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Final ppt sec.data.coll
 

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    Final ppt sec.data.coll Final ppt sec.data.coll Presentation Transcript

    • SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION
      Presented By:
      • Amit Kadam 10
      • Amit Kamble 11
      • SameetaKhambe 12
      • PoojaKulkarni 13
    • Defining Research
      Systematic : well organised and planned
      Objectivity : unbiased and unemotional
      The information is used to identify and define opportunities and problems, and make recommendations on solutions
      Market Research links consumer, customer and the public to the marketers through information.
      Generate, refine and evaluate marketing actions, performance and the marketing process.
    • Defining Market Research
      Research is the systematic and objective approach to investigate a specific problem that needs a solution.
      Research is a process by which a series of well thought out and carefully executed activities enable one to enquire, investigate or examine a problem to discover new facts to deal with the problem.
    • Marketing Research
      The process of planning, collecting, and analyzing data relevant to a marketing decision.
    • Issues to consider with Problem definition
      • Past information(secondary data/MIS)
      • Resources and constraints
      • Objectives
      • Buyerbehaviour(human or organisational)
      • Legal environment
      • Economic environment
      • Marketing and technological skills
      • P
      • R
      • O
      • B
      • L
      • E
      • M
    • 6
      Objectives
      Information requirements
      Primary Research
      Secondary Research
      Quantitative Research
      Qualitative Research
      Sampling
      Data Collection Methods
      Data Processing
      Reporting
      THE RESEARCH PROCESS
      • Defining the issue/objectives
      • Reviewing primary versus secondary research options
      • Deciding on the mix of qualitative and quantitative research
      • Making a sampling plan (separate review)
      • Selecting the data collection method
      • Presenting the final report
      Decision points
      The Research Process
    • Primary vs. Secondary Data
      Primary data are originated by a researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the problem at hand. The collection of primary data involves all six steps of the marketing research process.
      Secondary data are data which have already been collected for purposes other than the problem at hand. These data can be located quickly and inexpensively.
    • A Comparison of Primary & Secondary Data
      Primary DataSecondary Data
      Collection purpose For the problem at hand For other problems
      Collection process Very involved Rapid & easy
      Collection cost High Relatively low
      Collection time Long Short
    • Uses of Secondary Data
      Identify the problem
      Better define the problem
      Develop an approach to the problem
      Formulate an appropriate research design (for example, by identifying the key variables)
      Answer certain research questions and test some hypotheses
      Interpret primary data more insightfully
    • Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data
      Specifications: Methodology Used to Collect the Data
      Error: Accuracy of the Data
      Currency: When the Data Were Collected
      Objective(s): The Purpose for Which the Data Were Collected
      Nature: The Content of the Data
      Dependability: Overall, How Dependable Are the Data
    • Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data
      Table 4.2
      Criteria Issues Remarks
      Data should be reliable, valid, & generalizable to the problem.
      Assess accuracy by comparing data from different sources.
      Census data are updated by syndicated firms.
      The objective determines the relevance of data.
      Reconfigure the data to increase their usefulness.
      Data should be obtained from an original source.
      Data collection method, response rate, quality & analysis of data, sampling technique & size, questionnaire design, fieldwork.
      Examine errors in approach,
      research design, sampling, data
      collection & analysis, & reporting.
      Time lag between collection &
      publication, frequency of updates.
      Why were the data collected?
      Definition of key variables, units of
      measurement, categories used, relationships examined.
      Expertise, credibility, reputation, & trustworthiness of the source.
      Specifications & Methodology
      Error & Accuracy
      Currency
      Objective
      Nature
      Dependability
    • Advantages of Secondary Data
      Primary advantages:
      Acquisition cost
      Acquisition time
      Convenience
      Some Info is available only from secondary data sources eg: market shares, industry data from trade associations etc..
      Additional advantages:
      May help clarify or redefine the problem definition
      May provide a solution to the problem
      May aid in primary research design
      May provide background info. and foster creativity
    • Limitations of Secondary Data
      Lack of availability
      Lack of relevance
      Inaccuracy
      Who gathered the data?
      What was the purpose of the study?
      What information was collected?
      When was the information collected?
      How was the information obtained?
      Is the information consistent with other information?
      Insufficient Data
    • Secondary Data
      Internal
      External
      Requires
      Further Processing
      Syndicated Services
      Ready to Use
      Published
      Materials
      Computerized Databases
      A Classification of Secondary Data
    • Internal Secondary Data
      Department Store Project
      Sales were analyzed to obtain:
      Sales by product line
      Sales by major department (e.g., men's wear, house wares)
      Sales by specific stores
      Sales by geographical region
      Sales by cash versus credit purchases
      Sales in specific time periods
      Sales by size of purchase
      Sales trends in many of these classifications were also examined.
    • A Classification of Published Secondary Sources
      Census Data
      Other Government Publications
      Statistical
      Data
      Indexes
      Guides
      Directories
      Published Secondary Data
      General Business Sources
      Government Sources
    • Published External Secondary Sources
      Guides
      An excellent source of standard or recurring information
      Helpful in identifying other important sources of directories, trade associations, and trade publications
      One of the first sources a researcher should consult
      Directories
      Helpful for identifying individuals or organizations that collect specific data
      Examples: Consultants and Consulting Organizations Directory, Encyclopedia of Associations, FINDEX: The Directory of Market Research Reports, Studies and Surveys, and Research Services Directory
      Indices
      Helpful in locating information on a particular topic in several different publications
    • A Classification of Computerized Databases
      Computerized Databases
      Online
      Off-Line
      Internet
      Full-Text
      Databases
      Numeric Databases
      Special-Purpose Databases
      Bibliographic Databases
      Directory Databases
    • Classification of Computerized Databases
      Bibliographic databases are composed of citations to articles.
      Numeric databases contain numerical and statistical information.
      Full-text databases contain the complete text of the source documents comprising the database.
      Directory databases provide information on individuals, organizations, and services.
      Special-purpose databases provide specialized information.
    • InfoUSA: : Here, There, Everywhere
      InfoUSA (www.infousa.com) markets subsets of its data in a number of forms, including the professional online services (LEXIS-NEXIS and DIALOG), the general online services (CompuServe and Microsoft Network), the Internet (look-ups), and on CD-ROM. The underlying database on which all these products are based contains information on 113 million residential listings and 14 million business listings, as of 2003. These are verified with over 16 million phone calls annually. The products derived from these databases include sales leads, mailing lists, business directories, mapping products, and also delivery of data on the Internet.
    • Syndicated Services
      Companies that collect and sell common pools of data of known commercial value designed to serve a number of clients.
      Syndicated sources can be classified based on the unit of measurement (households/consumers or institutions).
      Household/consumer data may be obtained from surveys, diary panels, or electronic scanner services.
      Institutional data may be obtained from retailers, wholesalers, or industrial firms.
    • A Classification of Syndicated Services
      Unit of
      Measurement
      Households/
      Consumers
      Institutions
    • Syndicated Services: Consumers
      Households / Consumers
      Panels
      Electronic scanner services
      Purchase
      Media
      Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV
      Volume Tracking Data
      Scanner Diary Panels
      Surveys
      Psychographic
      & Lifestyles
      Advertising
      Evaluation
      General
    • Syndicated Services: Institutions
      Institutions
      Wholesalers
      Industrial firms
      Retailers
      Audits
      Direct Inquiries
      Clipping Services
      Corporate
      Reports
    • Type of Individual/Household Level DataAvailable from Syndicated Firms
      I. Demographic Data
      - Identification (name, address, telephone)
      - Sex
      - Marital status
      - Names of family members
      - Age (including ages of family members)
      - Income
      - Occupation
      - Number of children present
      - Home ownership
      - Length of residence
      - Number and make of cars owned
    • Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms
      II. Psychographic Lifestyle Data
      - Interest in golf
      - Interest in snow skiing
      - Interest in book reading
      - Interest in running
      - Interest in bicycling
      - Interest in pets
      - Interest in fishing
      - Interest in electronics
      - Interest in cable television
      There are also firms such as Dun & Bradstreet and American Business Information which collect demographic data on businesses.
    • A Classification of International Sources
      International Secondary Data
      Fig. 4.5
      Domestic Organizations in
      India
      International Organizations in India
      Organizations in Foreign Countries
      International Organizations
      Trade Associations
      Government Sources
      Nongovernment
      Sources
      Governments
    • Other Sources of Secondary Data
      Geographic Information Systems
      Computer-based systems that use secondary and/or primary data to generate maps that visually display answers to research questions.
    • Summary of Key Points
      Secondary data are information previously gathered for a different purpose that may be relevant to the problem at hand.
      Secondary data can come from sources internal to the organization or external.
      The internet and syndicated firms have, in many ways, enabled the gathering of secondary data.
      Secondary data are generally useful, low-cost, rapidly available sources of information.
      Always look for secondary data first
    • THANK YOU