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Swati project (1)

  1. 1. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON WORKER’S ABSENTEEISM VARDHMAN YARN & THREAD LTD. BADDI DR IT. INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECNOLOGY (IMT) In partial fulfillment of requirement of degree of ( BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION)Submitted To: Submitted By: Mr.Gagan Gulatis Swati Rai Roll No 80907322029 BBA 6th sem
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTTalent & capabilities are of course necessary but opportunities andgood guidance are two very important things without which no personscan climb those infant ladders towards progress.First of all I am very much indebted and thankful to my parents andGod for giving me strength for completion of my Internship.. I express my sincere thanks to my project guide Mr. Gagan Gulati forproviding me her valuable time and fruitful guidance. Lastly but notleast , I thank my friends , relatives and near and dear ones for theirwholehearted support in this efforts of mine. SWATI RAI PREFACE
  3. 3. There is a famous saying “The theory without practical is lame and practicalwithout theory is blind.”Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence forboth employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature.Human resource is an important part of any business and managing them is animportant task.Summer training is an integral part of the student of Management have toundergo training session in a business organization for 6 weeks to gain somepractical knowledge in their specialization and to gain some working experience.Our institution has come forward with the opportunity to bridge the gap byimparting modern scientific management principle underlying the concept of thefuture prospective managers.To the emphasis on practical aspect of management education the faculty ofAcademy of Management Studies, baddi has with a modern system of practicaltraining of repute and following management technique to the student as integralpart of MBA. In accordance with the above obligation under going project in“vardhman yarns&thread Pvt. Ltd., baddi. The title of my project is“Absenteeism of Employee”Certainly this analysis explores my abilities and strength to its fullest extent forthe achievement of organization as well as my personal goal. CONTENTS
  4. 4. 1 Profile of Vardhman Yarns and Threads Ltd., Baddi 1.1 Mission & Vision 01-01 1.2 History 02-02 1.3 Philosophy 03-03 1.4 Portfolio 04-05 1.5 Holdings 06-07 1.6 Market 08-08 1.7 Achievements 09-102 Absenteeism : An Introduction 2.1 Concept of Absenteeism. 12-12 2.2 Types of Absenteeism 13-13 2.3 Calculation of absenteeism 14-15 2.4 Causes of absenteeism 14-15 2.5 Categories of absenteeism 16-16 2.6 Measure to minimize absenteeism 17-17 3 Review of literature 18-19 4 Research Methodology 4.1 Statement of problem 20-20 4.2 Objective of the study 20-20 4.3 Scope of study 20-20 4.4 Methodology Used: Questionnaire 21-22 4.5 Sampling unit and sampling size 21-22 3.6 Method of Data Collection 21-22
  5. 5. 5 Data Analysis: Inference 23-46 Findings and Suggestions 47-51 Limitation of study 51-51 Conclusion 52-52 Bibliography Annexure
  6. 6. PART-ICompany Profile
  7. 7. ABOUT THE COMPANYVardhman is a major integrated textile producer in India. The Group was setup in 1965 atLudhiana, Northern India. Since then, the Group has expanded manifold and is today,perhaps, the largest textile conglomerate in India. The Group recorded a turnover ofRs.3860 crores in FY 2008-09. The Group portfolio includes manufacturing andmarketing of Yarns, Fabrics, Sewing Threads, Fiber and Alloy Steel.1.1 MissionVardhman aims to be world class textile organization producing diverse range ofproducts for the global textile market.Vardhman seeks to achieve customer delightthrough excellence in manufacturing and customer service based on creative combinationof state-of-the-art technology and human resources. Yardman is committed to beresponsible corporate citizen.VisionVardhman- rooted in values ,creating word class textile. 1
  8. 8. 1.2 HISTORYThe industrial city of Ludhiana, located in the fertile Malwa region of Central Punjab isotherwise known as the "Manchester of India". Within the precincts of this city is locatedthe Corporate headquarters of the Vardhman Group, a household name in Northern India.The Vardhman Group, born in 1965, under the entrepreneurship of Late Lala RattanChand Oswal has today blossomed into one of the largest Textile Business houses inIndia.At its inception, Vardhman had an installed capacity of 14,000 spindles, today; itscapacity has increased multifold to over 8.0 lacs spindles. In 1982 the Group entered thesewing thread market in the country which was a forward integration of the business.Today Vardhman Threads is the second largest producer of sewing thread in India. In1990, it undertook yet another diversification - this time into the weaving business. Thegrey fabric weaving unit at Baddi (HP), commissioned in 1990 with a capacity of 20,000meters per day, has already made its mark as a quality producer of Grey poplin, sheeting,and shirting in the domestic as well as foreign market. This was followed by entry intofabric processing by setting up Auro Textiles at Baddi, which currently has a processingcapacity of 1 lacs meters/day.In the year 1999 the Group has added yet another feather to its cap with the setting up ofVardhman Acrylics Ltd., Bharuch (Gujarat) which is a joint venture in Acrylic Fibreproduction undertaken with Marubeni and Exlan of Japan. The company also has a strongpresence in the markets of Japan, Hong Kong, Korea, UK and EU in addition to thedomestic market. Adherence to systems and a true dedication to quality has resulted inobtaining the coveted ISO 9002/ ISO 14002 quality award which is the first in Textileindustry in India and yet another laurel to its credit.2
  9. 9. 1.3 PHILOSOPHY • Total customer focus in all operational areas • Products to be of best available quality for premium market segments through TQM and zero defect implementation. All functional areas. • Global orientation targeting - at least 20% production for exports. • Integrated diversification/product range expansion • World class manufacturing facilities with most modern R&D and process technology.• • Faith in individual potential and respect for human values. • Encouraging innovation for constant improvements to achieve excellence in all functional areas. • Accepting change as a way of life• • Appreciating our role as a responsible corporate citizen.
  10. 10. 31.4 PORTFOLIOThe group portfolio includes Yarn, Fabrics, Sewing Thread, Fibre and Alloy SteelYarnsYarn Manufacturing is the major activity of the group accounting for 65 percent of thegroup turnover. Vardhman is virtually a supermarket of yarns, producing the widest rangeof cotton, synthetics and blended, Grey and Dyed yarns and Hand Knitting Yarns, inwhich Vardhman is the market leader in India. The group has nine production plants witha total capacity of over 5.5 lacs spindles, spread all over the country. In many of the yarnmarket segments, Vardhman holds the largest market share. Vardhman is also the largestexporters of yarn from India, exporting yarns worth more than USD 90 million.Sewing ThreadVardhman is the second largest producer of sewing thread in the country. The sewingthread manufacturing capacity is being expanded from present 17 tons per day to 22 tonsper day in its sewing thread plants located at Hoshiarpur, Baddi and Ludhiana. Sewingthreads contributes 12 percent of the group turnover.
  11. 11. 4FabricsThe group has created state-of-the-art fabric weaving and processing facilities in its plantat Baddi, Northern India. The group has installed 208 shuttles less looms and a fabricprocessing capacity of 30 million meters per annum in collaboration of Tokai Senko ofJapan. Fabrics business contributes 8 percent to the group turnover.FibreThe group has recently set up an Acrylic Staple Fibre plant at Bharuch in Gujarat incollaboration with Marubeni and Japan Exlan of Japan. The plant has annual capacity of18000 tons per annum. Fibre contributes 8 percent to the total turnover of the group.SteelThe Group is also present in upper-end of the steel industry. The group hasmanufacturing capacity of 100000 tons of special and alloy steel. The group supplies itssteel products to some of the most stringent quality steel buyers like Maruti and Telco. Itcontributes 6 percent to the total turnover of the group 5
  12. 12. 1.5 HOLDINGSSpinning BusinessDomestic Trade Area UnitsVardhman Spinning & General Mills Ludhiana, PunjabAuro Spinning Baddi, HPArihant Spinning Malerkotla, PunjabArisht Spinning Baddi, HPGas Mercerised Yarn Business Hoshiarpur, PunjabAuro Dyeing Baddi, HPExport Oriented UnitsAnant Spinning Mandideep, MPVardhman Spinning & General Mills Export Oriented Units Baddi, HPVMT Baddi, HPFabric BusinessAuro Weaving Baddi, HPMSML Textiles Division Baddi, HPAuro Textiles Baddi, HPSewing Thread BusinessST-I Hoshiarpur, PunjabST-II Ludhiana, Punjab
  13. 13. ST-III Perundurai, TNST-IV Baddi, HPVardhman Special Steels Ludhiana, Punjab Bharuch, GujaratVardhman Acrylics Limited 6 VARDHMAN GROUP
  14. 14. 71.6MARKET
  15. 15. • Largest Spinning capacity in India - over half a million spindles.• Largest producer of Cotton, Synthetics and Blended yarns in the country• Largest Dyeing Capacity of Fibre and Yarn• Largest Exporter of Cotton Yarn• Market Leader in Hand Knitting Yarns in India• Largest range of Textile products• Second largest producer of Sewing Thread in the country• Collaborations with specialist worldwide
  16. 16. 81.7ACHIEVEMENTSIt’s an overwhelming feeling when the efforts and hard work put in are recognized andfelicitated. A feeling that galvanizes the Group into believing in more, in itself andreaffirming its commitment to offer products that invoke trust and reliabilityBack home, the Vardhman Group became Indias first textile company to be awardedICO9002/ ISO 14002 Certification. It is the largest producer and exporter of yarns andGrey woven fabrics from India. Vardhman is also the largest producer of tyercord yarnsand the second largest producer of sewing threads in India. The Vardhman Group visionof excellence is matched by a dedication and sincerity to be the best and excel in everyindustry it has a presence. Chairman, Mr. S.P. Oswal got Shri Padam Bhushan award in January 2010 Textile Export Promotion Council 2007-08 Special achievement award in yarn category Textile Export Promotion Council 2007-08 Silver top exporter award in yarn category Textile Export Promotion Council 2007-08 Bronze trophy in processed yarn category
  17. 17. Textile Export Promotion Council 2005-06 Bronze trophy for highest global exportcategory overallWorld trophy in highest export in yarn category.Textile Export Promotion Council 2003-04Gold trophy in EOU/EPZ for export of cotton yarnTextile Export Promotion Council 2003-04Bronze trophy in mill fabric exporter categoryTextile Export Promotion Council 2002-03Gold Trophy in EOU/EPZ for export of cotton yarnTextile Export Promotion Council 1998-99Silver TrophyTextile Export Promotion Council 1997-98Bronze Trophy
  18. 18. 10 Vardhman Yarns and Threads Limited, UNIT-IV,BADDIVardhman Textiles Limited (VTXL) transferred its threads business on a slump sale basisto one of its subsidiary companies, Vardhman Yarns and Threads Limited (VYTL),through a Scheme of Arrangement, Re-organization and Demerger as sanctioned by theHon’ble Punjab and Haryana High Court, with effect from 1 st April, 2008. The holding ofVTXL in VYTL as on the said date was more than 98 percent. The threads business ofthe subsidiary company, viz. VYTL, comprises of four manufacturing units located atHoshiarpur and Ludhiana (Punjab), Perundurai (Tamil Nadu) and Baddi(HimachalPradesh).
  19. 19. The Company entered into a joint venture in VYTL with M/s. American & Efird, Inc.(A&E), one of the world’s largest global manufacturers and distributors of industrialsewing threads, embroidery threads and technical textiles, with A&E’s initial holding of35 percent. Recently, A&E has acquired the additional 14 percent equity shares of thejoint venture company, VYTL, from Vardhman Textiles Limited and thus holds 49percent equity shares. The joint venture Company, however, continues to be a subsidiaryof Vardhman Textiles Limited, whose shareholding is now 51 percent 11 Absenteeism An Introduction
  20. 20. 2.1 INTRODUCTIONSome Definitions of Absenteeism:- “Absenteeism” is a practice or a habit of being an “absence” and an “absentee” isone who habitually stays away - WEBSTER’S DICTIONARY - ‘Absenteeism’ is the failure of a worker to report for work when he isscheduled to work. - LABOUR BUREAU SIMLAMeaning:Employees’ presence at the work place during the schedule time is highly essential forthe smooth running of the production process in particular and the organization ingeneral. Despite the significance of presence, employees sometime fail to report to thework place during the scheduled time, which is known as “Absenteeism”.According to PICOARS AND MAYERS: Unexpected absence disturbs the efficiency ofthe group as the jobs are inter connected, if one single man remains absent without priornotice the whole operation process is distributed. This Absenteeism results in productionlosses because, due to Absenteeism, workers cost increases and thus efficiency ofoperations is affected.2.2 Features of Absenteeism: Research Studies undertaken by different authors reveal the following features ofAbsenteeism  The rate of Absenteeism is the lowest on pay day; it increases considerably on the days following the payment of wages and bonus  Absenteeism is generally high among the workers below 25 years of age and those above 40 years of age.
  21. 21.  The rate of Absenteeism varies from department to department within an organization.  Absenteeism in traditional industries is seasonal in character 122.3 Types of AbsenteeismAbsenteeism is of four types viz….1. Authorized Absenteeism.2. Unauthorized Absenteeism.3. Willful Absenteeism.4. Absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond one’s control.1) Authorized Absenteeism If an employee absents himself from work by taking permission from superior and applying for leave, such Absenteeism is called authorized Absenteeism. 2) Unauthorized Absenteeism If any employee absents himself from work without informing or taking permission and without applying for leave, such absenteeism is called Unauthorized Absenteeism.3) Willful Absenteeism If any employee absents himself from duty willfully, such Absenteeism is called Willful Absenteeism4) Absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond one’s control If any employee absent himself from duty owing to the circumstances beyond his control like involvement in accidents (or) sudden sickness, such absenteeism is called Absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond one’s control.2.5 Calculations of Absenteeism rate:
  22. 22. Absenteeism can be calculated with the help of the following formula.Absenteeism rate = ( No of Mondays lost / No of Mondays scheduled to work)*100Absenteeism rate can be calculated for different employees and for different time periodslike month & year. 13Frequency rateThe frequency rate reflects the incidence of absence and is usually expressed as the no ofseparate absence in a given period, irrespective of absence. The frequency rate representsthe average no of absence per worker in a given period.Frequency rate = (The no of times in which the leave was availed/ Total no of Monday’sschedules to work)*100Severity rate:Severity rate is the average length of time lost per absence and is calculated by using thefollowing.Severity rate = (Total no of days absent during a period/ Total no of times absent duringthat period)*100 A high severity rate indicates that the employee is absent for longer duration each time.High frequency and severity rates indicates that the employee is absent more frequentlyand for longer duration’s each time resulting in high Absenteeism even in absolute terms.2.6 Causes of Absenteeism The following are the general causes of the Absenteeism1. Maladjustment with the working conditions: If the working conditions of the company are poor, the workers cannot adjust themselves with the company’s working conditions. Then they prefer to stay away from the company.2. Social and religious ceremonies: Social & religious functions divert the workers attention from the work.3. Unsatisfactory housing
  23. 23. Conditions at the working place4. Industrial housing The industrial fugue compels workers to remain outside the work place.5. Unhealthy working conditions The poor and intolerable working conditions in the factories irritate the workingexcess heat, noise, either too much or too low lighting, poor ventilation, dust, smokecause poor health of the workers. This factory causes the workers to be absent.6. Poor welfare facilitiesThough a no of legislation concerning welfare facilities are enacted, many organizationsfail to provide welfare facilities. This is either due to the poor financial position of thecompanies (or) due to the exploitative attitude of the employs. The welfare facilitiesincludes poor sanitation, washing, bathing first aid appliances, ambulance, restroomsdrinking water, canteen, shelter, crèches etc.. The dissatisfied worker with these facilitiesprefers to be away from the workplace.7. AlcoholismWorkers mostly prefer to spend money on the consumption of liquor and enjoymentafter getting the wages. Therefore, the rate of absenteeism is more during the first weekevery month8. IndebtnessThe low level wages and unplanned expenditure of the workers force then to borrowheavily. The research studies indicate that workers borrow more than 10 times of theirnet pay. Consequently workers fail to repay the money. Then they try to escape theplace in order to avoid the money lenders. This leads to absenteeism.9. Maladjustment with job demandsThe fast enhancing technology demand higher level skills from the workers fail to meetthese demands due to their lower level education and/or absenteeism of training.10. Unsound personnel policiesThe improper and unrealistic personnel policies result in employee dissatisfaction. Thedissatisfied employee in tune prefers to be away from the work11. Inadequate leave facilitiesThe inadequate leave facilities provided by the employer forces him to depend on ESIleave which allows the workers to be away from the work for 56 days in a year on halfpay.
  24. 24. 12. Low level of wagesWages in some organizations are very poor and they are quite inadequate to meet thebasic needs of the employees. Therefore, employers go for other employment duringtheir busy seasons and earn more money. Further, some employees take up part timejobs. Thus the employees resort to moonlighting and absent themselves from the work. 15Categories of AbsenteeismK.N.VAID classified chronic absenteeism to fine categories viz….1) Entrepreneurs2) Status seekers3) Epicureans4) Family-oriented and5) The sick and the old.1) Entrepreneurs These classes of absenteeism consider that their jobs are very small for their total interestand personal goals. They engage themselves in other social and economic activities tofulfill their goals.2) The status seekersThis type pf Absentees enjoy or perceive a higher ascribed social status and are keen onmaintaining it.3) The epicureansThe classes of absentees do not like to take up the jobs which demand initiativeresponsibilities, discipline and discomfort they wish to have money, power, and status butare unwilling to work for their achievement.4) Family-orientedThese types of absentees are often identified with the family activities.5) The sick and old
  25. 25. These categories of absentees are mostly unhealthy, with a weak constitution or oldpeople. 16Measures to minimize AbsenteeismAbsenteeism affects the organization from multiple angles. It severely affects theproduction process and the business process. The effect of unauthorized absenteeism ismore compared other types of absenteeism. However, it would be difficult to completelyavoid absenteeism. The management can minimize absenteeism. The followingmeasures are useful in controlling or minimizing absenteeism.1) Selecting the employees by testing them thoroughly regarding their aspirations valuesystems, responsibility and sensitiveness.2) Adopting a humanistic approach in dealing with the personal problems of employees.3) Following or proactive approach in identifying and redressing employee grievances.4) Providing hygienic working conditions.5) Providing welfare measures and fringe benefits, balancing the need for the employee and the ability of the organization.6) Providing high wages and allowances based on the organizational financial positions.7) Impressing the communication network particularly the upward communication.8) Providing leave facility based on the needs of the employees and organizational requirement.9) Providing safety & health measures.10) Providing cordial human relations & Industrial relations.11) Educating the workers.12) Counseling the workers about their carrier, income & expenditure habits & culture.13) Free flow of information, exchanging of ideas problems etc between subordinate & superior.
  26. 26. 14) Granting leave and financial assistance liberally in case of sickness of employee & his family members.15) Offering attendance bonus & inducements.16) Providing extensive training, encouragement, special allowance in cash for technological advancements. 17 PART- III REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  27. 27. Brian S. Klaas/26 September 2002/http://www.science direct.comThis study examined the merits of one perspective on the relationship betweenabsenteeism and grievance activity by studying whether that relationship varied acrosssix types of grievance activity. The transfer function between each type of grievanceactivity and absenteeism was estimated with time series techniques. Data were collectedon the monthly level of absenteeism and grievance activity over an 8-year period from aunionized organization. The results suggest that the direction of the relationship variessubstantially in association with the nature of the grievance. Although statisticallysignificant increases in absenteeism occurred in association with policy grievances,statistically significant decreases in absenteeism occurred in the month followingdisciplinary grievances and negative outcomes from disciplinary grievancesCraig A. Olson/1999-02-01/ http://www.ingentaconnect.comThe aim of this paper is to bring the temporal nature of absence decisions into theforefront of the analysis of employee absenteeism. The theoretical contribution of thepaper draws on the conventional labor supply model of absence behavior and extends theanalysis in order to place absenteeism in the context of multi period analysis. In addition,the implications of a specific absence penalty system are analyzed which essentiallymakes the availability of overtime working conditional on an employees absence history.The empirical analysis explores a daily panel of absence histories gathered by the firmwhich operates this particular penalty system. The analysis of such panel data, therefore,incorporates the temporal aspect to the absence decision-making process. The findingssuggest that the absence penalty system is effective and, furthermore, the results indicateways in which the effectiveness of the system could be enhanced. In general, the resultsconfirm the findings of other researchers, which suggest that characteristics of theemployment contract such as wages are important determinants of observed absencebehaviorTove H. Hammera/ October 1981/ http://www.science direct.com
  28. 28. Used R. M. Steers and S. R. Rhodess model as a framework for examining patterns ofabsenteeism and their predictors among 112 workers (mean age 44 yrs) in an employee-owned organization. The focus of the study was the effect of job satisfaction on voluntaryabsenteeism, which is traditionally thought to be either negative or canceled out bypressures to attend work. An alternative hypothesis is offered by A. O. Hirschmans(1970) exit, voice, and loyalty (EVL) model, which suggests that workers who are loyalto their employer and believe that they can improve undesirable conditions will come towork when they are dissatisfied because they can voice their complaints instead ofwithdrawing silently. Results show that absenteeism was affected primarily byorganizational and financial commitment but that job satisfaction was not a predictor.Voluntary absenteeism declined after transfer to employee ownership but was offset byan increase in involuntary withdrawal as employees began publicly to legitimize their 18 absenteeism. Results suggest that a better understanding of the psychological processesleading to temporary withdrawal could come from an examination of the costs to theworker of being present, in addition to the traditional focus on the rewards of working.Joseph J. Martocchio/3 October 2002/ http://www.science direct.comMeta-analyses were performed on 34 samples that included correlations of the age andemployee absenteeism relationship. Samples were categorized into 2 groups for voluntaryabsenteeism and involuntary absenteeism based on the frequency index and the time-lostindex, respectively. Results indicated that both voluntary and involuntary absence areinversely related to age. Unexplained variance remained for each of the absence measuresafter variance due to sampling error and measurement unreliability was statisticallyestimated. Work demand was negatively associated with age, but not in the expecteddirection. Work demand did not moderate the age-absence relationship for eithervoluntary or involuntary absence. Sex moderated the relationship between age andvoluntary absenteeism only. For men, the relationships were negative; for women, theydid not differ significantly from 0. Implications for research and human resourcemanagement practices regarding aging and absenteeism are discussed.James A. Breaugh/9 May 2007/ http://www.ingentaconnect.comRecent reviews of the absenteeism literature indicate that absenteeism as a phenomenonis still neither well understood nor accurately predicted. The present study incorporatedmany of the suggestions for improving absenteeism research that were made in thereviews. More specifically, a longitudinal design was used to assess the accuracy with
  29. 29. which the 1977 absenteeism (i.e., total days absent, absence frequency, and supervisoryabsenteeism rating) of 112 research scientists could be predicted from their previousabsenteeism (1974-1976). In addition, the relationships between 1977 absenteeism and 3work attitudes (job satisfaction, job involvement, and supervisory satisfaction) wereassessed. Findings show that past absenteeism was a better predictor of 1977 absenteeismthan were the 3 work attitudes. Data relevant to the psychometric equivalence andstability of the absenteeism measures are also reported 19 PART- IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
  30. 30. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:Theoretical background of the Topic: Absenteeism has been variously defined by the Authorities from time to time.Thus the term Absenteeism refers to the workers absence from his regular task, when heis scheduled to work. Any employees stay away from work if he has taken leave to whichhe is entitled or on the grounds of sickness or some accident without any previoussanction of leave.Nevertheless usually, involuntary lay off, lack of work, authorized leave or vacationperiod of work stoppage are not counted as absence. Strikes, lock outs and late attendanceare treated as absence.STATEMENT OF PROBLEMStudy of Absenteeism among Industrial Worker is not only from view point of but it isimportant from the view point of moral of employees. Even though the effect of the goodmorale of employees, may not be calculated in terms of costs, but it should be said that, itis important than cost.There is a clear relationship between high absenteeism andemployees moral, because it can easily traced that these department having high rate ofabsenteeism have low moral.
  31. 31. There is a clear relationship between employee’s attitude & absenteeism. They are relatedto each other. So employee’s attitude & morale are the important factors. Labors isHuman Factor, therefore consideration shall also be taken into account in the discussionof problem connected in the absenteeism has been continuous to be one of the majorlabors problem in Indian Industries. As “No work No pay” is usually the general rule, the loss to workers absenteeismis quite obvious when the workers fail to attend to the regular work, there income isreduced and the workers become still poorer. Hence, Health and efficiency of the workeris affected by the irregularity of the workers attendance. The loss of employees and industry is due to absenteeism is still greater and bothefficiency and discipline suffer the maintenance of additional workers leads to seriousimplications. Thus the above discussions show how the problem of absenteeism is veryimportant to the organization. So, I have selected this problem of study. 20OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYThe Study aims at assessing the absenteeism in workers.  To find out causes of Absenteeism & suggest remedies to reduce it.  To find out the rate of Absenteeism in vardhman yarns thread  To know the corrective measures taken by the co. to reduces the rate of AbsenteeismSCOPE OF THE STUDYThe present study “ Workers Absenteeism” Covered only at vardhman yarn and threadunit, could be of great use for the organization concerned in the following area:  . The study attempts to analyze the effectiveness and employee’s individual opinion about reason for the absenteeism.
  32. 32.  . The study emphasizes to reveal the reasons behind the absenteeism in vardhman unit.  . The study aims to work on the feedback given by the employees and come up with valuable suggestions for the improvement of the Absenteeism.This is the technique followed in social research on any subject.The research has selected the subject: “A Study of Absenteeism of workers in vardhmanyarns and threads ltd Baddi unit”RESEARCH DESIGN:The process starts after selection of the topic Research Design denotes the planning of theresearch study by which the researcher followed the below mentioned methods andtechniquesDATA COLLECTION:Data Collected from primary and secondary data/sources.Primary Data: Asking questions with employees and workers personally.Secondary Data: Collecting the data from reference books and past records. 21SAMPLING METHODS:Convenience Sampling.Sampling Units: 40Methods of Data Collection:Primary Data:Interview MethodQuestionnaire
  33. 33. Secondary Data:Company RecordsProcessing And Analysis Of Data. After the data have been collected it has be analyzed. The data obtained from thequestionnaire is arranged in a serial order their master copy with tabulation method isbeing prepared. Tabulation is part of the technical procedure where in the essential data is put inthe form table. 223.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION Table 1 Age of the Respondents Employee age in years Respondents Percentage Below 20 10 25 20-25 10 25 25-35 10 25 Above 35 10 25 Total 40 100
  34. 34. Inference: The above table explains that from the total respondents 25% of respondents arebelow age groups of 20 years. 25% of respondents are of groups of 20- 25 years, 25-35years age of groups is 25% and above 35 years are 25% of respondents. None of therespondents are below further it clears that majority of total respondents are from allage of groups. 23 Table -2 Table showing in which department the respondents’ works. Department Respondents Percentage Make-up 16 40 Finishing 8 20 Dyeing 8 20 Twisting 8 20
  35. 35. total 40 100Inference:From the above table it indicates that of the total respondents, 40% of respondents areworking in make-up department. In finishig 20% of respondents, 20% of respondents areworking in dyeing ,and the rest 20% of respondents in twisting Further it clears that no of respondents are working in make- up department 24 Table-3 Marital status of respondents Marital status respondents Percentage married 25 62.50 unmarried 15 37.50
  36. 36. Total 40 100Inference: According to the survey conducted 62.50% of respondents are got married and restof respondents is got married and rests of respondents i.e. 37.50 %of respondents are un-married. From the above table it is clear that the majority of respondents i.e. 62.50% ofrespondents are married. 25 Table -4 The educational qualification of Respondents
  37. 37. Qualification Respondents Percentage 5th 0 0 8th 12 30 10th 18 45 12th 10 25 Total 40 100Inference: As shown in the table most of the respondents i.e.30 % ofrespondents are 8 passede, 45% of respondents are 10th & 25% of respondents and 5th thpassed are 0%. 26 Table-5 Years of experience of the respondent’s years of
  38. 38. s.no experience Response 1 <1 8 2 1 to2 8 3 2 to5 8 4 5to10 8 5 >10 8 total 40Inference :From the above table that is indicates that of the total respondents, 20% of respondentsare below 1 years of experience 20% of respondents are2 to 5 years of experience, 20%
  39. 39. of respondents and having5 to 10 years of experience & rest of respondents i.e. 20% ofrespondents & having 10 and more years experience. 27 Table-6 How often worker remain absent in a month Opinion Respondents Nil 12 Once 9 Twice 13 >two 6 Total 40Inference:
  40. 40. As shown in above table out of 40 respondent 30% doesnot remain absent in a month, 22% remain absent once in a month,33% absent for twodays in a month and remain 15% absent more than two days 28 Table-7 Responsibility of intimation to supervisor S.No. Option Responses 1 Often 16 2 Sometimes 8 3 Rarely 10 4 Never 6 Total 40
  41. 41. Inference:As per the table 17%of respondents feeling this responsibility rarely 14% feel itsometimes where as 27% feel it as must and the other i.e. 42% feel it never. 29 Table-8 What is the main reason of employee absenteeism? Sr.No. Option Responses 1 Health Problem 25 2 Stress 11 3 Work Dissatisfaction 2 4 Work Environment 2 Total 40
  42. 42. Inference: Out of total 40 respondents, 62% of respondents are absent because of healthproblem, and 28% of respondents absents because of stress ,5% of respondents willabsent because of work dissatisfaction ,and remain 5% because of work environment From the above table it is clearly observed that the workers will absent to duty i.e.62% are absent for health reason only 30 Table-9 Are you aware of your job responsibilities? S.No. Option Responses 1 Well Clear 22 2 Clear 8 3 Fairly Clear 5 4 Dont Know 5 Total 40
  43. 43. Inference : Out of 40 respondent 55% respondent are well clear about their jobresponsibilities ,20%say clear ,12%say they are fairly clear and restof13%dont knowabout their responsibilities 31 Table -10 Workers satisfaction regarding their job S.No. Option Responses 1 Well Satisfied 17 2 Satisfied 13 3 Fair 8 4 Not Satisfied 2
  44. 44. Total 40Inference: According to the survey conducted 36.19% of respondents are well satisfied withtheir job,33% respondents are satisfied with their job ,20%says it is fair, and the rest ofrespondents i.e. 5% are not satisfied with their job From the above table it clears that the majority of respondents are satisfied with theirjob. 32 Table-11 Workers view regarding absent due to the working environment S.No. Option Responses 1 strongly agree 3
  45. 45. 2 Agree 6 3 Disagree 10 4 strongly disagree 21 Total 40 Inference: According to the survey conducted out of total 40 respondents 7% ofrespondents are strongly agree and 15% of respondents are agree, 25% of respondentsand disagree and rest i.e. 53% of respondents are strongly disagree for it. Further it clears that majority of total respondents i.e 40, 53% of respondents do notagree for the given statement. 33 Table -12 Relation with superior and coworker
  46. 46. S.No. Option Responses 1 Very Good 25 2 Good 6 3 Fair 4 4 Poor 5 Total 40Inference: As per the table 62% of respondents have very good relationship with higherauthorities and coworker 15% have good relationship, 10% have fair and13%have notany good relations 34
  47. 47. Table-13 Superior behavior towards worker problem S.No. Option Responses 1 Very Good 21 2 Good 6 3 Fair 10 4 Poor 3 Total 40Inference: Out of 40 respondent 52%says superior behavior is very good,15%say good,25%it is fair and remain8% poor behavior of superior
  48. 48. 35 Table-14 Worker having received any appreciation at their workplace S.No. Option Responses 1 Often 9 2 Sometimes 8 3 Rarely 6 4 Never 17 Total 40Inference: According to survey conducted 22% of respondent are having creditors often,20%respondent having sometime,15% having rarely and the rest of respondents i.e. 43% ofrespondents are not having any creditors.
  49. 49. Further it is clear that majority of total respondents i.e. 43% of respondents are nothaving creditors at their workplace. 36 Table-15 Feeling boredom with assigning duty S.No. Option Responses 1 Often 6 2 Sometimes 5 3 Rarely 4 4 Never 25 Total 40Inference:
  50. 50. The table shows that 10% of the respondents felt boredom at work rarely, 12% feltsometimes, 15% felt always and 63% felt never, it seems that the majority employees areinterested in the work. 37 Table-16 Worker satisfaction regarding their wages S.No. Option Responses 1 Well Satisfied 6 2 Satisfied 5 3 Fair 10 4 Not Satisfied 19 Total 40
  51. 51. Inference :Out of 40 respondent 15% of respondent well satisfied with their wages,12%ofrespondent are satisfied,25% say it is fair ,and48% of respondent are not satisfied withtheir wagesin the company 39 Table-17 Welfare facilities in the company S.No. Option Responses 1 Well Satisfied 22 2 Satisfied 8 3 Fair 9 4 Not Satisfied 1 Total 40
  52. 52. Inference: The table shows that nearly 55% are well satisfied about welfare measures in thefactory 20% feel, they are satisfied,22%feel they are fare and 3%feel they are notadequate 40 Table-18 Safety measure against accident in the company S.No. Option Responses 1 Excellent 20 2 Good 7 3 Fair 9
  53. 53. 4 Poor 4 Total 40Inference: The table shows that nearly 50% say excellent about safety measures in the factoryonly 17% feel good,23% say that its fair, 10% say they are not adequate. 41 Table-19 Strict action against absenteeism S.No. Option Responses 1 Often 9
  54. 54. 2 Sometimes 6 3 Rarely 8 4 Never 17 40 TotalInference : From above table it seems that 22%worker says that there is alwaysstrict against absenteeism.15%says sometime,20%says rarely and remain43%no actionagainst absenteeism 42 Table-20 Which shift worker find more difficult?
  55. 55. S.No. Option Responses 1 Morning 14 2 Evening 0 3 Night 10 4 None 16 Total 40Inference: As it can be clearly seen from the above table that from the total respondents i.e. 40,35% of respondents are facing problems in morning shift 25% in night shif,0%in eveningshift and move and rest of respondents 40% are not facing problems in any shift. Further it clears that majority of total respondents i.e. 40% are not facing problems inany shifts. 43 Table-21
  56. 56. Absent due to reaching factory late S.No. Option Responses 1 Rarely 10 2 Sometimes 7 3 Always 1 4 Never 22 Total 40Inference: As per the table due to reaching factory late 25% of respondents are rarely. 17% aresometimes absent 3% are always absent and 55% are never absent only due to thisreason.
  57. 57. 44 Table-22 In which season worker are more absent S.No. Option Responses 1 Diwali 16 2 Holi 8 3 Chhath pooja 4 4 other reason 12 Total 40Inference : From above table it seems that 40%worker remain more absent in the timeof diwali ,20% are more absent on the time of holi ,10%on chhath pooja and remain30%foe other reason (marriage ,etc)
  58. 58. 45 Table-23 Worker suggestion to minimize absenteeism in company S.No. Option Responses 1 More Salary 10 2 More Leaves 12 3 Discipline 12 4 Work Cond. 6 Total 40Inference :Out of 40 respondent 25%respondent suggest more salary to minimize absenteeism ,30%suggest more leave 30% suggest conduct discipline in the company ,15% of respondentsuggest to improve working condition in the company
  59. 59. 46 The rate of Absenteeism of the present year.2011 Jan - 4.45% Feb - 3.40% March - 2.23% April - 2.59% May - 4.33% %age of absenteeism-20115 4.45 4.34 3.43 2.59 2.23 %age210 Jan Feb Mar Apr May
  60. 60. 47Summary of Findings From the study it has found that there are many factors influencing the workersabsenteeism, some of them are as follows. 1. Absenteeism in shifts is mainly in morning shift i.e. (8:45 am to5:45 pm) that mean it is high in morning. This is because workers in the morning shift experience greater discomfort during their course of work than they do during daytime. .. 2. Some of the workers absent because of ill health, family member’s health and unexpected work etc. 3. Some of the workers strongly agree that they have cordial relationship with the higher authorities. And they are very much satisfied with the safety measures undertaken by the company. 4. Some of them absent because of Boredom in doing assigned job. . 5. The rate of absenteeism is nearly 5% in Vardhman yarns and thread ltd. The normal rate in Indian Industry varies from 7% to 30%. The abnormal level is 40% in other reason. 6. The rate of absenteeism is high in the age group below 25years worker
  61. 61. 48Some of the training programs are being conducted by the mgt of VYTL regularly inorder to improve the individuality of the workers and to bring up good result inproduction. And to prevent absenteeism, such as; “PROGRAME ON HYGHENE FACTORS”. “SAFETY AND SAFCTY MEASURES”. “POSITIVE WORK CULTURE AND“IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY”. “QUALITY OF LIFE-QUALITY OF WORK TIME MANAGEMENT”. Through these training programmes many worker have changed their life style and improved their attendance. According to the sample selected these are the findings 1. 20% of the respondents are under 20years and 20% are from 20 to 25 years and 20% are between 25 to 35 years and 20% are above 35years. 2. 40% of the respondents belongs to makeup department, 20% of the respondents belonged to dying department, 20% of them to twisting department, and 20% to finishing department 3. 62% of the respondents are married and 38% are unmarried. 4. 30% of the respondents are 8th passed, 45% are 10th standard and 25% are 12th slandered 5. 12% of respondents are below 1 years of experience, 20% are b/w 1to 2 years 20% are b/w 2 - 5 years and 20% are b/w 5-10 years,and28%are more than 10
  62. 62. 6. 15%respondent are absent more than two days in a month,22%once in a month 33%once in a month and 30%never remain absent in a month7. 17% of the respondents are rarely feel responsible, 14% feel some times responsible27% are always feel responsible and 42% are never feel responsible.8. 62% of the respondents are absent because of the health problem 28% are because of stress and5% are because of work dissatisfactionand5%due to work environment9. 55% of the respondents said that they are well clear about their job responsibilities20%are clear ,12%are fairly clear and 13% say that tey are not clear about their job10. Acc to52%majority of respondent the working environment in the company is excellent,15%say it is good,25%say fair 8%working environment is poor 4911. 62%responded. says that their relation with superior and coworker is very good15%good ,10%fair and13%poor12. 42% of respondents said that they well satisfied with their work ,33% of the respondents said that they are satisfied,25% said that it is fair 5% said they are not satisfied13. 52% of respondent said that superior behavior towards their problem is very good ,15%their behavior is good,25%said it is fair,8%recomend poor behavior14. 22%respondent said that they received appreciation always ,20% sometime,15%rarelyand 42% never received appreciation15. 15%of respondent always feel boredom in their routine work,20%feel sometime,10% feel rarely,63% never feel boredom in their routine work16. 55%of respondent are well satisfied with well satisfied ,2o% of worker are satisfied,22%aresaid to fair welfare facilities and 3% of respondent are not satisfied17. According to 50% of respondent safety measure against accident is excellent,17%respondent say it is good,23%said fair and 10%respond poor
  63. 63. 18. 22%of respondent said that there is always strict action against absenteeism,15%says it is sometime,20%said it is rarely happen ,43%of respondent said there is no strict action against absenteeism 19. 35% of respondent find their job difficult in morning shift,25% find difficult night shift,40%said they find no one shift difficult in their job 20. 3%respondent agree that they are always absent because reaching factory late,25% said rarely absent due to this,15%they absent sometime due to this and 55%said they are never absent due to reaching late 21. 30% of respondent suggest more leave to minimize absenteeism,30%suggest conduct discipline ,25% suggest more salary to minimize the absenteeism in the company 22. 40% of respondent are absent during diwali,20% of respondent are absent in the time of holi,10%during chhath pooja ,30% absent due to other reason (e.g marriage etc) 23. .15% of respondent are well satisfied with their wages ,12%of respondent are satisfied,25% of said it is fair, and remain 48% respondent are not satisfied with their wages 50 SUGGESTIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS/CONCLUSIONS SUGGESTIONS The following are some to the suggestions in order to minimize absenteeism in thecompany. 1. Many of the workers agree that they have good relationship with higher authorities. Some may fear to talk with them, improving the communication network, particularly the upward communication.
  64. 64. 2. Since the literacy rate very lower only few members are the 12th and, maximum of them are less literates, so that by counseling the workers about their career, income & expenditure, habit and culture. The company so what can reduce the absenteeism rate. 3. By providing high wages and allowance based on organizational financial positions. 4. Selecting the workers by testing them thoroughly regarding their aspirations, value system, and sense of responsibility. 5. The management should conduct regular seminars, group’s discussions, social gathering orientations programmers’ on the problems of absenteeism. 6. The personnel department (HRD) of the factory must conduct the interviews of the absenteeism cases and give proper counseling to the workers. 7. The employees who are attending to 3rd shifts have to be provided more benefits than the workers. In order to make them enthusiastic to attend the workers.Limitation of the study  The study was limited only to vardhman yarn and thread unit only.  As sampling is taken as an element of the study there might always be sampling errors.  The sample under consideration may not reflect the whole population.  Survey and study has been carried out in a span of only 6 weeks due to time constraint.  Since absenteeism is a vast topic to be discussed, the study may not reflect each and every aspect. 51
  65. 65. CONCLUSION1. Majority of the employees are absenting due to ailment and health problems.2. Majority of the employees has said they are paid worth of their work.3. Majority of the employees has said that there is no strict action against absenteeism.4. Most of the workers does not intimate their senior regarding their leaves.5. Though there are limitations the personal department is taking special care to frame certain policies and procedures that would reduce absenteeism and increase the labor turn over.6. Majority of workers is facing problems in 1st shift the company had to take necessary steps to reduce the problems.7. Majority of workers never got appreciation for their punctuality in the organization. So, The Management must think upon this aspect.
  66. 66. 52 BibliographyBOOKS:  “HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT” By C.B. GUPTA Published by SULTAN CHAND & SONS, New Delhi.  “RESEARCH METHODOLOGY” By C.R. KOTHARI Published by NEW AGE INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATION  “PRESONNEL MANAGEMENT” By C.B. MAMORIA & GANKAR Published by MALYA PUBLISHING HOUSEWEBSITE 1. http://www.vardhman.com/products_yarns_overview.asp 2. http://www.citehr.com/research.php?q=absentieesm&x=0&y=0
  67. 67. 53
  68. 68. ANNEXURE
  69. 69. A STUDY ON WORKER ABSENTEEISM IN VARDHMAN YARNS&THREADS (UNIT 1V) A UNIT OF VARDHMAN TEXTILE LTD Personal Detail (a) Name. . . . . . . (b) Age <20 20-25 25-35 >35 (c) Sex Male Female
  70. 70. (d) Marital Status Married Unmarried 54(e) No Of Year of Service <1 1-2 2-5 >5(f) Educational Qualification 5th 8 th 10th 12th
  71. 71. You are requested to select any one of the alternative which you feel correct in your opinion against each statement:- 1) How often you remain absent in a month? Nil Once Twice >Twice 2) Do you inform you superior about your absence to the duty Often Sometimes Rarely Never 3) According to you what is the main reason of employees absenteeism? Health Problems Stress Work Environment Others 4) Which shift do you find more difficult? Morning Evening Night None 5) What is your opinion about wages related to your work? Well Satisfied Satisfied Fair Not Satisfied 6) Are you aware about job responsibilities? Well Clear Clear Fairly Clear Not Clear 7) Are you satisfied with your job?
  72. 72. Well Satisfied Satisfied Fair Not Satisfied8) Have you received appreciation for your work? Often Sometimes Rarely Never9) Your views regarding the working environment of Vardhman Yarns andThreads Ltd.? Excellent Good Fair Poor10) Do You Feel Boredom in your routine work? Often Sometimes Rarely Never 5611) How are your relations with superiors and co-workers? Excellent Good Fair Poor12) Your Superior behavior towards your problems? Excellent Good Fair Poor
  73. 73. 13) How are the welfare facilities in the company? Excellent Good Fair Poor14) How do you think is the protection against accident in the company? Excellent Good Fair Poor15) Is there any strict action against absenteeism? Often Sometimes Rarely Never16) How often you remain absent because of reaching factory late? Always Sometimes Rarely Never17) In Which time you are more absent? Diwali Holi Chhath Puja Others18) Suggest your Suggestion to minimize absenteeism? More Salary More Leaves Discipline Working Conditions
  74. 74. Thank you
  75. 75. Thank you