews with 20-30 individuals to “saturate” categories and detail a theory Ethnography  Primarily observations and interviews with additional artifacts during extended time in the filed (e.g., 6 months to a year) Case Study  Multiple sources – documents, archival records, interviews, observations, physical artifacts
      • Nonbehavioural observation
      • المشاهدات اللاسلوكية
        • Record analysis
        • تحليل السجلات
        • Physical condition analysis
        • تحليل الظروف المادية ( الفيزيائية )
        • Process or activity analysis
        • تحليل العمليات أو الأنشطة
      • Behavioural observation المشاهدات السلوكية
        • Nonverbal analysis
        • التحليل غير الشفهي
        • Linguistic analysis
        • التحليل اللغوي
        • Extralinguistic analysis
        • تحليل العناصر فوق اللغوية
        • Spatial analysis
        • التحليل الحيزي
      Observation المشاهدات
    • Classification of Observational Studies تصنيف الدراسات المعتمدة على المشاهدات Research class نوع البحث Environment بيئته Purpose هدفه Research tool أداته 1. Completely unstructured غير مقولب نهائيا Natural setting البيئة الطبيعية Generate hypotheses توليد الفرضيات 2. Unstructured غير مقولب Laboratory المختبر 3. Structured مقولب Natural setting البيئة الطبيعية Observation checklist قائمة فحص المشاهدات 4. Completely structured مقولب تماما Laboratory المختبر Test hypotheses فحص الفرضيات Observation checklist قائمة فحص المشاهدات
      • Who من
      • What ماذا
        • Event Sampling
        • أخذ العينات حول الحدث
        • Time Sampling
        • أخذ العينات حول الزمن
      • When متى
      • How كيف
      • Where اين
      Observation Data Collection جمع بيانات الدراسات المعتمدة على رصد المشاهدات
      • Seeing through others’ eyes
      • Learning the native language
      • The taken-for-granted
      • Deviant and hidden activities
      • Sensitivity to context
      • Encountering the unexpected and flexibility
      • Naturalistic emphasis
      • Write down notes, however brief, as quickly as possible after seeing or hearing something interesting.
      • دون ملاحظاتك مهما كانت مقتضبة فور رؤيتك أو سماعك لأي حدث مثير وهام
      • Write up full field notes at the very latest at the end of the day and include such details as location, who is involved, what prompted the exchange or whatever, date and time of the day, etc.
      • أكتب الملاحظات التفصيلية المطولة في أقرب فرصة تتاح لك من الوقت وضمن فيها التفاصيل الهامة كالموقع والأشخاص والدوافع وغيرها من التفاصيل كالتاريخ والوقت وغيرها
      • Nowadays, people may prefer to use a tape recorder to record initial notes, but this may create a problem of needing to transcribe a lot of speech.
      • قد يفضل البعض في هذه الأيام استخدام أداة التسجيل الآلية لأخذ الملاحظات الأولية ولكن هذا قد يخلق مشكلة الحاجة الى اعادة كتابة النصوص من مسموعة الى مقروءة
      • Notes must be vivid and clear - you should not have to ask at a later date `what did I mean by that?‘ يجب أن تكون الملاحظات سهلة وواضحة – لا يجب أن يأتي الوقت الذي تسأل فيه نفسك سؤالا مثل ”ماذا كنت أقصد من هذه الملاحظة؟“
      • You need to take copious notes, so, if in doubt, write it down.
      • قد تحتاج الى ملاحظات مسهبة لذلك اكتب كل شيء ان كنت في موقع الشك
      • Mental notes - particularly useful when it is inappropriate to be seen taking notes
      • ملاحظات ذهنية – وهي هامة ومفيدة تحديدا في الأماكن التي لا يستحسن فيها رؤيتك وأنت تكتب
      • Jotted notes (also called Scratch notes ) - very brief notes written down on pieces of paper or in small notebooks to jog one's memory about events that should be written up later
      • الملاحظات المختصرة ( تأخذ شكل الخربشة ) – وهي ملاحظات مقتضبة تكتب على دفتر صغير بهدف تحريك ذاكرة الباحث حول التفاصيل حين كتابتها في وقت لاحق .
      • Full field notes - as soon as possible make detailed notes, which will be your main data source
      • الملاحظات الميدانية الكاملة – قم بأخذ ملاحظات تامة متكاملة متى سنحت الفرصة بحيث تكون مصدرك الرئيسي للمعلومات
      • Ethnographic fieldnotes are traditionally handwritten in a notebook or ‘diary’. This has a number of advantages, it is flexible and discrete, the diary can be taken most places (including the toilet!) and can be slipped into a pocket when not required.
      • تتم كتابة الملاحظات الميدانية الإثنوغرافية عادة على دفتر صغير أو ”مذكرة“ صغيرة، ولهذا فوائد كثيرة حيث أن هذا الدفتر بحجمه يكون مرنا ومميزا ويمكن أخذه الى معظم الأماكن ( حتى التواليت ) ويمكن وضعه في الجيب بسهولة في حال عدم الحاجة إليه
      • The main disadvantage is that at the end of the fieldwork you will be left with a huge quantity of notes (possibly in very bad handwriting) and to analyse the data with the aid of CAQDAS (see Chapter 23), or even to quote extensively from your fieldnotes in a dissertation, you will have the laborious and time consuming task of transcribing them into word-processed form.
      • أما سلبية هذا الأسلوب فهي أنك تنتهي بعد الملاحظة والرصد بكم هائل من الملاحظات ( بخط سيء في معظم الحالات ) ويكون عليك أن تحلل البيانات بمساعدة نظام سي إيه كيو دي إيه أس ( انظر الفصل 23) أو قد تحتاج الى الإقتباس الواسع من ملاحظاتك لكتابة أطروحتك، وبذلك يكون عليك أن تتحمل الجهد والوقت اللازم لتحويل الملاحظات الى صورتها الكتابية النهائية
      • Consider using a palmtop computer if you have access to one, it is unlikely to make you stand out and may help you to blend into the setting. By taking the palmtop into the field, you will be able to type fieldnotes straight into a word processor (unless you are a slow typist!), though they are at risk of being stolen so you will probably have to either carry the machine around with you or find somewhere secure to keep it.
      • فكر باستخدام الكمبيوتر المصغر ( بحجم راحة اليد ) إذا أمكنك ذلك فهو يساعدك على الإنخراط في الجو المحيط، وبأخذك للجهاز الى الميدان سيكون بإمكانك طباعة الملاحظات الميدانية مباشرة ( إلا إذا كنت ممن يطبعون ببطء !) واحذر من أمكانية سرقتها فاحفظها في مأمن
      • There is a tendency for ethnographic research to lack a sense of an obvious end point
      • هناك مشكلة عامة لدى باحثي الإثنوغرافيا وهي أنهم لا يعرفون أين هي نقطة النهاية في أبحاثهم
      • In organizational research it is likely that a deadline for data collection will be negotiated at the outset
      • يغلب على الدراسات المؤسساتية أن يكون الموعد النهائي لجمع البيانات الخاصة بها موضعا للنقاش عند بداية البحث
      • The ethnographer may feel that they have simply had enough
      • أحيانا يشعر الإثنوغرافي ببساطة أن افراد المجتمع قد أصابهم التعب وأن عليه التوقف
      • The researcher's categories are thoroughly saturated
      • أن تصل تصنيفات الباحث الى حد الإشباع
      • Disengagement has to be managed
      • يجب الترتيب لعملية فض الارتباط
      • ‘ Getting out’, should be handled in such a way as to leave the door open to the possibility of future research or fieldwork
      • يجب التعامل مع عملية التوقف على أنها مغادرة للمنطقة مع ”إبقاء الباب مفتوحا“ أما أي امكانية للأبحاث المستقبلية
      • The ethnographer's ethical commitments must not be forgotten
      • يجب عدم نسيان الالتزام الأخلاقي للإثنوغرافي
      • Semi-structured interview :
      • beginning the investigation with a fairly clear focus
      • more than one person is to carry out the fieldwork
        • to ensure comparability of interviewing style
      • doing multiple-case study research
        • to ensure cross-case comparability
      • Unstructured interview :
      • beginning with a general notion of wanting to research a topic
      • using an interview guide will not allow genuine access to world views (see Research in focus 18.5)
        • of members of a social setting
        • of people sharing common attributes
      • difficulties in gaining access to managers & employees
    • Structured and Unstructured Interviews المقابلات المقولبة وغير المقولبة Structured مقولبة Unstructured غيرمقولبة Purpose الهدف منها Providing valid and reliable measurements of theoretical concepts توفير قياسات صحيحة وموثوقة حول المفاهيم النظرية Learning the respondent’s viewpoint regarding situations relevant to the broader research problem التعرف على وجهة نظر المشتركين بالنسبة للمواقف المتعلقة بالمشكلة العامة للبحث Instrument أداتها Questionnaire, i.e. specified set of pre-defined questions الاستبيانات، كوضع مجموعة من الأسئلة المدروسة بشكل مسبق Memory list القائمة التذكيرية Interview guide دليل المقابلات Format بنيتها Fixed to the initial questionnaire الالتزام بالاستبيان الأولي Flexible depending on the course of the conversation, follow-up and new questions are raised مرنة حسب خط سير الحوار، إذ يمكن أن تظهر أسئلة تابعة أو جديدة
      • Ensure all topics are covered
      • التأكد من تغطية كافة المواضيع
      • Formulate in an easy language
      • صياغتها بلغة سهلة
      • Ensure questions are not too specific
      • التأكد من أن لا تكون الأسئلة مفرطة في التخصص
      • Reduce your influence as interviewer as much as possible
      • التقليل من تأثيرك كمشرف للمقابلة قدر الإمكان
      • Ensure also to record some general information (demographics etc.)
      • التأكد من تدوين بعض المعلومات العامة
      Guidelines for Interview Guide إرشادات لمشرف المقابلات
      • Find :
        • a quiet, private space in which to conduct an interview uninterrupted (e.g. a suitable spare room that is not being used)
      • Be careful of :
        • agreeing to interview someone in their own office
        • frequent telephone calls or interruptions
        • traffic, aircraft, machinery or background noise making recorded speech inaudible
      • Think about :
        • closing doors or windows
        • turning off noisy heaters, fans etc
        • the comfort and convenience of your interviewee
      • Spend some time :
        • getting hold of a good tape recorder and microphone
        • checking the room prior to the interview
        • doing a speech recording to test acoustics and carefully positioning the furniture
        • positioning the microphone as near to your interviewees as possible (and make sure that they are unlikely to knock it!)
      • Prepare yourself by :
        • not being afraid to explain what you need in order to conduct the interview
        • compromising when it comes to actually getting it
        • making yourself familiar with the setting in which the interviewee works, lives or engages in the behaviour of interest to you
        • cultivating as many of the criteria of a quality interviewer suggested by Kvale as possible (see Tips and skills p484)
      • Make notes about:
      • how the interview went (was interviewee talkative, cooperative, nervous, well-dressed/scruffy, etc.?)
      • where the interview took place
      • any other feelings about the interview (did it open up new avenues of interest?)
      • the setting (busy/quiet, many/few other people in the vicinity, new/old buildings, use of computers)
    • Formulate interview questions Specific research questions General research area Interview topics Review/revise Interview questions Pilot guide Identify novel issues Revise interview questions Finalize guide
      • Knowledgeable : thoroughly familiar with the focus of the interview; pilot interviews of the kind used in survey interviewing can be useful here.
      • Structuring : gives purpose for interview; rounds it off; asks whether interviewee has questions.
      • Clear : asks simple, easy, short questions; no jargon.
      • Gentle : lets people finish; gives them time to think; tolerates pauses.
      • Sensitive : listens attentively to what is said and how it is said; is empathetic in dealing with the interviewee.
      • Open : responds to what is important to interviewee and is flexible.
      • Steering : knows what he/she wants to find out.
      • Critical : is prepared to challenge what is said, for example, dealing with inconsistencies in interviewees' replies.
      • Remembering : relates what is said to what has previously been said.
      • Interpreting : clarifies and extends meanings of interviewees' statements, but without imposing meaning on them.
      • Balanced : does not talk too much, which may make the interviewee passive, and does not talk too little, which may result in the interviewee feeling he or she is not talking along the right lines.
      • Ethically sensitive : is sensitive to the ethical dimension of interviewing, ensuring the interviewee appreciates what the research is about, its purposes, and that his or her answers will be treated confidentially.
      • Introducing questions : `Please tell me about when your interest in X first began?'; `Have you ever . . .?'; `Why did you go to . . .?' .
      • Follow-up questions : getting the interviewee to elaborate his/her answer, such as `Could you say some more about that?'; `What do you mean by that . . .?'; ‘Can you give me an example…?’ even `Yeeees?‘
      • Probing questions : following up what has been said through direct questioning.
      • Specifying questions : `What did you do then?'; `How did X react to what you said?‘
      • Direct questions : `Do you find it easy to keep smiling when serving customers?'; `Are you happy with the amount of on-the-job training you have received?' Such questions are perhaps best left until towards the end of the interview, in order not to influence the direction of the interview too much.
      • Indirect questions : `What do most people round here think of the ways that management treats its staff?', perhaps followed up by `Is that the way you feel too?', in order to get at the individual's own view.
      • Structuring questions : `I would now like to move on to a different topic'.
      • Silence : allow pauses to signal that you want to give the interviewee the opportunity to reflect and amplify an answer.
      • Interpreting questions : `Do you mean that your leadership role has had to change from one of encouraging others to a more directive one?'; `Is it fair to say that what you are suggesting is that you don't mind being friendly towards customers most of the time, but when they are unpleasant or demanding you find it more difficult?'
      • Values —of interviewee, of group, of organization
      • Beliefs —of interviewee, of others, of group
      • Behaviour —of interviewee, of others
      • Formal and informal roles—of interviewee, of others
      • Relationships —of interviewee, of others
      • Places and locales
      • Emotions —particularly of the interviewee, but also possibly of others
      • Encounters
      • Stories
      • If you are doing research for a project or dissertation you may not have the resources to pay for professional transcription and unless you are an accurate touch typist, it may take you a lot longer than the suggested five to six hours per hour of speech. If you have access to a transcription machine with a foot operated stop-start mechanism this will make the task of transcription somewhat easier. However, the important thing to bear in mind is that you must allow sufficient time for transcription and be realistic about how many interviews you are going to be able to transcribe in the time available.
      • Since interviewees sometimes ‘open up’ at the end of the interview, perhaps just when the tape recorder has been switched off, there are good grounds for suggesting that you should keep it switched on for as long as possible. So, when you are winding the interview down, don’t switch off the tape recorder immediately.
      • Issues resistant to observation
      • Reconstruction of events
      • Ethical considerations
      • Reactive effects
      • Less intrusive in people’s lives
      • Longitudinal research easier
      • Greater breadth of coverage
      • Specific focus
      • Composition of the group
      • تركيبة هذه المجموعات - rather homogenous (if intended participants are heterogeneous, consider splitting the group)
      • - تجانس أفراد المجموعة ( إن لم يتوفر التجانس يجب التفكير بتقسيم المجموعة بحيث يتجانس أفرادها )
      • Quality of outcomes depends crucially on ability of the moderator to trigger discussions
      • تعتمد المخرجات بشكل أساسي على قدرة رئيس المجموعة على إثارة وتحريك النقاشات
      • The focus group method is a form of group interview where:
      • there are several participants (in addition to the moderator/ facilitator)
      • there is an emphasis on questioning on a particular, fairly tightly defined topic
      • the accent is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning
      • The focus group contains elements of two methods:
      • the group interview , in which several people discuss a number of topics, though in a less tightly defined fashion than a focus group
      • the focused interview , which may involve individuals or groups and where interviewees are selected because they `are known to have been involved in a particular situation' (Merton et al . 1956: 3) and are asked about that involvement
      • As such focus groups:
      • append an interest in group interaction to the focused interview
      • are more focused than the group interview
      • Focus groups typically emphasize a specific theme or topic that is explored in depth, whereas group interviews often span very widely
      • Group interviews, unlike focus groups, are often carried out to save time and money by carrying out interviews with a number of individuals simultaneously
      • Focus group practitioners are interested in the ways individuals discuss issues as members of a group, rather than as individuals. Focus group researchers are interested in how people respond to each other's views and build up a view out of interactions taking place within the group
      • Need for tape recording and transcription
      • How many groups?
      • Size of groups
      • Level of moderator involvement
      • Selecting participants
      • Asking specific questions
      • It fosters building explicit “what” and “how” questions into the data collection
      • تدعم هذه النظرية تكوين أسئلة ”ماذا“ و ”كيف“ المتسمة بالوضوح بهدف جمع البيانات
      • Examples: أمثلة
        • She said…,But, fortunately, I had the experience of at some point surrendering, you know.
        • قالت كذا وكذا، ولكن لحسن الحظ كان لي تجربة الاستسلام من قبل كما تعلم
        • I asked, What does that mean to you, surrendering?
        • فسألت : ماذا كان يعني الاستسلام بالنسبة لك؟
        • She said, It means that I don't have, I can't control it and to look at what it has to teach me. Just, you know, let it tell me what it needs to tell me. You know, that willingness and that acceptance.
        • فقالت إن هذا يعني أنه ليس لدي، لا أستطيع التحكم به، وسأنظر الى الشيء الذي سأتعلمه، سأدعه يخبرني بما يريد أن يخبرني به، فهذه هي الرغبة وهذا هو القبول كما تعلم
      • What is the nature of the data to be collected? (e.g. textual, visual etc.)
      • What is the unit of analysis? (e.g. the text, the argument; the individual, the group, the organization, the relationship etc.)
      • Is the research about individuals, groups, or organizations more generally?
      • What are the assumptions underlying your epistemological approach?
      • What are the ethical issues involved?
      • Ali et al. (2008) have published a research paper which provide a conceptual model to study cultural influence (national culture) on multi-channel customer management (Call centre, Web site, Store, Digital TV, etc.) in multi-national organizations.
      • This is new research area where Ali et al. are trying to explore. The current state of the research area has identified that culture values (Uncertainty avoidances, Power distance, etc.) may have influence on the way organization should manage their customers channels.
      • However, no published research to date has identified what are these cultural values nor how that influence multi-channel customer management in organizations.
      • Ali et al. are new researchers in the area and have no experience of working in multi-channel customer management in multinational organizations.
      • Ali et al. have limited time and resources and there is no sponsor of their project.
      • Discuss different alternatives for the research design that Ali et al. could use in their future research to identify the influence of culture values on multi-channel customer management in multinational organizations?
      • Identify the strengths and limitations of using each research design and the influence of the choice on the research quality?
      • The process of systematically arranging and presenting information
      • to find meaning in the information collected (making sense of human action)
      • to conceptualise data into theory
      • Three stages:
        • coding
        • discovering themes
        • developing propositions
      • Analytic induction
        • developing a general hypothesis
        • collecting data, analysing
        • modifying and revising the hypothesis as data are collected and analysed
        • developing a satisfactory explanation
      • Interpreting and theorising data
        • forging connections between codes
        • significance of findings for the lives of people studied
        • importance of findings for the research question and the research literature
      • Typologies (conceptualising situations with similar/different characteristics)
      • Case study analysis (case summaries )
      • Thematic analysis ( themes and illustrations; headings )
      • If you are doing research for a project or dissertation you may not have the resources to pay for professional transcription and unless you are an accurate touch typist, it may take you a lot longer than the suggested five to six hours per hour of speech. If you have access to a transcription machine with a foot operated stop-start mechanism this will make the task of transcription somewhat easier. However, the important thing to bear in mind is that you must allow sufficient time for transcription and be realistic about how many interviews you are going to be able to transcribe in the time available.