Defining Research Systematic : well organised and planned Objectivity : unbiased and unemotional The information is used to identify and define opportunities and problems, and make recommendations on solutions Market Research links consumer, customer and the public to the marketers through information. Generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions, performance and the marketing process.
Defining Market Research Research is the systematic and objective approach to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution. Research is a process by which a series of well thought out and carefully executed activities enable one to enquire, investigate or examine a problem to discover new facts to deal with the problem.
Marketing Research The process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relevant to a marketing decision.
Issues to consider with Problem definition
Past information(secondary data/MIS)
Resources and constraints
Buyerbehaviour(human or organisational)
Marketing and technological skills
6 Objectives Information requirements Primary Research Secondary Research Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Sampling Data Collection Methods Data Processing Reporting THE RESEARCH PROCESS
Defining the issue/objectives
Reviewing primary versus secondary research options
Deciding on the mix of qualitative and quantitative research
Making a sampling plan (separate review)
Selecting the data collection method
Presenting the final report
Decision points The Research Process
Primary vs. Secondary Data Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. The collection of primary data involves all six steps of the marketing research process. Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand. These data can be located quickly and inexpensively.
A Comparison of Primary & Secondary Data Primary DataSecondary Data Collection purpose For the problem at hand For other problems Collection process Very involved Rapid & easy Collection cost High Relatively low Collection time Long Short
Uses of Secondary Data Identify the problem Better define the problem Develop an approach to the problem Formulate an appropriate research design (for example, by identifying the key variables) Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses Interpret primary data more insightfully
Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data Specifications: Methodology Used to Collect the Data Error: Accuracy of the Data Currency: When the Data Were Collected Objective(s): The Purpose for Which the Data Were Collected Nature: The Content of the Data Dependability: Overall, How Dependable Are the Data
Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data Table 4.2 Criteria Issues Remarks Data should be reliable, valid, & generalizable to the problem. Assess accuracy by comparing data from different sources. Census data are updated by syndicated firms. The objective determines the relevance of data. Reconfigure the data to increase their usefulness. Data should be obtained from an original source. Data collection method, response rate, quality & analysis of data, sampling technique & size, questionnaire design, fieldwork. Examine errors in approach, research design, sampling, data collection & analysis, & reporting. Time lag between collection & publication, frequency of updates. Why were the data collected? Definition of key variables, units of measurement, categories used, relationships examined. Expertise, credibility, reputation, & trustworthiness of the source. Specifications & Methodology Error & Accuracy Currency Objective Nature Dependability
Advantages of Secondary Data Primary advantages: Acquisition cost Acquisition time Convenience Some Info is available only from secondary data sources eg: market shares, industry data from trade associations etc.. Additional advantages: May help clarify or redefine the problem definition May provide a solution to the problem May aid in primary research design May provide background info. and foster creativity
Limitations of Secondary Data Lack of availability Lack of relevance Inaccuracy Who gathered the data? What was the purpose of the study? What information was collected? When was the information collected? How was the information obtained? Is the information consistent with other information? Insufficient Data
Secondary Data Internal External Requires Further Processing Syndicated Services Ready to Use Published Materials Computerized Databases A Classification of Secondary Data
Internal Secondary Data Department Store Project Sales were analyzed to obtain: Sales by product line Sales by major department (e.g., men's wear, house wares) Sales by specific stores Sales by geographical region Sales by cash versus credit purchases Sales in specific time periods Sales by size of purchase Sales trends in many of these classifications were also examined.
A Classification of Published Secondary Sources Census Data Other Government Publications Statistical Data Indexes Guides Directories Published Secondary Data General Business Sources Government Sources
Published External Secondary Sources Guides An excellent source of standard or recurring information Helpful in identifying other important sources of directories, trade associations, and trade publications One of the first sources a researcher should consult Directories Helpful for identifying individuals or organizations that collect specific data Examples: Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory, Encyclopedia of Associations, FINDEX: The Directory of Market Research Reports, Studies and Surveys, and Research Services Directory Indices Helpful in locating information on a particular topic in several different publications
A Classification of Computerized Databases Computerized Databases Online Off-Line Internet Full-Text Databases Numeric Databases Special-Purpose Databases Bibliographic Databases Directory Databases
Classification of Computerized Databases Bibliographic databases are composed of citations to articles. Numeric databases contain numerical and statistical information. Full-text databases contain the complete text of the source documents comprising the database. Directory databases provide information on individuals, organizations, and services. Special-purpose databases provide specialized information.
InfoUSA: : Here, There, Everywhere InfoUSA (www.infousa.com) markets subsets of its data in a number of forms, including the professional online services (LEXIS-NEXIS and DIALOG), the general online services (CompuServe and Microsoft Network), the Internet (look-ups), and on CD-ROM. The underlying database on which all these products are based contains information on 113 million residential listings and 14 million business listings, as of 2003. These are verified with over 16 million phone calls annually. The products derived from these databases include sales leads, mailing lists, business directories, mapping products, and also delivery of data on the Internet.
Syndicated Services Companies that collect and sell common pools of data of known commercial value designed to serve a number of clients. Syndicated sources can be classified based on the unit of measurement (households/consumers or institutions). Household/consumer data may be obtained from surveys, diary panels, or electronic scanner services. Institutional data may be obtained from retailers, wholesalers, or industrial firms.
A Classification of Syndicated Services Unit of Measurement Households/ Consumers Institutions
Syndicated Services: Consumers Households / Consumers Panels Electronic scanner services Purchase Media Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV Volume Tracking Data Scanner Diary Panels Surveys Psychographic & Lifestyles Advertising Evaluation General
Type of Individual/Household Level DataAvailable from Syndicated Firms I. Demographic Data - Identification (name, address, telephone) - Sex - Marital status - Names of family members - Age (including ages of family members) - Income - Occupation - Number of children present - Home ownership - Length of residence - Number and make of cars owned
Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms II. Psychographic Lifestyle Data - Interest in golf - Interest in snow skiing - Interest in book reading - Interest in running - Interest in bicycling - Interest in pets - Interest in fishing - Interest in electronics - Interest in cable television There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and American Business Information which collect demographic data on businesses.
A Classification of International Sources International Secondary Data Fig. 4.5 Domestic Organizations in India International Organizations in India Organizations in Foreign Countries International Organizations Trade Associations Government Sources Nongovernment Sources Governments
Other Sources of Secondary Data Geographic Information Systems Computer-based systems that use secondary and/or primary data to generate maps that visually display answers to research questions.
Summary of Key Points Secondary data are information previously gathered for a different purpose that may be relevant to the problem at hand. Secondary data can come from sources internal to the organization or external. The internet and syndicated firms have, in many ways, enabled the gathering of secondary data. Secondary data are generally useful, low-cost, rapidly available sources of information. Always look for secondary data first