Presented By
Dr. R.K. KHANDAL
DIRECTOR
ASPECTS OF FOOD SAFETY:
DEVELOPMENTS & GLOBAL TRENDS
SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRI...
Aspects of Food Safety: Developments &
Global Trends
Part – I
• Food Quality & Food Safety Requirements
Aspects
• WTO, Cod...
OUTLINE I: QUALITY, SAFETY & STANDARDS
 Food and Food Quality
 Food Safety
 Safety Laws
 Food Safety Issues : Divide b...
Food & Food Quality
 Food is anything which is:
 Solid or liquid
 Digested when ingested
 Assimilated in the body
 Performs various funct...
Sources of
Food
FRUITS
SPICES TUBER CROPS
CEREALS,
PULSES,
OILSEEDS
MUSHROOM
PLANTATION
CROPS
MARINE FOOD
MEDICAL
AROMATIC...
• Special diet
• Antioxidants
• Functional foods
• Milk & dairy
• Fish & fisheries
• Fruits
• Nuts
• Dry fruits
• Spices
•...
 Additives must be checked for safety
 Bulk food must meet criteria of quality and safety
Additives : Small quantity
Com...
Perception of Quality Food ?
Regulator
Nutritious, healthy, safe
functional, un-adulterated,
hygienic
 Food quality is pe...
Food Safety
 Safe food is the one without:
 Microbial contamination
 Mycotoxins
 Environmental contamination
 Residual Agrochemic...
ASPECTS
Post Harvest
 In order to minimize risk several challenges exist
at all levels
HarvestSeeds
Pre Harvest
Soil Wate...
Farm to Table : Safety Aspects for Milk
Stages
 Animals
 Collection of Milk
 Transportation
Factors Affecting
Quality
...
Stages
 Storage
 Packaging
Factors Affecting
Quality
 Hygiene
 Temperature
 Type
 Sterility
 Hygiene
Attributes
 R...
Stages
 Agriculture
 Harvest
Factors Affecting
Quality
 Soil
 Water
 Seeds
 Fertilizers
 GM Seeds
 Technology
 Pr...
 Agri-products involve more complexities than dairy farming
Stages
Processing
 Packaging
 Transportation
Attributes
 ...
 For safe food, each stage is critical for one reason or the other !
Sources
&
Control Points
Medical
treatment
Mycotoxin...
Food Safety Laws
 Consumer confidence in food
 Greater assurance
 Transparency
 Traceability
Requirements of Food Safety Laws
All the ...
Food Safety: Development & Trends
 All the developments demand for food safety as a
criteria for food quality for global ...
CODEX
Codex Alimentarious: Definition
Science based
organization
Reference point for food
safety
Focal point for R&D in
fo...
CODEX
Codex Alimentarious: Scope
Food safety
issues
Labelling
Exchange of
information
Facilitation for
compliance of
food ...
CODEX
Codex Alimentarious: Dimensions
Harmonization of
standards
Information provider
Resolution of disputes
Level-up
appr...
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Agreement (SPS)
 Protects human, animal and plant health
 Based upon scientific prin...
SPS Agreement : Based on 7 Principles
 National Sovereignty : Countries can use own risk standards
 Harmonisation : Reac...
Food Safety Issues :
Developed Vs Developing World
Food Consumption Pattern ?
• Mostly fresh food
• Additives and chemicals used for
preservation and aesthetics
• Mostly Pro...
Issues Related to Food : Status ?
• PrimarySecurity
Quality
Production
Preservation
Processing
 A distinct division betwe...
Position of India in Global Food Production
Position Issues for Exports Target CountriesProduct
1
Milk, Tea, Jute, spices,...
• Institutional Co-ordination
Food Safety: Key issues for India
 Focus to create: Awareness for food safety issues; R & D...
Challenges
&
Opportunities
 Each component is important for the issues and
challenges of food safety in their own respect
MANUFACTURER
Aspects of Fo...
MANUFACTURER
Aspects of Food Safety : Manufacturer Related
OpportunitiesChallenges
Processing
 Process Validation
 Cost ...
PRODUCT
Aspects of Food Safety : Product Related
OpportunitiesChallenges
Residues of banned chemicals
 Product tractabili...
REGULATORS
Aspects of Food Safety : Regulator Related
 Facilitation food trade
 Acceptance of export
consignment
MRLS
Ba...
CONSUMER Opportunities
 Developing appropriate policy to advance ecologically friendly alternative &
ecosystem restoratio...
What are we trying to say ?
 Food safety issues are complex in several
ways
 A divide exists between the producers and
c...
Rejection of Consignments
Basis: Non-Scientific MRL Values (An Example)
 Rejection of consignment from Indian to EU as a ...
06/26/14 1 OF 46 39
6021
11010 10589
12845
21461
30192
0 0
5%6.76%
12.43%23.69%
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000...
06/26/14 1 OF 46 40
Amount of Honey Exported (Rs. in million) From IndiaRs.(inmillion)
Year
Heavy Rejections
RMP in place
06/26/14 1 OF 46 41
Challenges and Opportunities
Self reliance
Contravention of Exports
(Cereals, Spices, Herbal
Products,...
The Path Forward!
Interactions: Industry – Academia – Government
 Interdisciplinary interactions important for safe food & growth of
food i...
 Establish existing level of Quality at National
Level
 Risk assessment studies by researchers in all
areas
 Developmen...
Food Safety Challenges are off-
set by Global Opportunities
`
Let us race
for them !
THANK YOU
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  1. 1. Presented By Dr. R.K. KHANDAL DIRECTOR ASPECTS OF FOOD SAFETY: DEVELOPMENTS & GLOBAL TRENDS SHRIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 19, UNIVERSITY ROAD, DELHI-110 007 Email : sridlhi@vsnl.com Website : www.shriraminstitute.org
  2. 2. Aspects of Food Safety: Developments & Global Trends Part – I • Food Quality & Food Safety Requirements Aspects • WTO, Codex and Harmonization of Standards Part –II • Residues of Toxic Contaminants • Method Validation and Techniques Toady’s interactive session would focus on above four main aspects in two parts
  3. 3. OUTLINE I: QUALITY, SAFETY & STANDARDS  Food and Food Quality  Food Safety  Safety Laws  Food Safety Issues : Divide between Developed & Developing World  Codex Challenges & WTO opportunities  The path forward
  4. 4. Food & Food Quality
  5. 5.  Food is anything which is:  Solid or liquid  Digested when ingested  Assimilated in the body  Performs various functions in the body What is Food ?  Anything that is eaten or ingested and includes : Beverages like water, Additives like spices
  6. 6. Sources of Food FRUITS SPICES TUBER CROPS CEREALS, PULSES, OILSEEDS MUSHROOM PLANTATION CROPS MARINE FOOD MEDICAL AROMATIC PLANT VEGETABLES  Land-farming, aqua-farming and animal husbandry MEAT & POULTRY MILK &DAIRY PRODUCTS
  7. 7. • Special diet • Antioxidants • Functional foods • Milk & dairy • Fish & fisheries • Fruits • Nuts • Dry fruits • Spices • Herbal extracts • Exotic fruits Food For ? Survival Nutrition • Staple diet • Basic foods • Healthy ingredients • Nutrients  Ranges from staple diet to healthy diet with functionality Functional • Grains & cereals • Fruits & Vegetables • Meat & Poultry
  8. 8.  Additives must be checked for safety  Bulk food must meet criteria of quality and safety Additives : Small quantity Components of Food Basket ? Major Minor  Cereals  Pulses  Dairy  Fruits  Vegetables Spices Sweetener Food Colour Flavour Natural Synthetic Preservatives Food colours Emulsifiers Antioxidants Antifoaming agents Bulk : Large quantity Vegetarian Non-Vegetarian  Meat  Poultry  Marine
  9. 9. Perception of Quality Food ? Regulator Nutritious, healthy, safe functional, un-adulterated, hygienic  Food quality is perceived differently by consumer and the regulator  Stringent quality norms for international trade Consumer Freshness, aroma, taste, appearance, free from foreign particles and insect infestation
  10. 10. Food Safety
  11. 11.  Safe food is the one without:  Microbial contamination  Mycotoxins  Environmental contamination  Residual Agrochemicals  Residual Antibiotics/Veterinary Drugs  Unsafe Gene Modification  Banned Chemicals  Adulteration  Definition based on impurities : minor or major Safe Food ?
  12. 12. ASPECTS Post Harvest  In order to minimize risk several challenges exist at all levels HarvestSeeds Pre Harvest Soil Water for irrigation Chemicals & fertilizers Planting material Adulteration Crop maturity Pest & Diseases Shelf-life - Radiation - Refrigeration - Modified condition Packaging Migration of components Transportation Controlled conditions Storage Conditions Treatment Conditions Processing -Technology - Additives Gene modified Variety Treatment Technology Aspects of Food Safety
  13. 13. Farm to Table : Safety Aspects for Milk Stages  Animals  Collection of Milk  Transportation Factors Affecting Quality  Fodder  Medicinal treatment  Sanitation of animal  Barn hygiene  Hygiene of milkman  Equipment and utensils  Distance  Time  Heat  Light  Violent movement Attributes  Taste  Flavour  Fat  Flavour  Appearance  Taste  Appearance Possible Contaminants  Fertilizers, Pesticides  Antibiotics, veterinary drugs  Physical contaminants  Bacteria  Microbial contamination  Physical contaminants  Bacteria
  14. 14. Stages  Storage  Packaging Factors Affecting Quality  Hygiene  Temperature  Type  Sterility  Hygiene Attributes  Ranicidity  Appearance  Shelf life  Taste  Flavour  Shelf life Possible Contaminants  Micro organism  Bacteria  Chemicals  Micro organisms  Bacteria  Extraneous matter Possibilities of contamination exist at each step of processing For safe food (milk) careful monitoring is a must ! CONSUMER Farm to Table : Safety Aspects for Milk
  15. 15. Stages  Agriculture  Harvest Factors Affecting Quality  Soil  Water  Seeds  Fertilizers  GM Seeds  Technology  Proper Timing Attributes  Taste  Flavour  Flavour  Appearance  Taste  Appearance  Flavour Contaminants introduced  Fertilizers  Pesticides  Chemicals  Heavy metals  Physical  Pesticides residues  Microbial contamination  Mycotoxins  Fumigants  Insect infestation  Storage  Moisture  Temperature  Humidity  Fumigants Farm to Table: Safety Aspects for Agri-Products
  16. 16.  Agri-products involve more complexities than dairy farming Stages Processing  Packaging  Transportation Attributes  Taste  Appearance  Flavour  Shelf life  Taste  Flavour  Appearance  Shelf life  Taste  Appearance  Flavour  Rancidity Factors Affecting Quality  Technology  Additives  Material used  Hygiene  Distance  Time  Heat Contaminants introduced  Physical  Banned chemicals  Heavy metals  Microbial  Leachables  Chemicals  Micro organisms  Bacteria  Extraneous matter  Bacteria CONSUMER Farm to Table : Safety Aspects for Agri-Products
  17. 17.  For safe food, each stage is critical for one reason or the other ! Sources & Control Points Medical treatment Mycotoxins Agrochemical Rearing Agriculture Microbes Consumer Storage Retails Transportation Packaging Processing Environment Hygiene Degradation on shelf Life • PAH/PCBs • Dioxins • Furans • Heavy Metals Veterinary residues Microbes Leachables Residues
  18. 18. Food Safety Laws
  19. 19.  Consumer confidence in food  Greater assurance  Transparency  Traceability Requirements of Food Safety Laws All the above to be reflected in food laws Food laws should be universal with harmonized standards and norms
  20. 20. Food Safety: Development & Trends  All the developments demand for food safety as a criteria for food quality for global food trade  The trends are clear for harmonization of standards and compliance of SPS norms Development Resulting Trend WTO Codex SPS PS • Undisputed platform for resolving global food trade issues • Harmonization of food quality Standards • Mechanism & systems to ensure food safety • Systems to streamline the global food trade between developing and developed countries
  21. 21. CODEX Codex Alimentarious: Definition Science based organization Reference point for food safety Focal point for R&D in food Independent and unbiased Consisting of experts Multi-disciplinary An independent international organization serving as the reference point for food safety consisting of experts from multi-disciplinary areas of food safety in the world Codex A set up by WHO & FAO in 1962 has emerged as the focal point for all food safety issues What is Codex A? What it consists of?
  22. 22. CODEX Codex Alimentarious: Scope Food safety issues Labelling Exchange of information Facilitation for compliance of food safety Standards & quality norms R & D on food safety Codex A deals with all aspects of food safety for global food trade To provide informations: quality, standards, R & D, etc. A reference for 169 members for disputes of food trade What it deals with? What is its purpose?
  23. 23. CODEX Codex Alimentarious: Dimensions Harmonization of standards Information provider Resolution of disputes Level-up approach Prioritization of R & D areas for food safety Scientific basis for quality standards  Codex A has several facets, as an inter-governmental statutory body to ensure food safety for all !
  24. 24. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Agreement (SPS)  Protects human, animal and plant health  Based upon scientific principle involving risk assessment studies  Covers all aspects of :  Testing  Inspection  Certification  Approvals  Packaging and Labelling  All aspects are directly related to food safety
  25. 25. SPS Agreement : Based on 7 Principles  National Sovereignty : Countries can use own risk standards  Harmonisation : Reach a common measurement  Equivalence : Acceptance of SPS measures of another countries  Science based measures : Include risk assessment studies  Regionalisation : Allow Exports from disease free area  Transparency : With respect to SPS measures if differ in internationally recognised standards  Dispute resolution : Provides mechanism for resolving disputes through scientific justification  Leading multilateral agreement affecting the international food trade ; Essential for food trade !
  26. 26. Food Safety Issues : Developed Vs Developing World
  27. 27. Food Consumption Pattern ? • Mostly fresh food • Additives and chemicals used for preservation and aesthetics • Mostly Processed Food • Additives and chemicals used for preservation • Food Safety is not a major concern • Less concern about microbial, chemical residues • Food safety norms: Flexible • Food Safety is major issue • High concern about microbial, chemical residues • Food safety norms: Stringent Developing Countries Developed Countries  A perceptible divide : trade barriers is an issue!
  28. 28. Issues Related to Food : Status ? • PrimarySecurity Quality Production Preservation Processing  A distinct division between the developed and developing countries on various issues related to food and food trade !  Immediate effect becomes a safety issue in developing countries the long term effect concerns developed countries Issues Developing countries Developed countries Safety • Secondary • Low Yield • Marginal • Primitive • Secondary • Secondary • Primary • High Yield • Extensive • Advanced • Primary
  29. 29. Position of India in Global Food Production Position Issues for Exports Target CountriesProduct 1 Milk, Tea, Jute, spices, Banana,Mango Confectionery Mycotoxins,Seed Weevil, Banned Additives Residues, Labeling, Packaging EU , US, Gulf SE Asia Mustard, Ground nut, Rice, Vegetables, Bakery Residues, Seed Weevil, Labelling, Packaging,Mycotoxins EU, US, Japan, China Wheat, Onion, Butter, Sugar, Floriculture, Fisheries, Cotton, Cold drinks Mycotoxins, Residues, Labelling, Packaging, Japan, EU, Gulf, China, Asia Honey, Mushroom, Potato, Wine, Pulses, Meat & Poultry Packaging, Residues, Mycotoxins, Labelling EU, Japan, US4 3 2
  30. 30. • Institutional Co-ordination Food Safety: Key issues for India  Focus to create: Awareness for food safety issues; R & D infrastructure; capability-building in monitoring; human resources development and opportunities for adoption of state-of-the-art technologies • Awareness of safety & quality control amongst stake- holders in organized & unorganized sectors • Incidences of Food-borne diseases • Emergence of newer vibrant pathogens • Quality of imported food products • R&D focus & outreach • Responsive monitoring system • Technical skills & equipment facilities • Introduction of variety of GM foods
  31. 31. Challenges & Opportunities
  32. 32.  Each component is important for the issues and challenges of food safety in their own respect MANUFACTURER Aspects of Food Safety : Components ASPECTSCONSUMER PRODUCT REGULATOR
  33. 33. MANUFACTURER Aspects of Food Safety : Manufacturer Related OpportunitiesChallenges Processing  Process Validation  Cost reduction  Coordination between industries Productivity  New Product Development  Higher shelf life  Increased marketability New Products  Quality Raw material  Systems implementations Cost Effectiveness  Competition  R & D for newer products
  34. 34. PRODUCT Aspects of Food Safety : Product Related OpportunitiesChallenges Residues of banned chemicals  Product tractability  R & D studies in identifying food borne hazards  Risk assessment studies to fix MRLs Sanitary & Phyto-sanitary  Increase in exports  Better economy  Technology development for increasing shelf life Genetically Modified  Build capability & capacity for residue monitoring  Strong databases for residues  Shelf life enhancement  New packaging materials Packaging Shelf Life  New materials for packaging  R & D for biotechnological products
  35. 35. REGULATORS Aspects of Food Safety : Regulator Related  Facilitation food trade  Acceptance of export consignment MRLS Barriers OpportunitiesChallenges Certification Capability capacity  Single regulatory authority  Training of inspectors  Enhancement of capacity/ capability  Acceptance of systems at unorganized levels  Well defined policies Quality Assurance Safe product Methods Scientific basis  Risk communication strategies  Management of food safety crisis  Harmonization of standards
  36. 36. CONSUMER Opportunities  Developing appropriate policy to advance ecologically friendly alternative & ecosystem restoration technology at National & International level Nutrition Safety Aspects of Food : Consumer Related Adulteration/ Contamination Organic  Risk Assessment studies  New method development  Research for value added products  Assessing nutrition of GM derived foods Benchmarking Value Added Products Labelling Challenges  Safety food practices  Quality monitoring  Food chain hazard identification  Consumer education, communication & training  Transparency about processing
  37. 37. What are we trying to say ?  Food safety issues are complex in several ways  A divide exists between the producers and consumers at international level  Producers (Developed Countries) of bulk food import functional food, producers (Developing Countries) of functional food do of bulk  Opportunities exist for all but the onus for dealing with the challenges also lies on all !`
  38. 38. Rejection of Consignments Basis: Non-Scientific MRL Values (An Example)  Rejection of consignment from Indian to EU as a result of detection of Nitrofuram Metabolites Year Product Residues Detected Importing Country  2003 Nitrofuran metabolite  AOZ  Egg powder  Denmark  Germany  Belgium  2003 Nitrofuran metabolite  AOZ  Nitrofurazous  SEM  Fish & Fish products  Germany  UK  Belgium  Netherlands  2004 Nitrofurans  AOZ  SEM  Fish & Fish products  UK  Netherlands  Belgium  No permitted levels established  Minimum required performance limit (MRPL) of method to be used
  39. 39. 06/26/14 1 OF 46 39 6021 11010 10589 12845 21461 30192 0 0 5%6.76% 12.43%23.69% 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Amount of export Rejected Amount of Grapes Exported From India Vs Rejection At National Level Rs.(inmillion) Year Heavy Rejections RMP in place
  40. 40. 06/26/14 1 OF 46 40 Amount of Honey Exported (Rs. in million) From IndiaRs.(inmillion) Year Heavy Rejections RMP in place
  41. 41. 06/26/14 1 OF 46 41 Challenges and Opportunities Self reliance Contravention of Exports (Cereals, Spices, Herbal Products, Confectionery, Milk & Bakery) Competitiveness Market leadership (Honey Marines) Imports Health Hazards (Oil seeds) Selective Exports Health Safety (Fresh Fruits) Productivit y  A bit extra effort and we will be on top ! Quality Residues Guar Gum Egg powder
  42. 42. The Path Forward!
  43. 43. Interactions: Industry – Academia – Government  Interdisciplinary interactions important for safe food & growth of food industry and hence, international food trade ! Production of safe food Growth of Food Industry •Food Production •Research •Technology •Mechanization •Legislation •Policies •Support • Farmers/ Growers • Processors • Universities • R & D Institutes • Scientists • Technologists • Regulatory authorities • Policy makers Industry Academia Government The Path Forward
  44. 44.  Establish existing level of Quality at National Level  Risk assessment studies by researchers in all areas  Development of biotechnological products  Develop capabilities to meet Codex norms  Harmonisation of standards for global competence  Use scientific management concepts for compliance The Path Forward : Immediate Steps
  45. 45. Food Safety Challenges are off- set by Global Opportunities ` Let us race for them !
  46. 46. THANK YOU
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