1. DEPARTMENT OF UROLOGY EDUCATION
Dr Abraham Benjamin - Manager Medical Informatics
Mr. Naresh Kumar - Coordinator Medical Informatics
2. What is Overactive Bladder?
Overactive Bladder (OAB) isn't a disease. It's
the name given to a group of troubling
The major symptom of OAB is a “gotta go”
feeling,the sudden, strong urge to urinate
that the patient can’t control.
3. Anatomy of the Urinary Bladder
Male Urinary tract Female Urinary Tract
4. What are the Symptoms of Overactive Bladder ?
Urgency is considered the hallmark symptom of OAB, Urgency
is currently defined by the International Continence Society
(ICS),as "Sudden, compelling desire to pass urine that is
difficult to defer.
Urinary frequency is considered abnormal if the person
urinates more than eight times in a day.
Nocturia is a symptom where the person complains of
interrupted sleep because of an urge to void.
Urge incontinence is a form of urinary incontinence
characterized by the involuntary loss of urine occurring for no
5. What are the causes of Overactive Bladder ?
Normal Neurological Pathway :
Then urine is stored in the bladder.
When it isn’t full of urine, the bladder is relaxed. The nerve
signals in the brain send a signal to the bladder that it is
becoming full and the person feels the need to urinate.
In Overactive Bladder:
The nerve signals between the bladder and brain are not in
sync and the brain send signals to the bladder to empty it even
when its not full.
6. How is Overactive Bladder Diagnosed ?
Overactive Bladder is diagnosed on the basis of history and duration of
Voiding Diary ( Time and Amount chart).
Urine Cultures, Ultrasound scan and other imaging studies like
Micturiting cystourethrograms to rule out any abnormal pathology of the
urinary tract .
7. What are the Treatments available for
There are several treatments available to help manage OAB.
Behavioral therapy: Lifestyle changes—known as “behavioral
techniques”—are often the first treatments used to manage OAB. In
behavioral therapy, you make some changes in the way you live day-
This may include changing your diet to see if less caffeine, alcohol,
and spicy foods will reduce your symptoms. Behavioral changes may
include going to the bathroom at scheduled times during the day,
and doing “quick flick” Kegel exercises to relax your bladder muscle.
8. What are the Treatments available for Overactive Bladder?
Medications: There are several drugs available to relax the bladder muscle
and stop it from contracting at the wrong times.
Most commonly used drugs are
Oxybutynin (Ditropan) prevents urge incontinence by relaxing the detrusor
Tolterodine (Detrol, Detrol LA) is indicated for the treatment of an
overactive bladder with symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge
9. What are the Treatments available for Overactive Bladder?
Expanded use of Botox (onabotulinumtoxin A) is the new trend for the treatment
of leaky bladder (overactive bladder) in adults who did not respond well to
anticholinergics. By injecting Botox into the bladder muscle, the bladder relaxes and
can store larger volumes of urine, resulting in reduced episodes of urinary
Complex surgery like Clam Cystoplasty and other forms of bladder augmentation
The goal of any surgery to treat urge incontinence is aimed at increasing the
storage ability of the bladder while decreasing the pressure within the bladder.
10. What are the Treatments available for Overactive Bladder?
Augmentation Cystoplasty is the most frequently performed
surgical procedure for severe urge incontinence.
In this reconstructive surgery a segment of the bowel is removed
and used to replace a portion of the bladder.
Neuromodulation therapy: These treatments deliver harmless
electrical impulses to nerves that can change how the nerves work.
This type of therapy is used for patients when medications or
behavioral therapies don’t work, or when patients have serious side
effects from medications.
11. Important Information
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