Sheep & GoatSheep & Goat
ProductionProduction
Flock HealthFlock Health
DiseasesDiseases
 Cause death, loss of condition andCause death, loss of condition and
poor utilization of feed.poor util...
Diseases of LambsDiseases of Lambs
 Non- infectious Diseases of the newborn toNon- infectious Diseases of the newborn to
...
Non- Infectious Diseases of theNon- Infectious Diseases of the
Newborn to Three- Weeks- of- Age-Newborn to Three- Weeks- o...
Secondary Starvation fromSecondary Starvation from
HypothermiaHypothermia
 The lamb is born healthy; however, due to cold...
Secondary Starvation fromSecondary Starvation from
HypothermiaHypothermia
 Treatment:Treatment:
– Warm water bath or warm...
Secondary Starvation fromSecondary Starvation from
HypothermiaHypothermia
 PreventionPrevention::
– Take a rectal temp. o...
TraumaTrauma
 Broken ribs, broken backs, ruptured livers,Broken ribs, broken backs, ruptured livers,
ruptured spleens and...
TraumaTrauma
 PreventionPrevention::
– Hobble ewes that paw at their lambsHobble ewes that paw at their lambs
– Enlarge l...
EntropionEntropion
 A heritable trait in which the lower eyelid isA heritable trait in which the lower eyelid is
inverted...
EntropionEntropion
 Treatment:Treatment:
– Inject 1 ml of procaine penicillin under theInject 1 ml of procaine penicillin...
Infectious Diseases of the NewbornInfectious Diseases of the Newborn
to Three- Weeks- of- Age Lambto Three- Weeks- of- Age...
ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis
 Cause:Cause:
– Caused by a small coccidia- likeCaused by a small coccidia- like
organism whic...
Brucella ovisBrucella ovis
 Cause:Cause:
– Infection of the breeding rams which mayInfection of the breeding rams which m...
Border DiseaseBorder Disease
 Also known as Hairy ShakersAlso known as Hairy Shakers
 Disease was first recognized in th...
Border DiseaseBorder Disease
 Clinical SignsClinical Signs::
– Depending on the time of pregnancy, earlyDepending on the ...
Border DiseaseBorder Disease
 Treatment & PreventionTreatment & Prevention::
1. Separate breeding ewes from cattle1. Sepa...
Lamb Diseases Acquired AfterLamb Diseases Acquired After
Birth and During The First FewBirth and During The First Few
Days...
Diseases of Lambs FromDiseases of Lambs From
Three- Weeks- of- Age toThree- Weeks- of- Age to
FeedersFeeders
 Enterotoxem...
Respiratory Diseases ofRespiratory Diseases of
LambsLambs
 Causes and Disease ProcessCauses and Disease Process::
– Bacte...
Diseases of Feeder LambsDiseases of Feeder Lambs
 Acidosis (grain overload, founder, Ketosis)Acidosis (grain overload, fo...
AcidosisAcidosis
 Grain overload or founder.Grain overload or founder.
 Commonly occurs in feeder lambs changed fromComm...
PolioPolio
 Polioencephalomalcia (PEM) Forage PoisoningPolioencephalomalcia (PEM) Forage Poisoning
 A disease of the cen...
Enterotoxemia of FatteningEnterotoxemia of Fattening
LambsLambs
 Overeating disease, Pulpy Kidney diseaseOvereating disea...
SalmonellosisSalmonellosis
 Paratyphoid dysenteryParatyphoid dysentery
 Characterized by gastroenteritis, diarrhea,Chara...
PneumoniaPneumonia
 Caused by any of several organisms, particularlyCaused by any of several organisms, particularly
Pas ...
Pneumonia ManagementPneumonia Management
AidsAids
 Add sulfamethazine to drinking water of pregnant ewes 2Add sulfamethaz...
Rectal ProlapseRectal Prolapse
 Associated with high concentrate feeding, shortAssociated with high concentrate feeding, ...
CoccidiosisCoccidiosis
 Hemorrhagic diarrhea, Coccidial dysenteryHemorrhagic diarrhea, Coccidial dysentery
 Disease is c...
Copper PoisoningCopper Poisoning
 Often results from feeding improperly formulated mineralOften results from feeding impr...
UrolithiasisUrolithiasis
 Water Belly, CalculosisWater Belly, Calculosis
 A metabolic disease in male sheep characterize...
UrolithiasisUrolithiasis
 Clinical signsClinical signs::
Inability to pass urine causing abdominal discomfort andInabilit...
UrolithiasisUrolithiasis
 PreventionPrevention::
– Provide a 2:1 Calcium to Phosphorus ratio in theProvide a 2:1 Calcium ...
Diseases of EwesDiseases of Ewes
 Open EwesOpen Ewes
 Pregnant EwesPregnant Ewes
 Lactating EwesLactating Ewes
Open EwesOpen Ewes
 No diseases occur exclusively in openNo diseases occur exclusively in open
ewes.ewes.
 Open ewes sho...
Pregnant EwesPregnant Ewes
 Abortion DiseasesAbortion Diseases
Diseases which affect the lamb in the uterusDiseases which...
General DiseasesGeneral Diseases
 Foot RotFoot Rot
 BluetongueBluetongue
 PinkeyePinkeye
 ScrapieScrapie
BluetongueBluetongue
 A viral disease capable of producing severe clinical signsA viral disease capable of producing seve...
BluetongueBluetongue
 Diagnosis:Diagnosis:
– EpidemiologyEpidemiology
– Clinical signsClinical signs
– Lesions associated...
PinkeyePinkeye
 Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (IKC)Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (IKC)
 A highly contagious disease ...
ScrapieScrapie
 A disease of the central nervous system ofA disease of the central nervous system of
sheep and goats. It ...
ScrapieScrapie
 Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Rubbing against objects as if: Rubbing against objects as if
itching, wool ...
Parasitic DiseasesParasitic Diseases
 HaemonchosisHaemonchosis
 GastrointestinalGastrointestinal
RoundwormsRoundworms
 ...
HaemonchosisHaemonchosis
 Haemonchos i s cont ort us ,Haemonchos i s cont ort us , the barber- polethe barber- pole
worm-...
HaemonchosisHaemonchosis
 Disease Process:
– Ingestion of larvae which hatched from eggs on
pasture
– Eggs are passed by ...
Gastrointestinal RoundwormsGastrointestinal Roundworms
 Clinical Signs:Clinical Signs:
Scouring, loss of fleece condition...
TapewormsTapeworms
 Tapeworms are long, ribbonlike, segmentedTapeworms are long, ribbonlike, segmented
flatworms which ca...
CysticercosisCysticercosis
 A larval form of a tapeworm has encysted orA larval form of a tapeworm has encysted or
embedd...
HydatidosisHydatidosis
 Hydatid cysts may be found in the bodyHydatid cysts may be found in the body
cavities of sheep, e...
Liver FlukesLiver Flukes
 Small, leaf- shaped organisms that roll up like a scroll inSmall, leaf- shaped organisms that r...
CoccidiosisCoccidiosis
 A major cause of poor feed efficiency andA major cause of poor feed efficiency and
economic loss ...
CryptosporidiosisCryptosporidiosis
 Cryptosporidium proliferates in the small intestineCryptosporidium proliferates in th...
ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis
 Toxoplasma is another coccidian, found in theToxoplasma is another coccidian, found in the
gu...
SarcocystosisSarcocystosis
 Sarcocystis is a coccidian developing in the gutSarcocystis is a coccidian developing in the ...
External ParasitesExternal Parasites
 Fly StrikeFly Strike
 BotsBots
 KedsKeds
 Mange MitesMange Mites
 TicksTicks
Fly StrikeFly Strike
 Occurs when flies are attracted to soiled wool,Occurs when flies are attracted to soiled wool,
open...
BotsBots
 The adult fly darts at the sheep, depositingThe adult fly darts at the sheep, depositing
eggs around the muzzle...
KedsKeds
 ““Sheep Ticks” are often mistaken for realSheep Ticks” are often mistaken for real
ticks but are really wingles...
Mange MitesMange Mites
 There are several species of mites which mayThere are several species of mites which may
damage s...
TicksTicks
 There are several species which may include theThere are several species which may include the
6- legged larv...
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8. sheep goat production.flock health

  1. 1. Sheep & GoatSheep & Goat ProductionProduction Flock HealthFlock Health
  2. 2. DiseasesDiseases  Cause death, loss of condition andCause death, loss of condition and poor utilization of feed.poor utilization of feed.  Methods of sanitation and diseaseMethods of sanitation and disease control are essential whencontrol are essential when maintaining a flock.maintaining a flock.
  3. 3. Diseases of LambsDiseases of Lambs  Non- infectious Diseases of the newborn toNon- infectious Diseases of the newborn to three weeks of age lambs.three weeks of age lambs.  Infectious diseases of the newborn to threeInfectious diseases of the newborn to three weeks of age lambs.weeks of age lambs.  Lamb diseases acquired after birth and duringLamb diseases acquired after birth and during the first few days of lifethe first few days of life  Diseases of lambs from three weeks of age toDiseases of lambs from three weeks of age to feedersfeeders  Respiratory diseases of lambsRespiratory diseases of lambs  Diseases of feeder lambsDiseases of feeder lambs
  4. 4. Non- Infectious Diseases of theNon- Infectious Diseases of the Newborn to Three- Weeks- of- Age-Newborn to Three- Weeks- of- Age- LambLamb  StarvationStarvation- The major cause of lamb deaths in almost any- The major cause of lamb deaths in almost any type of management system.type of management system.  Causes:Causes: – Lamb is born healthy but the ewe has no milk or teatLamb is born healthy but the ewe has no milk or teat canal is plugged.canal is plugged. – Lamb is born healthy, the ewe has milk, but will notLamb is born healthy, the ewe has milk, but will not allow the lamb to nurse. Common with twins, triplets.allow the lamb to nurse. Common with twins, triplets. – Ewes may not have enough milk for twin lambs.Ewes may not have enough milk for twin lambs. – Ewes may develop mastitis, hard bag, contagiousEwes may develop mastitis, hard bag, contagious ecthyma (soremouth), or injure her udder. Theseecthyma (soremouth), or injure her udder. These conditions may decrease milk production or produceconditions may decrease milk production or produce pain, causing the ewe to prohibit the lamb frompain, causing the ewe to prohibit the lamb from nursing.nursing.
  5. 5. Secondary Starvation fromSecondary Starvation from HypothermiaHypothermia  The lamb is born healthy; however, due to coldThe lamb is born healthy; however, due to cold or wet weather and the newborn’s inability toor wet weather and the newborn’s inability to control its body temperature, the lamb losescontrol its body temperature, the lamb loses body heat and becomes cold (Hypothermia)body heat and becomes cold (Hypothermia)  Clinical signsClinical signs:: – WeakWeak – Losing condition or not gaining weightLosing condition or not gaining weight – Will not get up and nurseWill not get up and nurse – Feel cold to the touch, particularly inside theFeel cold to the touch, particularly inside the mouth and a very weak or inexistent suckmouth and a very weak or inexistent suck reflex.reflex. – A temperature under 100 degrees F indicatesA temperature under 100 degrees F indicates HypothermiaHypothermia
  6. 6. Secondary Starvation fromSecondary Starvation from HypothermiaHypothermia  Treatment:Treatment: – Warm water bath or warm incubator madeWarm water bath or warm incubator made from a cardboard box and hairdryer. Do notfrom a cardboard box and hairdryer. Do not overheat.overheat. – Monitor the temp. with a rectalMonitor the temp. with a rectal thermometer. When the temp. has reachedthermometer. When the temp. has reached 101 degrees F, the lamb is warm enough.101 degrees F, the lamb is warm enough. – Warm colostrum can be force fed via tube orWarm colostrum can be force fed via tube or catheter (16”, 18 gauge) on a 60cc syringe.catheter (16”, 18 gauge) on a 60cc syringe. – 50 cc of a 10% Glucose solution inserted50 cc of a 10% Glucose solution inserted under the skin of the rib cageunder the skin of the rib cage – Milk replacer for older lambs.Milk replacer for older lambs.
  7. 7. Secondary Starvation fromSecondary Starvation from HypothermiaHypothermia  PreventionPrevention:: – Take a rectal temp. of all lambs exposed toTake a rectal temp. of all lambs exposed to cold or wet weather conditions.cold or wet weather conditions. – Check the udder and remove teat plugs byCheck the udder and remove teat plugs by milking a few drops of milk from both halvesmilking a few drops of milk from both halves of the udder at time of birth.of the udder at time of birth. – Observe lambs closelyObserve lambs closely – Look for lambs who appear hungry or tuckedLook for lambs who appear hungry or tucked up.up. – Check both twins closely to ensure a motherCheck both twins closely to ensure a mother is not unwilling to allow one of the twins tois not unwilling to allow one of the twins to nurse. An unwilling mother may require thatnurse. An unwilling mother may require that a lamb be grafted to another ewe or begina lamb be grafted to another ewe or begin bottle feeding.bottle feeding.
  8. 8. TraumaTrauma  Broken ribs, broken backs, ruptured livers,Broken ribs, broken backs, ruptured livers, ruptured spleens and suffocation are common.ruptured spleens and suffocation are common.  Causes:Causes: – May occur during the birthing process when aMay occur during the birthing process when a large lamb is forcefully pulled.large lamb is forcefully pulled. – Impatient ewes may paw at their lambs toImpatient ewes may paw at their lambs to get them to rise earlyget them to rise early – Lambing pens may be too small causing theLambing pens may be too small causing the ewe to step on or lie on the lamb.ewe to step on or lie on the lamb. – Lambs moved out of lambing pens with otherLambs moved out of lambing pens with other ewes and lambs may try to suck from theewes and lambs may try to suck from the wrong ewe and are injured by the offendedwrong ewe and are injured by the offended ewe.ewe.
  9. 9. TraumaTrauma  PreventionPrevention:: – Hobble ewes that paw at their lambsHobble ewes that paw at their lambs – Enlarge lambing pensEnlarge lambing pens – Shear ewes before lambing to reduce theShear ewes before lambing to reduce the size of the ewe and pen required.size of the ewe and pen required. – Allow sufficient time in the lambing pens forAllow sufficient time in the lambing pens for bonding before turning the ewe and herbonding before turning the ewe and her lamb(s) out with other ewes and lambs.lamb(s) out with other ewes and lambs.
  10. 10. EntropionEntropion  A heritable trait in which the lower eyelid isA heritable trait in which the lower eyelid is inverted, causing the eyelashes of the lower lidinverted, causing the eyelashes of the lower lid to brush against the eye. The constantto brush against the eye. The constant irritation results in profuse tearing, cornealirritation results in profuse tearing, corneal ulceration, scaring and blindness. Occurs in allulceration, scaring and blindness. Occurs in all breeds and sexes.breeds and sexes.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs:: – Profuse tearing seen within the first fewProfuse tearing seen within the first few days of birth.days of birth. – If not seen within the first few days, theIf not seen within the first few days, the eye turns blue indicating a corneal ulcer.eye turns blue indicating a corneal ulcer. – If both eyes are affected, the lambIf both eyes are affected, the lamb becomes unable to see and its generalbecomes unable to see and its general
  11. 11. EntropionEntropion  Treatment:Treatment: – Inject 1 ml of procaine penicillin under theInject 1 ml of procaine penicillin under the skin of the lower lid causing a bleb, pushingskin of the lower lid causing a bleb, pushing the lid and lashes away from the eye.the lid and lashes away from the eye. – In cases of reoccurrence, surgery or otherIn cases of reoccurrence, surgery or other approaches may be required. However, inapproaches may be required. However, in most cases, the problem is resolved.most cases, the problem is resolved. Prevention:Prevention: – Entropion is a genetic trait and theEntropion is a genetic trait and the responsible parent can be culled.responsible parent can be culled.
  12. 12. Infectious Diseases of the NewbornInfectious Diseases of the Newborn to Three- Weeks- of- Age Lambto Three- Weeks- of- Age Lamb  These diseases affect the lamb during itsThese diseases affect the lamb during its development in the uterus and include:development in the uterus and include: – ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis – Brucella ovisBrucella ovis – Border Disease (Hairy Shakers)Border Disease (Hairy Shakers)
  13. 13. ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis  Cause:Cause: – Caused by a small coccidia- likeCaused by a small coccidia- like organism which infects the intestinalorganism which infects the intestinal tract of young cats.tract of young cats. – Sheep ingest feed contaminated withSheep ingest feed contaminated with the feces of domestic, feral or wildthe feces of domestic, feral or wild cat species during pregnancy.cat species during pregnancy. – Organisms migrate to the placenta andOrganisms migrate to the placenta and fetus, causing death and expulsion offetus, causing death and expulsion of the fetus.the fetus.
  14. 14. Brucella ovisBrucella ovis  Cause:Cause: – Infection of the breeding rams which mayInfection of the breeding rams which may cause 1- 5% of lambs to be stillborn or weak.cause 1- 5% of lambs to be stillborn or weak. – These lambs usually die, but if they doThese lambs usually die, but if they do survive, grow up to be normalsurvive, grow up to be normal – This disease is more common in westernThis disease is more common in western range flocks using multiple sire systems andrange flocks using multiple sire systems and that maintain a large number of rams in athat maintain a large number of rams in a group.group.
  15. 15. Border DiseaseBorder Disease  Also known as Hairy ShakersAlso known as Hairy Shakers  Disease was first recognized in the United KingdomDisease was first recognized in the United Kingdom  Cause:Cause: – Caused by a virus closely related to the bovine viralCaused by a virus closely related to the bovine viral diarrhea agentdiarrhea agent – Disease does not seem to cause clinical disease unlessDisease does not seem to cause clinical disease unless infected in utero (generally does not cause abortions)infected in utero (generally does not cause abortions) – The term Hair Shaker describes the condition of theThe term Hair Shaker describes the condition of the newborn lambs as they have a hairy coat and possess anewborn lambs as they have a hairy coat and possess a nervous condition causing uncontrolled shaking.nervous condition causing uncontrolled shaking. – Incidence of the disease probably depends on prior exposureIncidence of the disease probably depends on prior exposure to the virus.to the virus. » If virus has recently been introduced and ewes areIf virus has recently been introduced and ewes are within the first 60 days of pregnancy, losses may bewithin the first 60 days of pregnancy, losses may be 10- 20%.10- 20%. » Flocks which have experienced the disease usually onlyFlocks which have experienced the disease usually only experience a 1- 2% loss.experience a 1- 2% loss.
  16. 16. Border DiseaseBorder Disease  Clinical SignsClinical Signs:: – Depending on the time of pregnancy, earlyDepending on the time of pregnancy, early embryonic deaths may be seen (open ewes)embryonic deaths may be seen (open ewes) Small, live, underdeveloped lambs, or hairySmall, live, underdeveloped lambs, or hairy shaker lambs, normal lambs which areshaker lambs, normal lambs which are immunodeficient, or a combination of theimmunodeficient, or a combination of the above.above. – All are usually born aliveAll are usually born alive – Can be saved with special care, with theCan be saved with special care, with the exception of the Hairy Shaker lambs whoseexception of the Hairy Shaker lambs whose central nervous system is irreversiblycentral nervous system is irreversibly affected.affected. – However, survivors usually do not do well orHowever, survivors usually do not do well or live to breeding age.live to breeding age.
  17. 17. Border DiseaseBorder Disease  Treatment & PreventionTreatment & Prevention:: 1. Separate breeding ewes from cattle1. Separate breeding ewes from cattle 2. Eliminate affected lambs and their2. Eliminate affected lambs and their placentas from herd access and isolateplacentas from herd access and isolate affected ewes until genital dischargesaffected ewes until genital discharges cease.cease. 3. Eliminate affected ewes that have3. Eliminate affected ewes that have produced infected offspring more thanproduced infected offspring more than once.once. 4. Consider a vaccination program with4. Consider a vaccination program with a killed bovine virus diarrhea vaccine ina killed bovine virus diarrhea vaccine in flocks suffering annual border diseaseflocks suffering annual border disease
  18. 18. Lamb Diseases Acquired AfterLamb Diseases Acquired After Birth and During The First FewBirth and During The First Few Days of LifeDays of Life  Navel illNavel ill  Pastuerella hemolyticaPastuerella hemolytica  Erysipelas (Joint ill)Erysipelas (Joint ill)  ColostrumColostrum  E. coli scoursE. coli scours  Enterotoxemia type CEnterotoxemia type C  Tetanus (Lockjaw)Tetanus (Lockjaw)  SoremouthSoremouth
  19. 19. Diseases of Lambs FromDiseases of Lambs From Three- Weeks- of- Age toThree- Weeks- of- Age to FeedersFeeders  Enterotoxemia type DEnterotoxemia type D  PolyarthritisPolyarthritis  White Muscle DiseaseWhite Muscle Disease
  20. 20. Respiratory Diseases ofRespiratory Diseases of LambsLambs  Causes and Disease ProcessCauses and Disease Process:: – Bacteria, Chlamydia, mucoplasma, parasites, virusesBacteria, Chlamydia, mucoplasma, parasites, viruses and combinations of any of these.and combinations of any of these. – Can be harbored by healthy sheep without showingCan be harbored by healthy sheep without showing clinical signsclinical signs – Occurs when sheep’s resistance and infectious agentsOccurs when sheep’s resistance and infectious agents are interfered with. Lowered resistance is often dueare interfered with. Lowered resistance is often due to management.to management. – Dust, high ammonia concentration, nutrient deficiency,Dust, high ammonia concentration, nutrient deficiency, crowding can all affect resistance.crowding can all affect resistance. Clinical Signs:Clinical Signs: – Severe depression, labored breathing, rapid death,Severe depression, labored breathing, rapid death, coughing, appetite reduction, more labored breathingcoughing, appetite reduction, more labored breathing during excercise.during excercise.
  21. 21. Diseases of Feeder LambsDiseases of Feeder Lambs  Acidosis (grain overload, founder, Ketosis)Acidosis (grain overload, founder, Ketosis)  PolioPolio  Enterotoxemia of Fattening LambsEnterotoxemia of Fattening Lambs  SalmonellosisSalmonellosis  PneumoniaPneumonia  Rectal ProlapseRectal Prolapse  Internal ParasitesInternal Parasites  CoccidiosisCoccidiosis  Copper PoisioningCopper Poisioning  Urolithiasis (Water Belly, Calculosis)Urolithiasis (Water Belly, Calculosis)
  22. 22. AcidosisAcidosis  Grain overload or founder.Grain overload or founder.  Commonly occurs in feeder lambs changed fromCommonly occurs in feeder lambs changed from a roughage diet to one of concentrates.a roughage diet to one of concentrates.  Caused by lambs engorging during a feeding,Caused by lambs engorging during a feeding, causing an overload of concentrates.causing an overload of concentrates.  Clinical signs:Clinical signs: – DepressionDepression – RecumbencyRecumbency – ComatoseComatose – Dead lambsDead lambs (Diagnosis is determined by a necropsy which(Diagnosis is determined by a necropsy which examines the rumen for concentrates and testing theexamines the rumen for concentrates and testing the contents for an acid pH.)contents for an acid pH.)
  23. 23. PolioPolio  Polioencephalomalcia (PEM) Forage PoisoningPolioencephalomalcia (PEM) Forage Poisoning  A disease of the central nervous system and is not ofA disease of the central nervous system and is not of major importance to the overall sheep industry althoughmajor importance to the overall sheep industry although it can cause individual or flock problems. The usualit can cause individual or flock problems. The usual occurrence is in feeder lambs on high concentrate dietsoccurrence is in feeder lambs on high concentrate diets or, it happens on forages but not necessarily poisonousor, it happens on forages but not necessarily poisonous forages.forages.  Clinical Signs:Clinical Signs: – BlindnessBlindness – Follows behindFollows behind – Staggers and appears disoriented and occasionally stares atStaggers and appears disoriented and occasionally stares at the skythe sky – Eventually animal is unable to rise, becomes comatose andEventually animal is unable to rise, becomes comatose and dies in convulsionsdies in convulsions – Animal may appear dehydrated and empty due to itsAnimal may appear dehydrated and empty due to its inability to eat or drink.inability to eat or drink. Treat early with Thiamine hydrochloride I.V. and I.M.Treat early with Thiamine hydrochloride I.V. and I.M.
  24. 24. Enterotoxemia of FatteningEnterotoxemia of Fattening LambsLambs  Overeating disease, Pulpy Kidney diseaseOvereating disease, Pulpy Kidney disease  Condition that contributes to loss as much as any otherCondition that contributes to loss as much as any other disease entity. Often appears in countries wheredisease entity. Often appears in countries where concentrate feeding is practiced. A disease of highconcentrate feeding is practiced. A disease of high performing animals. Caused by a toxin produced byperforming animals. Caused by a toxin produced by bacteria Clostridium perfringes type C or D.bacteria Clostridium perfringes type C or D.  The type C toxin is responsible for the condition knownThe type C toxin is responsible for the condition known as hemorrhagic enterotoxemia. Occurs in young lambs.as hemorrhagic enterotoxemia. Occurs in young lambs.  The type D toxin is responsible for the enterotoxemiaThe type D toxin is responsible for the enterotoxemia causing sudden death. Occurs in young lambs.causing sudden death. Occurs in young lambs.  Prevented by vaccination at 4 weeks of age withPrevented by vaccination at 4 weeks of age with C.perfringes C & D toxoid administered twice about 2C.perfringes C & D toxoid administered twice about 2 weeks apart. The second shot should be given approx. 2weeks apart. The second shot should be given approx. 2 weeks prior to changing to a concentration ration.weeks prior to changing to a concentration ration.
  25. 25. SalmonellosisSalmonellosis  Paratyphoid dysenteryParatyphoid dysentery  Characterized by gastroenteritis, diarrhea,Characterized by gastroenteritis, diarrhea, septicemia and death. Death rates are usuallysepticemia and death. Death rates are usually high. The disease is often associated with thehigh. The disease is often associated with the stress of weaning, shipping, interruption ofstress of weaning, shipping, interruption of feed intake, crowded pens and contamination offeed intake, crowded pens and contamination of feed by a few animals shedding the organism.feed by a few animals shedding the organism.  Treatment and preventionTreatment and prevention: Obtain a culture: Obtain a culture and sensitivity to determine an effectiveand sensitivity to determine an effective antibiotic, provide electrolytes, fresh feed andantibiotic, provide electrolytes, fresh feed and water. Avoid stressful conditions, long periodswater. Avoid stressful conditions, long periods of transport without proper feed, rest andof transport without proper feed, rest and water, as well as unsanitary feeding conditions.water, as well as unsanitary feeding conditions.
  26. 26. PneumoniaPneumonia  Caused by any of several organisms, particularlyCaused by any of several organisms, particularly Pas t eurel l aPas t eurel l a  Stress such as changes in the weather orStress such as changes in the weather or feeding schedulefeeding schedule  Proper management is important in reducingProper management is important in reducing pneumonia occurrencespneumonia occurrences
  27. 27. Pneumonia ManagementPneumonia Management AidsAids  Add sulfamethazine to drinking water of pregnant ewes 2Add sulfamethazine to drinking water of pregnant ewes 2 weeks prior to lambingweeks prior to lambing  Mix one pound of 100% sulfamethazine with 1 gal. waterMix one pound of 100% sulfamethazine with 1 gal. water for stock solution. Then, 1 oz. (30 cc) is mixed withfor stock solution. Then, 1 oz. (30 cc) is mixed with each gal. of water according to the following schedule:each gal. of water according to the following schedule: DaysDays TreatmentTreatment 1- 51- 5 Medicated H2OMedicated H2O 6- 76- 7 Regular H2ORegular H2O 8- 98- 9 Medicated H2OMedicated H2O 10- 1110- 11 Regular H2ORegular H2O 12- 1312- 13 Medicated H2OMedicated H2O Can be administered to weaned lambs for a continuousCan be administered to weaned lambs for a continuous 3- 5 day period to control pneumonia3- 5 day period to control pneumonia
  28. 28. Rectal ProlapseRectal Prolapse  Associated with high concentrate feeding, shortAssociated with high concentrate feeding, short docking and coughing caused by dusty conditionsdocking and coughing caused by dusty conditions or virus infections.or virus infections.  If unattended, the prolapsed rectum willIf unattended, the prolapsed rectum will become swollen, inflamed and covered withbecome swollen, inflamed and covered with crusted blood, fibrin and feces.crusted blood, fibrin and feces.  One method of treatment is to thoroughly cleanOne method of treatment is to thoroughly clean the rectum with a warm water enema and applythe rectum with a warm water enema and apply an elastrator band near the anal sphincter. Aan elastrator band near the anal sphincter. A piece of tubing can be inserted to keep thepiece of tubing can be inserted to keep the tract open until the protruding rectum sloughs.tract open until the protruding rectum sloughs.  Administering a tetanus antitoxin is advisedAdministering a tetanus antitoxin is advised..
  29. 29. CoccidiosisCoccidiosis  Hemorrhagic diarrhea, Coccidial dysenteryHemorrhagic diarrhea, Coccidial dysentery  Disease is characterized by diarrhea,Disease is characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weight loss, and weakness with adehydration, weight loss, and weakness with a morbidity of up to 50% and a mortality of up tomorbidity of up to 50% and a mortality of up to 10%10%  Occurs in the early stages of the feedingOccurs in the early stages of the feeding program, damage to the lower intestinal tractprogram, damage to the lower intestinal tract causes softening of the feces which eventuallycauses softening of the feces which eventually becomes a fluid containing blood. Lamb goesbecomes a fluid containing blood. Lamb goes off feed, dehydrates, becomes weak, goesoff feed, dehydrates, becomes weak, goes down and is unable to rise. May result indown and is unable to rise. May result in rectal prolapse.rectal prolapse.  Treatment:Treatment: Separate sick animals and treatSeparate sick animals and treat with electrolytes and sulfonamides. Thewith electrolytes and sulfonamides. The remainder of the group should be placed onremainder of the group should be placed on sulfas and electrolytes in the water.
  30. 30. Copper PoisoningCopper Poisoning  Often results from feeding improperly formulated mineralOften results from feeding improperly formulated mineral mixes. Cu is closely related to Molybdenum & toxicitymixes. Cu is closely related to Molybdenum & toxicity usually occurs when the dietary ratio of copper tousually occurs when the dietary ratio of copper to Molybdenum increases above 6- 10:1.Molybdenum increases above 6- 10:1.  Sheep are 10 times more susceptible to copper toxicitySheep are 10 times more susceptible to copper toxicity than cattle.than cattle.  Cause:Cause: When consumed over a long period of time,When consumed over a long period of time, excessive copper is stored in the liver. When a toxicexcessive copper is stored in the liver. When a toxic level is reached, the destruction of red blood cellslevel is reached, the destruction of red blood cells occurs.occurs.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Acute hemolytic crises (destruction of: Acute hemolytic crises (destruction of RBC’s), death within 24- 48 hrs. of first signs. AnimalRBC’s), death within 24- 48 hrs. of first signs. Animal goes off feed & becomes weak. Hemoglobin in the urinegoes off feed & becomes weak. Hemoglobin in the urine gives it a dark red- brown coloration.gives it a dark red- brown coloration.  Treatment & PreventionTreatment & Prevention: If developed, locate the source: If developed, locate the source and remove immediately. Avoid stressful conditions.and remove immediately. Avoid stressful conditions.
  31. 31. UrolithiasisUrolithiasis  Water Belly, CalculosisWater Belly, Calculosis  A metabolic disease in male sheep characterized by theA metabolic disease in male sheep characterized by the formation of calculi (stones) within the urinary tract.formation of calculi (stones) within the urinary tract. Blockage of the urethra by calculi causes retention ofBlockage of the urethra by calculi causes retention of urine, abdominal pain, distention, and rupture of theurine, abdominal pain, distention, and rupture of the urethra or bladder and death from uremia or secondaryurethra or bladder and death from uremia or secondary septicemia.septicemia.  Cause:Cause: Most common cases are seen in feeder lambs whoMost common cases are seen in feeder lambs who are on a high phosphorus ration or a nearly 1:1 calciumare on a high phosphorus ration or a nearly 1:1 calcium to phosphorus ratio. Early castration alters theto phosphorus ratio. Early castration alters the development of the penis and urethra. As calculi form,development of the penis and urethra. As calculi form, some may pass, irritating the urethra lining causingsome may pass, irritating the urethra lining causing inflammation & muscle spasms, restricting the tract andinflammation & muscle spasms, restricting the tract and causing others to lodge. Obstruction by calculi usuallycausing others to lodge. Obstruction by calculi usually occurs at the urethral process or the sigmoid flexure.occurs at the urethral process or the sigmoid flexure.
  32. 32. UrolithiasisUrolithiasis  Clinical signsClinical signs:: Inability to pass urine causing abdominal discomfort andInability to pass urine causing abdominal discomfort and colic, restlessness, straining, kicking at the belly,colic, restlessness, straining, kicking at the belly, stretching and frequent attempts to urinate, dribbling,stretching and frequent attempts to urinate, dribbling, frequent getting up and lying down, isolation from thefrequent getting up and lying down, isolation from the flock, refusal to eat, and death.flock, refusal to eat, and death.  DiagnosisDiagnosis:: Easily diagnosed by the clinical signs. Examination of theEasily diagnosed by the clinical signs. Examination of the urethral process or palpation of the sigmoid flexure mayurethral process or palpation of the sigmoid flexure may identify the calculusidentify the calculus  TreatmentTreatment:: If the calculus is located in the urethral process, snipIf the calculus is located in the urethral process, snip off the process with scissors.off the process with scissors. If discovered prior to complete obstruction, take animalIf discovered prior to complete obstruction, take animal off feed for 24 hours and administer ammonium chlorideoff feed for 24 hours and administer ammonium chloride (7- 10 mg per head per day for a 30 kg lamb) orally to(7- 10 mg per head per day for a 30 kg lamb) orally to possibly dissolve the calculi.possibly dissolve the calculi.
  33. 33. UrolithiasisUrolithiasis  PreventionPrevention:: – Provide a 2:1 Calcium to Phosphorus ratio in theProvide a 2:1 Calcium to Phosphorus ratio in the ration. Calcium chloride is more effective thanration. Calcium chloride is more effective than ground limestone.ground limestone. – Provide additional common salt (1- 4%) to increaseProvide additional common salt (1- 4%) to increase water intake, decreasing stone formation. (Saltwater intake, decreasing stone formation. (Salt blocks are beneficial)blocks are beneficial) – Provide plenty of clean, warm waterProvide plenty of clean, warm water – Provide ammonium chloride (2% of the concentrateProvide ammonium chloride (2% of the concentrate ration) to aid in prevention. Be aware that Ammoniumration) to aid in prevention. Be aware that Ammonium chloride may cause coughing which may lead to rectalchloride may cause coughing which may lead to rectal prolapsing.prolapsing. – Provide a well balanced diet which includes adequateProvide a well balanced diet which includes adequate amounts of Vitamin A.amounts of Vitamin A.
  34. 34. Diseases of EwesDiseases of Ewes  Open EwesOpen Ewes  Pregnant EwesPregnant Ewes  Lactating EwesLactating Ewes
  35. 35. Open EwesOpen Ewes  No diseases occur exclusively in openNo diseases occur exclusively in open ewes.ewes.  Open ewes should be examined prior toOpen ewes should be examined prior to breeding for soundness, broken mouths,breeding for soundness, broken mouths, bad udders, bad feet or legs, extremebad udders, bad feet or legs, extreme emaciation, and other features whichemaciation, and other features which would inhibit their reproductivewould inhibit their reproductive capabilities or efficiency.capabilities or efficiency.  Mastitis may affect ewes shortly afterMastitis may affect ewes shortly after weaning lambs.weaning lambs.
  36. 36. Pregnant EwesPregnant Ewes  Abortion DiseasesAbortion Diseases Diseases which affect the lamb in the uterusDiseases which affect the lamb in the uterus prior to birth. Some cause the fetus to beprior to birth. Some cause the fetus to be expelled prematurely, and in some cases theexpelled prematurely, and in some cases the birth time interrupts the normal course of thebirth time interrupts the normal course of the disease and the infected lamb is born alive.disease and the infected lamb is born alive.
  37. 37. General DiseasesGeneral Diseases  Foot RotFoot Rot  BluetongueBluetongue  PinkeyePinkeye  ScrapieScrapie
  38. 38. BluetongueBluetongue  A viral disease capable of producing severe clinical signsA viral disease capable of producing severe clinical signs in sheep.in sheep.  Cause & Disease ProcessCause & Disease Process: Transmitted to sheep by: Transmitted to sheep by infected biting “no- see- ums”, a night flying insect foundinfected biting “no- see- ums”, a night flying insect found throughout the U.S. during warm weather. Occursthroughout the U.S. during warm weather. Occurs seasonally during the summer months. Rams which areseasonally during the summer months. Rams which are affected become temporarily sterile (60 days) and resultaffected become temporarily sterile (60 days) and result in a reduced or delayed lambing rate.in a reduced or delayed lambing rate.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Increased temperature, skin around the: Increased temperature, skin around the lip, muzzle, eyes, and ears may become reddened andlip, muzzle, eyes, and ears may become reddened and within a day or two, swollen lips, swollen & droopy earswithin a day or two, swollen lips, swollen & droopy ears as well as swelling beneath the jaw may be observed.as well as swelling beneath the jaw may be observed. Eventually, lameness may become evident, ulcers mayEventually, lameness may become evident, ulcers may appear on the dental pad and tongue, appetite loss andappear on the dental pad and tongue, appetite loss and refusal to eat or drink may also occur causing weightrefusal to eat or drink may also occur causing weight loss. Usually recover and return to normal condition in 6loss. Usually recover and return to normal condition in 6
  39. 39. BluetongueBluetongue  Diagnosis:Diagnosis: – EpidemiologyEpidemiology – Clinical signsClinical signs – Lesions associated withLesions associated with the diseasethe disease – Serological testsSerological tests  Prevention:Prevention: Routine repeatedRoutine repeated spraying of the flockspraying of the flock with insecticides duringwith insecticides during bluetongue season.bluetongue season. House sheep at night inHouse sheep at night in unlighted barns everyunlighted barns every night 30 min. beforenight 30 min. before sunset and until 30 min.sunset and until 30 min. after sunrise.after sunrise.  TreatmentTreatment:: – Provide food, waterProvide food, water and shade for theand shade for the flockflock – Affected sheep shouldAffected sheep should regain appetite in ~1regain appetite in ~1 weekweek – Avoid intensiveAvoid intensive handling and treatmenthandling and treatment of the entire flockof the entire flock – Best treatment is toBest treatment is to postpone allpostpone all unnecessaryunnecessary management practicesmanagement practices that may disturb thethat may disturb the flock.flock.
  40. 40. PinkeyePinkeye  Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (IKC)Infectious Keratoconjunctivitis (IKC)  A highly contagious disease affecting the eyes of sheepA highly contagious disease affecting the eyes of sheep and goats. May occur at any time of the year. Usuallyand goats. May occur at any time of the year. Usually occur following the irritation of eyes due to dustyoccur following the irritation of eyes due to dusty conditions, hauling in open trucks, wind exposure andconditions, hauling in open trucks, wind exposure and introduction of new animals into a flock.introduction of new animals into a flock.  CauseCause: May result from infective agents such as: May result from infective agents such as Chlamydia, certain viruses, rickettsea,Chlamydia, certain viruses, rickettsea, Nei s s eri aNei s s eri a ovi sovi s , and acholeplasma., and acholeplasma.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Excessive tearing, animal tries to avoid: Excessive tearing, animal tries to avoid bright light by turning away, blinking, and squintingbright light by turning away, blinking, and squinting excessively. Tears become thickened, yellowish, andexcessively. Tears become thickened, yellowish, and form crusts on the hairs of the eyelid. An opaque areaform crusts on the hairs of the eyelid. An opaque area may form on the cornea, causing impaired vision andmay form on the cornea, causing impaired vision and blindness.blindness.  TreatmentTreatment: Provide food, water, and shade. An: Provide food, water, and shade. An opthalmic ointment with an antibiotic can be applied toopthalmic ointment with an antibiotic can be applied to the eye, but it is necessary to do so on a daily basisthe eye, but it is necessary to do so on a daily basis
  41. 41. ScrapieScrapie  A disease of the central nervous system ofA disease of the central nervous system of sheep and goats. It is a slowly progressivesheep and goats. It is a slowly progressive disease becoming apparent in sheep one year ofdisease becoming apparent in sheep one year of age or older.age or older.  Requires quarantine measures with attemptsRequires quarantine measures with attempts made for eradication.made for eradication.  Certain breeds of sheep are more susceptibleCertain breeds of sheep are more susceptible than others, but all breeds can bethan others, but all breeds can be experimentally infected.experimentally infected.  Cause and Disease ProcessCause and Disease Process: The scrapie agent: The scrapie agent is infectious, much smaller and more resistantis infectious, much smaller and more resistant to conditions that are normally lethal forto conditions that are normally lethal for viruses. Genetic composition of the host animalviruses. Genetic composition of the host animal is important in determining susceptability.is important in determining susceptability.
  42. 42. ScrapieScrapie  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Rubbing against objects as if: Rubbing against objects as if itching, wool rubbed off of side, back or rump,itching, wool rubbed off of side, back or rump, biting and nibbling at skin and wool,biting and nibbling at skin and wool, incoordination, and may experience convulsions.incoordination, and may experience convulsions.  Death ultimately occurs in all cases.Death ultimately occurs in all cases.  Treatment:Treatment: NoneNone  PreventionPrevention: Quarantine of infected premises: Quarantine of infected premises and slaughter of affected and contact sheepand slaughter of affected and contact sheep will be required by the state veterinarian.will be required by the state veterinarian. Genetic testing of ewes and rams whenGenetic testing of ewes and rams when purchasing may help with control.purchasing may help with control.
  43. 43. Parasitic DiseasesParasitic Diseases  HaemonchosisHaemonchosis  GastrointestinalGastrointestinal RoundwormsRoundworms  TapewormsTapeworms  CysticercosisCysticercosis  HydatidosisHydatidosis  Liver FlukesLiver Flukes  CoccidiosisCoccidiosis  CryptosporidiosisCryptosporidiosis  ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis  SarcocystosisSarcocystosis
  44. 44. HaemonchosisHaemonchosis  Haemonchos i s cont ort us ,Haemonchos i s cont ort us , the barber- polethe barber- pole worm- A tiny nematode approx. 1 inch long withworm- A tiny nematode approx. 1 inch long with a red belly. Feed on the lining of thea red belly. Feed on the lining of the abomasum actively feeding on blood resulting inabomasum actively feeding on blood resulting in the red gut and produce anemia.the red gut and produce anemia.  SymptomsSymptoms:: – Following period of late summer rains andFollowing period of late summer rains and lush green grass, a few lambs may show signslush green grass, a few lambs may show signs of weakness, some may fall to the groundof weakness, some may fall to the ground with tremors or convulsions.with tremors or convulsions. – In early cases no scours or edema occurs butIn early cases no scours or edema occurs but mucous membranes are pale and death usuallymucous membranes are pale and death usually occurs.occurs.
  45. 45. HaemonchosisHaemonchosis  Disease Process: – Ingestion of larvae which hatched from eggs on pasture – Eggs are passed by sheep contaminating the pasture. Survival of larvae is enhanced by warmth and moisture. – Clinical signs are seen within one week after ingestion of larvae – Lambs having less previous exposure have a higher risk as well as ewes preparing for fall lambing, nutritionally weakened, or aged may also be at risk. – Those not showing acute signs will be chronically infected, scouring and edematous, and become carriers. Treatment/Prevention: Worming and pasture rotation. Seek advice from your veterinarian about an effective program.
  46. 46. Gastrointestinal RoundwormsGastrointestinal Roundworms  Clinical Signs:Clinical Signs: Scouring, loss of fleece condition, poorScouring, loss of fleece condition, poor weight gain or maintenance indicate effects ofweight gain or maintenance indicate effects of gastrointestinal parasitism due to irritation ofgastrointestinal parasitism due to irritation of gut lining, possible hemorrhage, competition forgut lining, possible hemorrhage, competition for nutrients and interference with digestion andnutrients and interference with digestion and water transport. Death may occur withwater transport. Death may occur with continuing loss of condition.continuing loss of condition. Diagnosis:Diagnosis: Clinical signs, seasonal performance, and fecalClinical signs, seasonal performance, and fecal examination may expose the appearance of eggsexamination may expose the appearance of eggs or even worms of ½ to 2” in length ator even worms of ½ to 2” in length at postmortem examination.postmortem examination.
  47. 47. TapewormsTapeworms  Tapeworms are long, ribbonlike, segmentedTapeworms are long, ribbonlike, segmented flatworms which can be 1- 2’ in length. Head isflatworms which can be 1- 2’ in length. Head is spherical w/4 muscular suckers and is called aspherical w/4 muscular suckers and is called a scolex. The scolex attaches to the smallscolex. The scolex attaches to the small intestinal lining but causes no damage orintestinal lining but causes no damage or pathology. They are carried by free- livingpathology. They are carried by free- living mites on grass.mites on grass.  Appearance of segmented worms hanging fromAppearance of segmented worms hanging from the anus or on fecal pellets resemblesthe anus or on fecal pellets resembles infestation.infestation.  There is no prevention method. Consult yourThere is no prevention method. Consult your veterinarian for treatment.veterinarian for treatment.
  48. 48. CysticercosisCysticercosis  A larval form of a tapeworm has encysted orA larval form of a tapeworm has encysted or embedded itself in the tissue of its host. Inembedded itself in the tissue of its host. In Cysticercosis, sheep are the intermediate hostCysticercosis, sheep are the intermediate host where the parasite is found embedded withinwhere the parasite is found embedded within the sheep’s tissue or muscles. Evidence isthe sheep’s tissue or muscles. Evidence is usually not seen until the animal is butcheredusually not seen until the animal is butchered causing condemnation of the carcass.causing condemnation of the carcass.  The mature worm is commonly found in the dog,The mature worm is commonly found in the dog, passed through feces and is picked up viapassed through feces and is picked up via contaminated feed.contaminated feed.  Another cause of Cysticercosis,Another cause of Cysticercosis, Echi nococcus granul os us ,Echi nococcus granul os us , usually encystsusually encysts the the liver or brain of the sheep rather thanthe the liver or brain of the sheep rather than the muscle. It is also carried by the dog,the muscle. It is also carried by the dog, wolf, coyote, fox, etc.wolf, coyote, fox, etc.
  49. 49. HydatidosisHydatidosis  Hydatid cysts may be found in the bodyHydatid cysts may be found in the body cavities of sheep, especially abdominal cavitiescavities of sheep, especially abdominal cavities of ewes.of ewes.  Baseball to softball sized, fluid filled, andBaseball to softball sized, fluid filled, and contain many white dots. This cyst representscontain many white dots. This cyst represents the intermediate or larval stage of a dogthe intermediate or larval stage of a dog tapeworm. Little pathology occurs, but thetapeworm. Little pathology occurs, but the growth of the cyst presses on surroundinggrowth of the cyst presses on surrounding organs, pushing them aside. Cysts not foundorgans, pushing them aside. Cysts not found until slaughter.until slaughter.  Treatment/PreventionTreatment/Prevention- No treatment for sheep.- No treatment for sheep. Deworm dogs annually. Do not feed sheepDeworm dogs annually. Do not feed sheep scraps to dogs and pickup sheep carcasses.scraps to dogs and pickup sheep carcasses.
  50. 50. Liver FlukesLiver Flukes  Small, leaf- shaped organisms that roll up like a scroll inSmall, leaf- shaped organisms that roll up like a scroll in the bile ducts or parenchyma (liver tissue).the bile ducts or parenchyma (liver tissue).  Two TypesTwo Types:: Fasciola-- the sheep liver fluke Fascioloides-- the deer fluke These usually occur in different geographical areas and haveThese usually occur in different geographical areas and have different pathologic effects on sheep.different pathologic effects on sheep. Pathologically, cause damage to the liver as immature flukesPathologically, cause damage to the liver as immature flukes migrate to the bile ducts. Heavy infection causes severemigrate to the bile ducts. Heavy infection causes severe liver damage, profuse hemorrhage, much of which into theliver damage, profuse hemorrhage, much of which into the body cavity during the 2 months of migration.body cavity during the 2 months of migration. Affected animals appear suddenly distressed, collapse and die.Affected animals appear suddenly distressed, collapse and die. Treatment/PreventionTreatment/Prevention:: There is no approved flukecide for sheep. Only preventionThere is no approved flukecide for sheep. Only prevention measures should be followed. Keep sheep away frommeasures should be followed. Keep sheep away from irrigated pastures or on higher ground.irrigated pastures or on higher ground.
  51. 51. CoccidiosisCoccidiosis  A major cause of poor feed efficiency andA major cause of poor feed efficiency and economic loss to the sheep producer.economic loss to the sheep producer.  Transmission occurs when an oocyst (egg- likeTransmission occurs when an oocyst (egg- like stage) is picked up while grazing or drinking.stage) is picked up while grazing or drinking.  When it reaches the intestines, proliferationWhen it reaches the intestines, proliferation occurs causing ulcerative lesions impedingoccurs causing ulcerative lesions impeding absorption and normal gut motility. May alsoabsorption and normal gut motility. May also cause alternating constipation and scouring.cause alternating constipation and scouring. Some hemorrhage may occur, but usually little.Some hemorrhage may occur, but usually little. Scouring is usually mucoid, and may causeScouring is usually mucoid, and may cause permanent loss of feed efficiency.permanent loss of feed efficiency.  Coccidia are opportunistic parasites having theirCoccidia are opportunistic parasites having their greatest disease effect during times of stress.greatest disease effect during times of stress.
  52. 52. CryptosporidiosisCryptosporidiosis  Cryptosporidium proliferates in the small intestineCryptosporidium proliferates in the small intestine and possibly the cecum.and possibly the cecum.  Affects all mammals and can transmit from one hostAffects all mammals and can transmit from one host species to another. i.e. lambs to humansspecies to another. i.e. lambs to humans  Its susceptible targets include the very young orIts susceptible targets include the very young or older animals which have not been previouslyolder animals which have not been previously infected.infected.  It resides on the surface of the gut andIt resides on the surface of the gut and proliferates rather than within the cells lining theproliferates rather than within the cells lining the gut. It interferes with water transport.gut. It interferes with water transport.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: yellowish, watery scours and rapid: yellowish, watery scours and rapid dehydration.dehydration.  Treatment/PreventionTreatment/Prevention: No treatment or prevention: No treatment or prevention measures.measures.
  53. 53. ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis  Toxoplasma is another coccidian, found in theToxoplasma is another coccidian, found in the gut of young cats which contaminate hay, othergut of young cats which contaminate hay, other feedstuffs and possibly grass in small lots.feedstuffs and possibly grass in small lots.  In sheep and humans, this organism infects theIn sheep and humans, this organism infects the lining of blood vessels and the tissues of alllining of blood vessels and the tissues of all organs in which it proliferates.organs in which it proliferates.  Sheep are infected by ingestion of oocysts orSheep are infected by ingestion of oocysts or by transmission of organisms from dam to theby transmission of organisms from dam to the fetus.fetus.  Cause destruction of tissue by pressureCause destruction of tissue by pressure produced by masses of organisms.produced by masses of organisms.  A major problem with abortions.A major problem with abortions.
  54. 54. SarcocystosisSarcocystosis  Sarcocystis is a coccidian developing in the gutSarcocystis is a coccidian developing in the gut of dogs and cats and is transmitted to sheepof dogs and cats and is transmitted to sheep while grazing. Causes damage to blood vesselswhile grazing. Causes damage to blood vessels and muscle. Dogs and cats become infected byand muscle. Dogs and cats become infected by eating sheep scraps.eating sheep scraps.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Weakness, fever, anemia, loss: Weakness, fever, anemia, loss of weight and reproductivity. Abortion notof weight and reproductivity. Abortion not proved. Proliferative masses are seen as “whiteproved. Proliferative masses are seen as “white streaks” in muscle.streaks” in muscle.
  55. 55. External ParasitesExternal Parasites  Fly StrikeFly Strike  BotsBots  KedsKeds  Mange MitesMange Mites  TicksTicks
  56. 56. Fly StrikeFly Strike  Occurs when flies are attracted to soiled wool,Occurs when flies are attracted to soiled wool, opened wounds, and dying (necrotic) tissue.opened wounds, and dying (necrotic) tissue. Blowflies may deposit eggs which hatch almostBlowflies may deposit eggs which hatch almost immediately, the larvae feast on tissue fluids andimmediately, the larvae feast on tissue fluids and necrotic tissue resulting in myiasis (maggotnecrotic tissue resulting in myiasis (maggot infestation)infestation)  DiagnosisDiagnosis: Examine animals frequently such as under: Examine animals frequently such as under tail or tail head, the flanks, fresh wet navels. Iftail or tail head, the flanks, fresh wet navels. If animal acts strangely, maggots can often be found.animal acts strangely, maggots can often be found.  Treatment/PreventionTreatment/Prevention: Thoroughly clean area to: Thoroughly clean area to determine extent of infestation, remove maggotsdetermine extent of infestation, remove maggots and spray a wound dressing containing 2- 3%and spray a wound dressing containing 2- 3% insecticide. Examine and clean newborns and injuredinsecticide. Examine and clean newborns and injured sheep, especially during fly season. Use fly spraysheep, especially during fly season. Use fly spray liberally.liberally.
  57. 57. BotsBots  The adult fly darts at the sheep, depositingThe adult fly darts at the sheep, depositing eggs around the muzzle, driving lambs crazy.eggs around the muzzle, driving lambs crazy.  Eggs immediately hatch and tiny larvae (bots)Eggs immediately hatch and tiny larvae (bots) crawl into the nasal passages feeding on mucouscrawl into the nasal passages feeding on mucous irritating the lining of the nasal passages.irritating the lining of the nasal passages.  May develop into a large spiny bot during theMay develop into a large spiny bot during the summer.summer.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Lambs hide heads, paw at their: Lambs hide heads, paw at their faces, excessive mucus, sneezing, occasionalfaces, excessive mucus, sneezing, occasional circling.circling.  Treatment/PreventionTreatment/Prevention: Certain cattle drugs not: Certain cattle drugs not approved for sheep have proven effective. Mayapproved for sheep have proven effective. May be used with the prescription of a veterinarian.be used with the prescription of a veterinarian. Good spray program could be beneficial asGood spray program could be beneficial as
  58. 58. KedsKeds  ““Sheep Ticks” are often mistaken for realSheep Ticks” are often mistaken for real ticks but are really wingless flies, reddishticks but are really wingless flies, reddish brown in color, have 6 legs with claws andbrown in color, have 6 legs with claws and piercing- sucking mouthparts.piercing- sucking mouthparts.  Females deposit larvae or maggots which attachFemales deposit larvae or maggots which attach to the wool or skin. Adults emerge within ato the wool or skin. Adults emerge within a month.month.  Pierce the skin and cause irritation and bloodPierce the skin and cause irritation and blood loss.loss.  DiagnosisDiagnosis: Appearance of Keds: Appearance of Keds  Treatment/PreventionTreatment/Prevention: Ectrin is effective and: Ectrin is effective and approved for sheep. Shearing and use of Ectrinapproved for sheep. Shearing and use of Ectrin is a good preventive measure.is a good preventive measure.
  59. 59. Mange MitesMange Mites  There are several species of mites which mayThere are several species of mites which may damage skin and wool.damage skin and wool.  Psoroptic and Sarcoptic mange cause “scab” aPsoroptic and Sarcoptic mange cause “scab” a leaking of tissue fluid mixed with blood.leaking of tissue fluid mixed with blood.  Highly contagious and must be reported to stateHighly contagious and must be reported to state officials with quarantine required.officials with quarantine required.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Constant rubbing, wool breaks,: Constant rubbing, wool breaks, scab, debilitation, death.scab, debilitation, death.  Treatment:Treatment: Must contact state or USDA vetMust contact state or USDA vet offices.offices.  PreventionPrevention: Quarantine, treatment, slaughter: Quarantine, treatment, slaughter
  60. 60. TicksTicks  There are several species which may include theThere are several species which may include the 6- legged larva or seed tick, the 8- legged6- legged larva or seed tick, the 8- legged nymph or the 8- legged adult. The latter stagenymph or the 8- legged adult. The latter stage is larger and prefers large mammals. It alsois larger and prefers large mammals. It also engorges blood necessary for egg production.engorges blood necessary for egg production. The adult eventually drops off to lay eggs inThe adult eventually drops off to lay eggs in the soil.the soil.  Sheep become infested by brushing againstSheep become infested by brushing against long- stemmed grass and brush where tickslong- stemmed grass and brush where ticks await.await.  Clinical SignsClinical Signs: Weakness due to irritation and: Weakness due to irritation and blood loss, weight loss, heavy infestations mayblood loss, weight loss, heavy infestations may lead to death especially in young, neglectedlead to death especially in young, neglected
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