Reproductive Health and Population RALPH JULIUS BAWALAN
Everyone has the right to enjoy reproductive health, which is a basis for having healthy children, intimate relationships and happy families.UNFP Vision: that every child is wanted, every birth is safe, every young person is free of HIV and every girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect.
Reproductive Health• a state of complete physical, mental & social well- being & not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system & to its functions and processes.• RH implies that: – People are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life; & – They have the capability to reproduce; & – The freedom to decide if, when & how often to do so
POPULATION DYNAMICS• Population dynamics: growth rates, age structure, fertility and mortality, migration influence every aspect of human, social and economic development.• Other core areas of population dynamics – reproductive health – womens empowerment BOTH are powerfully influential in population trends.
POPULATION AND POVERTYGlobal population is expected to increase from 6.5billion today to 9.1 billion by 2050, and thepopulation of the 50 poorest countries will morethan double to reach 1.7 billion. (UNFPA)
Ethical Principles• Principle of Individual Liberty• Utilitarian Principle• Principle of Justice• Rights of women and men to be informed and to have access to safe, effective, affordable & acceptable family planning methods of their choice, as well as other methods for regulation of fertility WHICH ARE NOT AGAINST THELAW.
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS• Remain the leading cause of ill health and death for women of childbearing age worldwide. – unintended pregnancies – maternal death and disability – sexually transmitted infections (e.g.HIV) – gender-based violence – and other problems related to their reproductive system and sexual behaviour.
2015 GOALThe critical importance of reproductive health to development has been acknowledged at the highest level.TAGET FOR MDG FRAMEWORK:Reproductive Health for all... A reality.
MDGThe core of all MDGs, from improving health and fighting disease to reducing poverty and mitigating hunger, expanding education and lowering child mortality, increasing access to safe water and ensuring environmental sustainability.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) • international community’s time-bound and quantified targets for addressing extreme poverty in its many forms.
PILLARS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH • Responsible Parenthood • Respect for Life • Birth Spacing • Informed Choice
HB 4244 or RH BillAct providing for COMPREHENSIVE Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproducti ve Health, and Population Development
China ONE-CHILD Policy• Birth control policy that was supposed to deal with the high population growth and its social and economical problems for the Peoples Republic of China.(+) decelerated China’s rapid population(+) create highly educated skilled and more productive workforce
Effects One Child Policy• Abuses against women and girls – the abortion of baby girls, forced sterilizations and abortions, earlier ageing of the population, the effects on gender equalities, increasing effects on human trafficking, etc.(-) abuse of human rights(-) forced abortion and sterilization(-) violence in women(-) male- female birthrate ratio
Philippines in Focus • The Philippines recognizes health as a basic human right. It protects and promotes the right to health of the people and instils health consciousness among them. • Although this provision is guaranteed by the 1987 Constitution and the health care system in the Philippines is generally extensive, access to health services, especially by the poor, is still hampered by high cost, physical and social-cultural
PHILIPPINES IN FOCUS (NS0)• The Philippine population would continue to grow, increasing from 76.5 million from 2000, to 141.7 million in 2040
Philippines in Focus• In comparison with other countries, the Philippine ranked twelfth among the countries of the world in terms of total population.• The Philippines is ranked fifth among Southeast Asian countries in annual population growth rate.
CONSTITUTION’S PROVISIONS ON RH• Art. II. Sec. 12. - … The State shall equally protect the life of the mother & the life of the unborn from conception…• Art. II. Sec. 15.–The State shall protect & promote the right to health of the people and instill health consciousness among them.• Art. XIII. Sec. 11.–The State shall adopt an integrated & comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health & other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the underprivileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women & children.• Art. XV. Sec. 3. –The State shall defend the right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions and the demands of responsible parenthood.
RH Realities in Philippines• Mean age at marriage for males is 20 & 19 for females.• Mean age at having 1st child is 19.• Almost 10% of young Filipino women aged 15-19 has already given birth.• Adolescent pregnancy is 30% of all annual births• Poor and uneducated women marry and give birth earlier in life, than women with higher education.
RH Realities in Philippines• More than 10 Filipino women die daily due to pregnancy & childbirth- related complications (UNFPA, 2007) & over half (56%) of yearly maternal deaths are unreported.• Poor women have 3 times more children than the rich.• Population growth rate (PGR) is pegged at 2.04% which translates to about 2 million new Filipinos yearly.
RH Realities in Philippines • Mean age at first sex for males is 17 & 18 for females. 16% of youth had first sex before age 15. • 31.2% of males & 15.9% of females had premarital sex. • 50.6% of the youth wants to have only 2 children.http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2007/pr0730tx.html
Pulse Asia Survey• 92% of Filipinos considers FP important.• 89% of Filipinos thinks that government should provide budgetary support for modern methods of FP including modern contraceptives.• Ultimately, the majority of Filipino women across all socioeconomic classes have spoken: they want fewer children. And Filipinos in general have affirmed the importance of addressing the population issue. Good governance requires that the government listen to the people’s voice.
“Seventy percent of unwanted pregnancies in the Philippines end in abortion” – Jean-Marc Olivé, Representative of the PHL to the WHOThe big majority of women having induced abortion are poor (68%),married (91%), with more than 3 children (57%), and Catholic (87%).(UPPU-AGI, 2006)
Why RH Bill is PROlife?1. RH will: Protect the health & lives of mothers2. Save babies3. Respond to the majority who want smaller families4. Promote equity for poor families5. Prevent induced abortions6. Support and deploy more public midwives, nurses and doctors
Why RH Bill is PROlife?7. Guarantee funding for & equal access to health facilities8. Give accurate & positive sexuality education to young people9. Reduce cancer deaths10. Save money that can be used for even more social spending
Humanitarian Ethics• Every mother on Php100 per day knows that the family will be better fed if there are three children round the table rather than ten.• Family planning could bring more benefits to more people at less cost than any other known technology. It should be a HIGH priority.
Humanitarian Ethics• Promoting reproductive health and improving conditions for its attainment are an ethical obligation. People should "have the ability to reproduce, to regulate their fertility, and to practice and enjoy sexual relationships"; they should be "the subjects rather than the objects" of reproductive health programmes.• Benefits and responsibilities related to reproductive decisions must be allocated equitably. No group should be denied services.
Humanitarian Ethics• Persons must be treated with respect, and individuals’ autonomy respected. Women should not be treated as a means for reaching a goal of optimal population.• Individuals should be given a range of alternatives and the right to refuse unwanted family planning methods or medical procedures.
CONCLUSIONTo address issues of population and reproductive health ethically, Governments must devise strategies that are broadly integrated with social and economic development, improved education and political and legal reform.Like other important social goods, reproductive health can only flourish in a climate of respect for human dignity and protection of fundamental human rights.