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annealing Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ANNEALING Dr. H. K. Khaira Head Deptt. of Mat. Sci. and Met. Engg.
  • 2. Heat Treatment Heat treatment is defined as heating a metal to a specified temperature, keeping it at that temperature for some time followed by cooling at a specified rate. It is a tool to get required microstructure and properties in the metal.
  • 3. Heat treatment Heat treatment - controlled heating and cooling basically The basic steps of heat treatment are: Heating → Soaking → Cooling 3 Handouts 2
  • 4. Heat treatment Heating Temperature -> Soaking -> Cooling Time of soaking Rate of cooling Medium of cooling - Different combinations of the above parameters - Different compositions of materials and initial phases of materials Give rise to different heat treatments 4 Handouts 2
  • 5. Heat Treatments There are different types of heat treatments. Annealing is one of the heat treatments given to metals. Main aim of annealing is to increase the ductility of the metal.
  • 6. Annealing  Annealing is a heat treatment in which the metal is heated to a temperature above its recrystallisation temperature, kept at that temperature some time for homogenization of temperature followed by very slow cooling to develop equilibrium structure in the metal or alloy.  The steel is heated 30 to 50oC above Ae3 temperature in case of hypo-eutectoid steels and 30 to 50oC above Acm temperature in case of hyper-eutectoid temperature  The cooling is done in the furnace itself.
  • 7. Aims of Annealing - Increase ductility - Reduce hardness and brittleness - Alter microstructure to soften the metal prior to shaping by improving formability - Recrystallize cold worked (strain hardened) metals - Remove internal stresses - Increase toughness - Increase machinability - Decrease electrical resistance - Improve magnetic properties
  • 8. Types of Annealing Full annealing 2. Stress relief annealing 3. Process annealing 4. Spheroidizing annealing 1.
  • 9. Full annealing It is heating the steel 30 to 50oC above Ae3 temperature in case of hypo-eutectoid steels and 30 to 50oC above Acm temperature in case of hyper-eutectoid temperature, keeping it at that temperature for some time for homogenization of temperature followed by cooling at a very slow rate. The cooling rate may be about 10oC per hour. It is to get all the changes in the properties of the metals like producing equilibrium microstructure, increase in ductility, reduction in hardness, strength, brittleness and removal of internal stresses. The microstructure contains coarse ferrite and pearlite.
  • 10. Annealing on TTT Diagram The cooling rate during annealing is very slow, about 100C per hour.
  • 11. Stress Relief Annealing  In stress relief annealing, the metal is heated to a lower temperature and is kept at that temperature for some time to remove the internal stresses followed by slow cooling.  The aim of the stress relief annealing is to remove the internal stresses produced in the metal due to Plastic deformation Non-uniform cooling Phase transformation  No phase transformation takes place during stress relief annealing.
  • 12. Spheroidizing Annealing In spheroidizing annealing, the steel is heated to a temperature below A1 temperature, kept at that temperature for some time followed by slow cooling. The aim of spheroidizing annealing is to improve the machinability of steel. In this process the cementite is converted into spheroidal form. The holding time varies from 15 – 25 hours.
  • 13. Process Annealing In process annealing, the cold worked metal is heated above its recrystallisation temperature, kept for some time followed by slow cooling. The aim of process annealing is to restore ductility of the cold worked metal. During process annealing, recovery and recrystallization takes place.
  • 14. Heat Treatment Temperature ←Acm The temperature ranges to which the steel has to be heated for different heat treatments A3→
  • 15. Fe-Fe3C phase diagram in the vicinity of eutectoid, indicating heat treating temperature ranges for plain carbon steel
  • 16. Recrystallization and Melting Temperatures Recrystallization proceeds more rapid in pure metals that in alloys. For pure metals, the recrystallization temperature is about 0.3Tm (Tm is absolute melting temp.) For some alloys, the recrystallization temperature can be as high as 0.7Tm.
  • 17.  Process  Heat the metal to a temperature  Hold at that temperature  Slowly cool  Purpose  Reduce hardness and brittleness  Alter the microstructure for a special property  Soften the metal for better machinability  Recrystallize cold worked (strain hardened) metals  Relieve induced residual stresses
  • 18. Annealing In case of annealing of steels, the steel is heated to different temperatures depending upon the aim of annealing followed by furnace cooling.
  • 19. Annealing Annealing is a heat treatment designed to eliminate the effects of cold working. The properties of a metal may revert back to the precold-worked states by Annealing, through recovery, recrystallization and grain growth.
  • 20. Spheroidizing: held at A1 or 700 °C for 15-25 hrs.
  • 21. Stages of Annealing There are three stages of annealing 1. Recovery 2. Recrystallization 3. Grain Growth
  • 22. Recovery the relief of some of the internal strain energy of a previously cold-worked material.
  • 23. Recovery  Let us now examine the changes that occur when a sample is heated from room temperature. At first, recovery occurs in which there is a change in the stored energy without any obvious change in the optical microstructure. Excess vacancies and interstitials anneal out giving a drop in the electrical resistivity but little change in hardness .  Dislocations become mobile at a higher temperature, eliminate and rearrange to give polygonisation.
  • 24. Changes in Mechanical Properties during Annealing Annealing temperature and Mechanical Properties for a Brass Alloy
  • 25. Polygonisation The misorientation θ between grains can be described in terms of dislocations Inserting an edge dislocation of Burgers vector b is like forcing a wedge into the lattice, so that each dislocation is associated with a small change in the orientation of the lattice on either side of the extra half plane. If the spacing of dislocations is d, then θ = b/d
  • 26. Recrystallization the formation of a new set of strain-free grains within a previously cold-worked material.
  • 27. Recrystallization The dislocation density decreases only a little during recovery and the deformed grain structure is largely unaffected by recovery. It takes the growth of new grains to initiate a much larger change, i.e. recrystallisation.
  • 28. Recrystallization  The nucleation of new grains happens in regions of high dislocation density.  Nucleation begins in a jumble of dislocations. The recrystallised grain will essentially be free from dislocations.  A greater nucleation rate leads to a finer ultimate grain size.  There is a critical level of deformation below which there will be no recrystallisation at all. A critical strain anneal can lead to a single crystal on recrystallisation.
  • 29. Changes in Mechanical Properties during Annealing Annealing temperature and Mechanical Properties for a Brass Alloy
  • 30. Grain Growth the increase in average grain size of a polycrystalline material. D - Do = kt1/2 Where D is the grain diameter after time t and And Do is initial grain diameter
  • 31. Grain Growth  A grain of radius r has a volume 4/3(πr3) and surface area 4πr2. The grain boundary energy associated with this grain is 2πr2γ where γ is the boundary energy per unit area. and we have taken into account that the grain boundary is shared between two grains. If follows that:  energy per unit volume = 3γ/2r≡ 3γ/D  where D is the grain diameter  It is this which drives the growth of grains with an equivalent pressure of about 0.1 MPa for typical values of γ = 0.3Jm−2 and D = 10μm. This is not very large so the grains can readily be pinned by particles (Zener drag).
  • 32. Changes in Mechanical Properties during Annealing Annealing temperature and Mechanical Properties for a Brass Alloy
  • 33. Changes in Microstructure during different stages of Annealing
  • 34. Annealing Annealing is a heat treatment designed to eliminate the effects of cold working. The properties of a metal may revert back to the precold-worked states by Annealing, through recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Recovery: the relief of some of the internal strain energy of a previously cold-worked material. Recrystallization: the formation of a new set of strain-free grains within a previously cold-worked material. Grain Growth: the increase in average grain size of a polycrystalline material. An elevated temperature heat treatment (annealing) is needed for these 3-processes.
  • 35. Recrystallization and grain growth of brass (a) Cold-worked (b) Initial stage of recrystallization (3 s at 580°C) (c) Partial replacement of cold-worked grains by recrystallized ones (4 s at 580°C) (d) Grain growth after 10 min at 700°C c Grain growth after 15 min at 580°C. (f) b Complete recrystallization (8 s at 580°C) (e) a d e f
  • 36. Changes in Mechanical Properties during Annealing Annealing temperature and Mechanical Properties for a Brass Alloy
  • 37. Grain Growth Grain Growth dn - d0n = Kt
  • 38. Annealing  Cold work : mechanical deformation of a metal at relatively low temperatures. Thus, cold work of a metal increases significantly dislocation density from 108 (annealed state) to 1012 cm/cm3, which causes the metal to be hardened. % cold work = (A0 - Af)/A0 100% • ex) rolling, forging, and drawingxetc. , where A0 is the original crosssectional area and Af is the final cross-sectional area after cold working. Cold-rolling • With increasing % cold work, the hardness and strength of alloys are increased whereas the ductility of the alloys are Cold-drawing decreased.
  • 39.  Annealed crystal (grain) deformed or strained crystal Cold work (high energy state)  When a metal is cold worked, most of energy goes into plastic deformation to change the shaped and heat generation. However, a small portion of the energy, up to ~5 %, remains stored in the material. The stored energy is mainly in the form of elastic energy in the strain fields surrounding dislocations and point defects generated during the cold work.  Annealing : a cold worked grains are quite unstable due to the strain energy. By heating the cold worked material to high temperatures where sufficient atomic mobility is available, the material can be softened and a new microstructure can emerge. This heat treatment is called annealing where recovery and recrystallization take place.
  • 40. Recovery and recrystallization  Recovery :  A low temperature annealing.  The concentration of point defects is decreased and dislocation is allowed to move to lower energy positions without gross microstructural change.  Modest effects on mechanical behavior while electrical conductivity increases significantly.  Recrystallization : occurs at 1/3 to 1/2 Tm. deformed crystal undeformed crystal recrystallization annealing during recrystallization process, new equiaxed, strain-free grains nucleate at high-stress regions in the cold-worked microstructure, and hence hardness and strength decrease whereas ductility increases. Recrystallization temp. is that at which recrystallization just reaches completion in 1 hour.
  • 41.  The processed of recovery and recrystallization of a cold worked represent a structural transformation, not true phase transformations. The driving force for recovery and recrystallization is associated with the strain energy stored in the crystal as a result of cold work. ↑ the amount of cold work ↑ grain size before cold work ↑ annealing temp. ↑ number of strain-free nuclei
  • 42. Influence of annealing temperature on the tensile strength and ductility of a brass alloy Variation of recrystallization temperature with percent cold work for iron
  • 43. Grain growth  Grain growth : A large concentration of grain boundaries (fine grain structure) is reduced by grain growth that occurs by high temp. annealing. The driving force for the grain growth is the reduction in the grain boundary surface energy. Stages of the recrystallization and grain growth of brass