Stephens coll 30_01_10


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Stephens coll 30_01_10

  2. 2. 1. Chemistry for Life Support Systems 2. Driving Force for Applied Chemistry 3. Applied Chemistry; Value Addition 4. Chemistry: Past, Present and Future 5. Applications of Chemistry in Various Areas 6. Role of Chemistry in Sustainable Development Outline of the Presentation
  3. 3. Life Support Systems Survival Chemistry for Life Support Systems Materials Energy  Water  Air  Food Consist of materials made up of Inorganic, Organic and Bio-chemicals; all chemicals  Housing  Infrastructure  Transport  Bio-Fuel  Petroleum & Coal  Nuclear Life Support Systems
  4. 4. Driving Force for Applied Chemistry  Industrial Challenges  Material Challenges  Value Addition  Sustainability  All challenges lead to opportunities for applied chemistry in various industrial sectors; results in value addition and each time the research is applied
  5. 5. Use of Sugar (Carbohydrate) Smell of Garlic (Diallyl disulphide) Use of Salt (Sodium chloride) Red hot chillies (Capsaicin) Applied Chemistry; Value Addition Preservatives Pickles Pickles and Medicines Preservatives Food Chemistry
  6. 6. Ethylene Vinyl acetate Adhesives, paints & coating, copolymers Disinfectants, sterilizing agent, fumigants MEG-heat transfer fluid, PET DEG-softener, plastisizer, solvents PEG- cosmetics, ointments, pharma, lubricants Ethylene oxide Engineering plastic Acetals Antifreeze agent, automobile polyester resins Ethylene glycol LDPE HDPE LLDPE Packaging, molded items pipes & tubes Ethyl benzene Styrenic plastic, paint Value Addition Through Chemistry
  7. 7. Phenol Esters Adipic acid Resin-PF Insulating foam Foundry Adhesive Coating Moulded items Alkyl phenols Cresol : Lamination Nonyl phenols : Adhesives, emulsifiers p-tert. Butyl phenol : Adhesives Aniline Rubber chemicals Agro Chemicals Pharmaceuticals Dye intermediates Value Addition Through Chemistry
  8. 8. Organic Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Physical Chemistry FieldsofChemistry PAST PRESENT FUTURE Polymer Chemistry Textile Chemistry Mineral Chemistry Photo Chemistry Material Chemistry Nuclear Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry Biochemistry Food/Agro Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Nano Chemistry Combinatorial Chemistry Green Chemistry Polymer Chemistry Environmental Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Radiation Chemistry Chemistry : Past, Present & Future  The focus has shifted from basic chemistry to the applied chemistry
  9. 9. Polymers Applications of Polymer Chemistry Packaging Textile Building Materials Medicinal Electronics  Lightweight  Durable  Cost effective  Variety available
  10. 10. Food wrapping/storage in skin, leaves and salts Storage in Glass jars Storage in Metal container Storage in Plastic pouches Retortable Vacuum Permeable Aseptic Early times….. 19th -20th century…… 20th century…… 21th century…… Chemistry in Packaging Industry
  11. 11. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Applications of Pharmaceutical Chemistry Drug designing Growth rate of Pharma industry: World : 8.0 % per year India : 9.0 % per year (Medical News Today, May 2005)  Herbal medicines to become more popular !  Scientific studies would help to provide better alternatives for health care Drug safety Drug efficacy Drug synthesis
  12. 12. Agrochemicals Applications of Agrochemicals Herbicide, Insecticides, Nematocides Preservatives Manure Fertilizers Plant growth regulators  India 2nd largest manufacturer of crop protection chemicals Industry is worth of Rs. 3600 crore Global market $ 2700 million •Minimum residue •Maximum degradation •High effectivity •Effective only at the target
  13. 13. Performance Chemicals Applications of Performance Chemicals Soaps, Surfactants & Detergents Polymer additives Personal care products Food additives Flavors & Fragrances • Multifunctional • Synergistic • Hyperactive • Selective • Environment friendly  MINOR ADDITIVE & MAJOR PERFORMERMINOR ADDITIVE & MAJOR PERFORMER
  14. 14. Relevance of Trends Towards Performance Chemicals  Production with minimum area & minimum chemicals Reasons for shifted focusArea Agrochemicals  Long term effects & minimum side effects  Mileage with minimum wear & tear & minimum pollution  Durability & versatility with minimum burden on environment  Comfort with minimum maintenance Pharmaceuticals Automobiles & oils Plastics Textiles Mining Paints & Coatings  Safety with minimum health hazards  Protection & aesthetics with minimum pollution Soaps & Detergents  Multifunctionality with minimum environmental burden Leather  Appearance & performance with minimum processing time Cosmetics  Aesthetics & skin friendly with no allergy
  15. 15. Green Chemistry Applications of Green Chemistry Waste minimization Separation Processes Energy Efficiency Catalysis Process Intensification • Also called sustainable chemistry • Encourages the design of products & processes that reduce the use & generation of hazardous substances Safer reaction & reagents Solvent replacement Use of renewable feedstock Minimize potential for accidents Avoid chemical derivatives Analyze in real time to prevent pollution
  16. 16. Applications of Nano Chemistry N A N O P A R T I C L E S Defence Bio Medical Automative Industry Space Aerospace • Emerging field •Wide applications  Accelerometers  Pressure sensors  Drug infusion pumps  Microneedles  Glucometer  Air bags  Tyre pressure sensors  Fuel injection systems  Pressure sensors  Optical gyros  Propulsion systems  Health monitoring accelerometers  Pressure sensors
  17. 17.  Most important requirement of industry  Improve our food chain system • Basic for clinical laboratory tests • Help physicians diagnose disease • Quality of environment • Remedial measures for contaminants  Quality assurance of raw materials  Quality assurance of products  Compositions for product development  Impurities and toxic contaminants  Nutrients and label claims  Meet the statutory requirements  Evolve healthy & eco-friendly society  Benchmarking of products and R & D  Improving quality of life Industry Environment Food Air Water Soil Functional Foods Pharmaceuticals Materials Paints Polymer/ Textiles Metal/ Minerals Cement Fuels Analytical Chemistry: Dimensions of Applications
  18. 18. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Energy Environment Food New Materials  360° approach of development through Chemistry Chemistry for Sustainable Development
  19. 19. New Materials Renewable starting materials Water based reaction media  Present day chemistry challenges involves the development of alternatives with assured sustainability Chemistry in Support of sustainability Natural Catalyst Spontaneous reaction
  20. 20.  Environmentally benign feedstocks/synthesis  Pharmaceuticals  Greener solvents  Bio-based synthesis ad processing Conversion of biomass to chemicals Challenge for Chemists
  21. 21.  Everything in the cycle moves through chemicals pertains to chemistry through bioprocesses  Sustainability is cyclic and irreversible and hence, thermodynamically feasible, possible and stable Cradle CHEMISTRY Environment & Ecology Biodiversity Grave Sustainability: Life Cycle & Chemistry
  22. 22. THANK YOU