Brahmi bacopa monniera


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Brahmi bacopa monniera

  1. 1. Could we drink a tea and improve our memory?Bacopa monnieraCaroline Robertson ND and Dr Rama PrasadCopyright © Ayurveda Elements 2010 Ayurveda Elements Training, Tours, Treatments, Resorts, Hospitals Phone/fax: 0011 61 2 9904 775 17 Orchard Road, Chatswood NSW Australia 2067 ayurvedaelements@gmail.comBotanical name Bacopa monniera. rooting at the nodes with ascendingFamily name Scrophulariaceae. branches. The leaves are simple,English name Thyme leaved decussate, opposite, ovate-oblong,gratiola. Sanskrit name Brahmi, sessile, penninerved, punctate withSarasvati. Hindi name Barami, entire margins and an obtuse apex.Jalnim. Parts used Leaves, the They are about 1cm by 0.4cm inwhole plant. size. Itʼs fl owers are pale blue,Description Bacopa is often purple or white arranged on long,confused with Centella Asiatic as it slender pedicles. They are axillary,is also called Brahmi in South India solitary, linear and with 2and the US but Centella is bracteoles. The pedicle iscommonly known as Gotu Cola in approximately 0.5cm. BacopaʼsEnglish. Bacopa is a profusely calyx has fi ve unequal lobes withbranched, prostate, succulent the outer two lobes being larger.herbaceaous plant with a deep They are ovate and measure aboutgreen colour. It is a glabrous annual 7 by 3.5mm in an ovate shape. The   1  
  2. 2. inner two lobes are linear and the 34 H46 N206, m p 116-17 0), and aone median long lobe is oblong, mixture of three bases. The herbimbricate, obtuse and acute. also contains saponins, monnierinBrahmiʼs corollas are white with (C 5,H 82 021 -3H 20, m p 63 0);violet and green bands. Its hersaponin [m p 232-34 0ʼdidynamous stamens have fi (decomp.)], bacoside -A [C 4,H 6.0lament pairs 1 and oblong anthers. 13 .4H 20, m p 250 0(decomp.)]The fruits are ovoid, acute, 2-celled and bacoside –B; [C 4,H 68 0,3 .5Hwith 2-valved capsules and minute 20, m p 203 0. Monnierin, onnumerous seeds. It has no distinct hydrolysis, gave glucose, arabinoseodour but a slightly bitter taste. and aglycone (C 30 H48 04, m p 235-37 0) whereas, bacosides ADistribution and B gave glucose, arabinose andGrows throughout Asia, Australia bacogenines A, A2, A3 and A4;and the United States. Most bacogenines A1and A 2.areabundant in India throughout wet epimers, and A4 is an ebelinmountainous regions upto 1,200m lactone.elevation. Smith-de Mayo degradation of bacoside A gave jujubogenin andGeneral information pseudojujubogenin. OtherBacopa is one of Ayurvedaʼs most constituents present are D-investigated and documented mannitol, betulic acid, b -sitosterol.herbs. A vast array of clinical trials stigma-sterol and its esters,and scientifi c studies support its heptacosine, octacosaneeffi cacy as a brain and nervous nonacosane, triacontane,system tonic. It also has the hentriacontane, dotriacontane,remarkable ability to enhance nicotine, 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-2H-mental clarity while simultaneously pyran (C 6H603), luteolin and its 7-effecting a sedating action. This glucoside. The presence of a -gives it a reputation as the ideal alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acidherb to support study and mental and serine is also reported.performance under stressful Isolation of apigenin-7-glucuronideconditions. and luteolin-7-glucuronide from leaves; a new minorConstituents saponinbacoside A 1- isolated andBacopa monniera contains the characterised as 3-o-a -L-alkaloids brahmine ,herpestatine,(C arabinofuranosyl (1-3)-a -L- Ayurveda Elements | Training, Tours, Treatments, Resorts, Hospitals Phone/fax: 0011 61 2 9904 775 • 17 Orchard Road, Chatswood NSW Australia 2067 • Copyright © Ayurveda Elements 2010     2  
  3. 3. arabinosyl-jujubogenin; isolation of alzheimers, neuralgia and pooranother saponin - bacoside A3 - concentration and memory. Clinicaland its structure elucidated as 3-0-b evidence supports Bacopaʼs-D-glucosyl (1-3)-[o-(a -L- antiinflammatory activitywhicharabinofuranosyl (1--2) -0-b -D- explains its traditional useage forglucosyI-jujubogenin;revision of general inflammation andstructure ofcis –isomer of ebeline splenomegaly. Considered alactone, obtained during acid bronchodilator, those suffering fromhydrolysis as another artifact of asthma or bronchitis have benefitedjujubogenin. Analysis of the leaves from Bacopa. Its emmenogogic Ayurveda Elements | Training, Tours, Treatments, Resorts, Hospitals Phone/fax: 0011 61 2 9904 775 • 17 Orchard Road, Chatswood NSW Australia 2067 • Copyright © Ayurveda Elements 2010  and stalks gave: moisture, 88.4; action make it useful inprotein, 2.1: fat, 0.6; carbohydrates, amennorhagia and5.9; crude fiber,1.05; and ash, 1.9 g dysmennorhoea. Other/ 100g. calcium, 202.0; phosphorus, miscellaneous historical uses16.0; iron, 7.8; ascorbic acid, include for biliousness, boils,63.0;nicotinic acid 0.3 mg /100 g; diabetes, tumours, ulcers,and energy, 38 cal / 100 g. The dyspepsia, skin diseases such asleaves contain a sterol C 26 H46 O leprosy and leucoderma, syphilis.H 2O, m p 76 0). The drug is and elephantiasis.characteristically designated on the It is often mixed as a hair oil tobasis of its total bacosides content restore and preserve the memorywhich are tetra cyclic triterpenoid and taken internally with ghee to aidsaponins. These steroidal saponins its assimilation across thecalled Bacoside A & Bacoside B blood/brain barrier.are considered Bacopaʼs mosttherapeutic constituents. Actions and pharmacodynamics The body of scientific evidenceTraditional uses explaining Bacopaʼs therapeuticThough Brahmi is now promoted as actions help herbalists to use it withthe ʻbrain boosterʼ of the new confidence and precision. At themillennium Ayurvedic medicine has forefront of its effect is Bacopaʼsknown this for millennia. It is highly brain tonic properties. These arevalued in conditions affecting the mostly attributed to the Bacosidesnervous system and brain. As such A and B effect which support theit is often prescribed for epilepsy, transmission of nerve impulses,psychiatric disorders such as a thereby maintaining memory andmental breakdown, dementia, cognition.(Singh 1997). Bacopa is   3  
  4. 4. said to effect the the GABA-ergic Department of Physiology,system which involves the nerves SCB Medical College,and synapses of the central Cuttack, Orrisa.) A clinicalnervous system where memory trial of Bacopa in patients withoriginates and is stored.(Shukia various types of epilepsy..1987). The saponin hersaponin is Thirty one adult epilepticreported to possess cardiotonic, patients aged between 23-42sedative and spasmodic properties. years were treated withA comparative study of hersaponin Bacopa and other herbs in aand pentobarbitone indicates that formula called Mentat alonghersaponin has a superior sedative with the other antiepilepticeffect: drugs for a period of six1. Vasoconstrictor (1) weeks. Bacopa brought about2. Sedative (1) significant reduction in3. Cardiotonic this effect was seizure frequency and served demonstrated during a as a valuable adjuvant to preclinical trial on frogs using commonly used antiepileptic the whole plant. (1) drugs. No side effects were4. Improved motor efficiency in observed. learning(2). This is 8. Antiinflammatory (6) The hypothetically due to the mechanism of the bacosides. antiinflammatory action is5. Faster comprehension and said to be similar to NSAIDs improved memory such as asprin which are retention(3) Also due to mediated through Bacosides A and B. prostaglandin synthesis and6. Analgesic (4) This effect was stabilisation of lysosomal shown in studies with mice membranes. In induced and rats administered Bacopa inflammation it was shown to in a traditional formula called be as effective as the Brahmi Rasayana which also antiinflammatory contains cloves, cardamom indomethacin without the side and long pepper. effects of gastric irritation.7. Anticonvulsant (4), (5) , 9. Improved cognitive protects mental function in function(7)including improved those with epilepsy who take speed of visual information, the drug phenytoin. processing information and (Moharana, D.; Moharana, S. memory consolidation. Ayurveda Elements | Training, Tours, Treatments, Resorts, Hospitals Phone/fax: 0011 61 2 9904 775 • 17 Orchard Road, Chatswood NSW Australia 2067 • Copyright © Ayurveda Elements 2010     4  
  5. 5. 10. Antioxidant (8) Preclinical Bacopa monniera is the research suggests that remedy of choice for nervous Brahmi particularly has an system and mental debility. antioxidant action on the Conditions where it has brainʼs frontal cortex, striatum proven effective include- and hippocampus which are • Memory loss
• Poor all associated with cognitive concentration
• Ayurveda Elements | Training, Tours, Treatments, Resorts, Hospitals Phone/fax: 0011 61 2 9904 775 • 17 Orchard Road, Chatswood NSW Australia 2067 • Copyright © Ayurveda Elements 2010   functions such as memory. Alzheimers disease
•11. Anticancer(10) An ethanolic Attention Deficit extract (50%) of the plant Disorder
• Brain fag
• exhibited anticancer activity Insanity
• Nervous against the Walker deficit due to an injury, carcinosarcoma 256 in rats. stroke or transcient12. Antistress(11) Clinical studies ischemic attack
• performed in India confirm Nervous breakdown or that the bacosides can exhaustion
• Epilepsy
• revitalize intellectual functions Carcino sarcoma
• in children and reduce anxiety Hypothyroidism
• in stressed individuals Stress
• Insomnia thereby contributing to Traditional uses include for improved brain functions. neuralgia, inflammation, tumours, Studies have suggested that ulcers, constipation, asthma, Bacopa prepares the brain to bronchitis, skin diseases, syphilis, respond to stress in the most fever and dysmenorrhoea. efficient way.13. Thyroid stimulating(12) When Contraindications and cautions given to male mice Bacopa Brahmi possess no known side was shown to increase T4 effects or toxicity at normal doses. concentrations suggesting a In experimental studies, the thyroid stimulating role. Mast saponinrich highly potent extract of cell stabiliser (13) A Brahmi did not show any endocrine, methanolic fraction of Bacopa metabolic, gastrointestinal, anabolic was shown to have mast cell or behavioural side effect. No stabilising effects comparable lethality was observed on the oral to disodium cromoglycate, a administration up to 2150 mg/kg known mast cell stabiliser. body weight in rats and mice.14. Therapeutic indications Clinical Studies in school children   5  
  6. 6. for over three years have not shown Godhwani, J.L. (1994).any adverse side effects. In healthy Antiinflammatory effects of anhuman volunteers multiple doses of Ayurvedic preparation,
Brahmibacosides (the active ingredient in Rasayan, in rodents. Indian J. Exp.Brahmi) have been well tolerated Biol. 32: 633-636.
7) Stough C,and are devoid of any untoward Lloyd J, Clarke J, Downey LA,reactions or side effects. The Hutchison CW, Rodgers T, Nathanisolated extract of brahmine from PJ. Neuropsychology Laboratory,Bacopa was shown to be highly School of Biophysical Science andtoxic when administered at a dose Electrical Engineering, Victoria,of 0.5 mg/kg body weight of cats as Australia. Psychopharmacologyit produced a fall in blood pressure. (Berl) 2001 Aug;156(4):481-4
8)In therapeutic doses it is said to Tripathi, Y.B. et al. (1996) Bacoparesemble strychnine. monniera Linn. as an antioxidant : mechanism of action. IndianDosage Journal of Experimental Biology,Dried herb: 2-6gm/day
Powdered Vol. 34, pp. 523-526. Bhattacharyaherb as infusion: 1-3gms tds
1:2 SK, et al. (2000) Antioxidantfluid extract: 4-12ml/day activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum andReferences hippocampus. Phytother Res1) Malhotra, C.L and Das, P. K: 14(3):174-9
10) Bhukani, D.S.,Indian J Med Res 47, 294 (1959)
2) Dhar, M.L., Dhar, M.N., Dhawan,Prakash, J C and Sirsi, M: J Sci B.N. and Mehrotra, B.N. (1969)Industr Res 21C, 93 (1962)
3) Screening of Indian plants forSingh, H K and Dhawan, B N: biological activity II Indian J. Exp.Ethnopharmacol 5, 205 (1982)
4) Biol., 7, 250. 11) Chowdhuri DK, et Ayurveda Elements | Training, Tours, Treatments, Resorts, Hospitals Phone/fax: 0011 61 2 9904 775 • 17 Orchard Road, Chatswood NSW Australia 2067 • Copyright © Ayurveda Elements 2010  Shukia, B et al: J Ethnopharmacol al Phytother Res 2002 Nov:21, 65 (1987)
5) Gupta,S.S.1962. 16(7):639-45
12) Kar A, Panda S,Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Bharti S. J Ethnopharmacol 2002Plant Science. 20: 1052-55. A few Jul; 81(2):281-5
13) Samiulla D S etobservations on the psychotropic al Fitoterapia 2001 Mar;72(3): 284-and anticonvulsant effects of some 5ayurvedic remedies. Mukherjee, GD and Dey, C D: J Exp Med Sc 11,82 (1968)
6) Jain, P.,. Khanna, N.K,Trehan, T., Pendse,V.K. and   6