Malaria: Natural History

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  • 1. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF DISEASE OF MALARIA RALPH JULIUS G. BAWALAN Agent> Modification of Microbial/ Vector Chronic StateAdaptation> Swamp and stagnant water> Mosquito flight behavior THE COURSE OF DISEASE IN MAN > Acute renal failure, chronic renal failure,> Changes in biting habits> High Temperature  (↑ blood meal;↑ > mental depressionno. of time mosquito will lay eggs) > profound anemia,> ↓ Rainfall  ↓transmission > edema Disabilities > profound muscular weakness, > FTT, chronic and Defects lymphadenopathy > stunted growth, apathy, CLINICAL HORIZON > Malaria can be long-term indifference, Host incapacity to work or go to > abortion, growing drug school resistance> Innate and Acquired Host Resistance > multi-organ dysfunction> Home Treatment of Cases Signs and > socio-economic burden> Drug resistance> Traditional beliefs Symptoms,> Increase in poverty levels Illness> Incidence of HIV/AIDS> Presence of Local IVC Program> Insecticide treated bed nets > Headache, Fatigue, Abdominal discomfort, muscle aches> Population growth > Fever, chest pain, abdominal pain, Immunity and Resistance DEATH> Access to healthcare arthralgia, myalgia, or diarrhea> Food production > Nausea, vomiting, orthostatic RECOVERY hypotension > Lack of a sense of well-being, Stimulus Established, Myalgia , classic malarial Environment Tissue and paroxysms, in which fever spikes, chills, and rigors occur at regular Physiologic Changes intervals (unusual and suggest> Climate and seasonality infection with P. vivax or P. ovale.).> Reduction of Aquatic Habitats > malaria parasites induce Malaria antigen– > Fever is usually irregular at first (in> Presence of bushes or Garbage Heaps related IgE complexes, therefore, a release of falciparum malaria it may never cytokines> Environmental Modification (massive > Sequestration: Erythrocytes with P. falciparum become regular). febrile convulsionsdeforestation, ↑ irrigation, blocked adhere to microvascular endothelium in childhood, Splenic enlargement, (“cytoadherence”)  stocked RBC anaerobicswamp drainage) glycolysis, lactic acidosis, and cellular Slight enlargement of the liver, Mild dysfunction jaundice (adults) > The PfEMP1 expression alters the red cell membrane components > CD36 (sticky proteins present on the surface of vascular endothelium) shall therefore bind Disease Provoking parasitized red cells Stimulus Early Pathogenesis Discernable Early Lesion Advanced Stage Convalescence LEVELS OF APPLICATION OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES