1. LIFE LINES OF NATIONALLIFE LINES OF NATIONAL
PRESENTED BYPRESENTED BY
S. K. GUPTAS. K. GUPTA
K.V.No.2 OFDR, PUNEK.V.No.2 OFDR, PUNE
To explain the importance of transport
and communication in the ever shrinking
3. MODES OF TRANSPORT
Transport, communication and trade play an important role in day to day life
as they link production with consumption. Production itself becomes easy by
transport, communication and trade as processing site is linked with the
sites of raw material. Developed transport, communication and trade help
goods and services being distributed in the local, national and international
markets. They not only ensure movement of people, materials and
communication but also movement of ideas, and skill from one region to
another. So, the development of efficient transport and communication
network reflects the development of economy and the country as a whole.
These means are called lifelines of a nation‘s economy.
In the modern world, no country can prosper without the co-operation and
help of other countries . For this movement of goods and material is
essential among the countries .Movement of goods and materials among
the countries is termed as trade. Trade provides with our necessities and
also add to our amenities and comforts. Transport, communication and
trade are essential for economic integration, social interaction and defence
of the country as well as other countries.
5. TRANSPORT NETWORKTRANSPORT NETWORK
MEANS OF TRANSPORT
LAND WATER AIR
ROADWAYS RAILWAYS PIPELINES
NETWORK OF ROADS IN INDIA - 33.2 lakh km.NETWORK OF ROADS IN INDIA - 33.2 lakh km.
On the basis of nature & surfacing - 1.Metalled (pucca)- 57%
2. Unmetalled (kuchcha) -43%
On the basis of construction & maintenance –
(a.) Golden Quadrilateral Super Highway :
(i) NHDP Phase- INHDP Phase- I :- 5,846 km., six lane,
CONNECTING-Delhi ,Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata
(ii) NHDP Phase- II :- 7300 km.
* NS Corridors – Srinagar to Kanyakumari
* EW Corridors – Silchar(Assam) to Porbandar(Gujarat)
(iii) Port connectivity and other projects - 1,157 km.
(iv) NHDP Phase – III:- 4,015km., 4 lane ,
-National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) is the implementing agency for NHDP programme.
-NHAI is implement 4 laning of 603km. Special Accelerated Road Development Programme in
the North Eastern Region (SARDP-NE) ,
7. -(b.)(b.) NATIONAL HIGHWAYSNATIONAL HIGHWAYS ---- As on March 31,2006 - 65,569 km.
2% of the total length of the road network
CPWD constructs and maintains National Highways.
35%-single lane, 53%-2lane & 12%-4 lane or more.
(c.)(c.) STATE HIGHWAYSSTATE HIGHWAYS ---- 1.28 lakh km. 97%of the length of state highway
The State Highways are constructed and maintained by State Government.
(d.)(d.) DISTRICTS ROADSDISTRICTS ROADS –– 4,70,000 km.
Districts authorities constructs and maintain the District Roads
(e.)(e.) OTHER ROADSOTHER ROADS - mostly kuchcha roads, 26,50,000 km.
(f.)(f.) BORDER ROADSBORDER ROADS -- Border Road Development Board , World’s highest
Roads from Manali (H.P.) to Leh of Ladakh (J&K)
ROAD DENSITY -ROAD DENSITY - The lowest density – 10 km.per 100 sq.km in J.&K.
The highest density – 375 km.per 100 sq.km. in Kerala
The national average of road density – 75 km. per 100 sq. km.
PROBLEMS FACED BY ROAD TRANSPORT –PROBLEMS FACED BY ROAD TRANSPORT – 1.Inadequate
2 .43% of road are
3. Highly congested in cities & Bridges are narrow.
4.Roadside amenities are not sufficient &Emergencies services are poor.
Introduced by British Govt. in 1853 - 34 km. between Mumbai to ThaneIntroduced by British Govt. in 1853 - 34 km. between Mumbai to Thane
Railway Network in India
(As on March 31,2004)
1. Route Length : 63,221 km
2.Railway Station :7,031
3. Railway Engines :7,817
4. Coaches :36,510
5. Wagons :2,28,170
6. Running Track :1,07,969 km.
7. Electrified Track :17,500 km.
8. Zones :16
9. PROGRESS MADE BY INDIANPROGRESS MADE BY INDIAN
RAILWAYS SINCE INDEPENDENCERAILWAYS SINCE INDEPENDENCE
1. The total length of railway network as on March, 2002 was 63028 km.
(i) Broad Gauge (1.67 metre) - 45622 km. (70%)
(ii) Metre Gauge (1 metre) - 14364 km. (24.6%)
(iii) Narrow Gauge(0.77 metre) - 3136 km. (5.36%)
As on March, 1951 – 53596 km. - 18% increase
2. Additional Lines on the already existing busy routes– total running track had increased
from 59,315 km. to 1,07,969 km. in 2001.
3. Electrification of route – By March,2006 the Indian railways had got 17500 km. of
railway route electrified.(26% of total route)
Purposes of Electrification –(i) relieves railways from steam engines.
(ii) ensure more speedy movement.
(iii) Clean and pollution free travel.
4. Container Service - Provides door to door service for goods & commodities by CCI.
5. Computerised reservation & more and more coaches and sleepers.
6. METRO Railway - Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai & Chennai
7. Super fast Trains -
8. Biggest Government Department – 15.5 lakhs regular employees &2 lakhs casual.
10. PRESENT PROBLEMS OFPRESENT PROBLEMS OF
INDIAN RAILWAYSINDIAN RAILWAYS
Travelling without tickets.
Thefts of railway properties.
Damaging railway properties.
Pulling up of chains and stopping of trains.
Attacks of terrorists.
Throwing of passengers out of trains over traffic matters
Pipelines have become a major means of transport and are used
in transporting crude oil, petroleum product and natural gas
from the oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertiliser
factories and big thermal power generation plants.
Major categories of pipeline transportation in India :-
1. upper Assam Oil fields to Kanpur via Guwahati, Barauni and Allahabad
2. Salaya (Gujarat) to Jalandhar (Punjab) via Viramgam, Mathura, Delhi and
3. Hazira (Gujarat) to Jagdishpur (U.P.) via Bijapur (M.P.) –the longest pipeline
in India -1700km.
4. Mumbai HIGH with Mumbai – Pune
PROPOSED PIPELINES –
(I) Between Kandla and Panipat
(II) Between Kandla and Bina
(III) Between Mumbai and Manmad
(IV) Between Vishakhapatanam to Vijaiwada
(V) between Mangalore to Chennai via Bangalore
India has a large number of perennial rivers and a very long coastline of 6100 km.
Types of waterways:- (a.) Inland water transport
(b) Ocean water transport
National WaterwaysNational Waterways :-
1.The Ganga river - Allahabad to Haldia - 1620 km.
2. The Brahmaputra river - Sadiya TO Dhubri - 891 km.
3. The West Coast Canal - Kollam to Kottapuram - 14 km.
4. The Champakara Canal – Kerala -13 km.
5. Udagmandalam Canal - Kerala -22 km.
Major Sea PortsMajor Sea Ports :- At the time of Independence - 5 sea ports
Sea ports at West Coast Seaports at East Coast
1. Kandla 1. Tuticorin
2. Mumbai 2. Chennai
3. Nhova Sheva (Jawahar Lal Nehru) 3. Ennore
4.Mormugao 4. Vishakhapatnam
5. Mangalore 5. Paradip
6. Kochi 6. Haldia
Air travel is the fastest, most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
Civil Aviation Department of controls and supervises the activities of airlines
and gives guidelines for safe operations of the airlines.
AIR SERVICES :- 1. Air India - 26 Air Craft
2. Indian Airlines - 54 Air Craft
3. Pawan Hans Helicopters
4. Private Air Lines (Scheduled & Non-scheduled)-70
International Airports :- 14 1.Delhi 8.Kochi
3.Chennai 10. Guwahati
4. Kolkata 11. Bangalore
5. Amritsar 12. Thiruvananthapuram
6. Ahmedabad 13. Srinagar
7. Panaji 14. Pune
Airports are managed by Airports Authority of India.
14. The Role of Transport Network in the
development of India
1. Lifelines of the Country-
3. Turning of local market into national market
4. Help in the development of economy
5. National integration of the country
6. Cultural integration
15. COMMUNICATION NETEORKCOMMUNICATION NETEORK
Communication is the process in which messages are sent from one
place to another; people sitting thousands of km. away talk with one
another and even watch one another.
Various Means of communication-Various Means of communication-
1. Postal Services –
2. Print Media
4. Electronic Media - Radio & Television
5. Teleprinters and Cables
The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as
Trade between two countries is called international trade.
Foreign Trade includes exports and imports. Export trade is the trade
in which a country supplies its surplus goods and commodities to other
nations and earn valuable foreign exchange. Import trade is the trade in
which a country obtains these goods and commodities from other countries
in which it is deficient.
Balance of Trade is the difference in the value of exports and
Major items of India’s Exports - Agriculture and allied product, ores and
minerals, gems and jewellery and chemical products, engineering goods.
Major items of India’s Imports- Petroleum and petroleum products,
pearls and precious stones, inorganic chemical, coke, machinery, fertilizers
Except 1972-73 and 1976-77, India’s trade balance has been adverse since