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# Making Graphs Speak – Using right graphs to present business data

## on Feb 25, 2013

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Making Graphs Speak – Using right graphs to present business data

Making Graphs Speak – Using right graphs to present business data

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## Making Graphs Speak – Using right graphs to present business dataPresentation Transcript

• MAKING GRAPHS SPEAKAuthor : Raju VelayudhanCoverage : How to use graphs to effectively communicate business dataNo. of slides : 13 Content Slides + 1 TOC + 5 Title SlidesContact : rajuvelayudhan@yahoo.comDisclaimer :While care has been taken in the compilation of this presentation and every attempt made to present up-to-date andaccurate information, the author cannot guarantee that inaccuracies will not occur. The author shall not be held responsible for anyclaim, loss, damage or inconvenience caused as a result of any information within these pages/slides. Anybody acting based on theinformation provided in these slides may do so at their own risk. © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• CONTENTS1. Preparation – 3 slides2. Choosing the right graph – 9 slides3. Mistakes to avoid – 1 slide © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• 1 Preparation © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan View slide
• WHAT: Decide what a. Data Series: the data series that you intend to plot exactly you intend to b. Dimensions and Filters: the dimensions plot through which to view data and the filters that can be applied on the plotted data For eg. Sales Person wise, Region wise, Product wise - Sales performance across USA - for any given Date PeriodHOW: Think the best a. Representation: which is the graph (pie/line/radar) that is idealway to represent b. Coordinates: what to plot in x-axis & y-axis, and what is the scale of each axis c. Aesthetics: which colors, how much thickness, gradient, 3D/2D d. Labeling: Data value label, Legends, other labelsSlide -1 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan View slide
• DATA & SOURCE: a. Master Data Management (MDM): where there is multiple sources of master data Determine the most then build logic to collect, transform (if reliable source and the reqd) and clean data and link the same with extraction strategy the transactional data b. Extract Transform Load (ETL) : where data is spread across various systems it is better to resort to an ETL process before data is used c. Warehouse: where large volumes of data is involved and if your requirement is to view data from various dimensions then it is better to warehouse the data and use Online Analytical Processing a.k.a OLAP d. Big Data: where extremely large amounts of data is involved explore implementing Big Data tools like Apache HadoopSlide - 2 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• CONSUMERS: Determine a. Access Rights: determine access rights at report level and/or dimension level and/or the reporting needs of filter level. For eg. ‘Regional Sales each levels of management Manager’ shall have access up to ‘last 3 years’ ‘Sales Performance data’ of his ‘Region’. b. Frequency: determine how frequently users might access each report based on which data extraction routines shall be scheduledTOOL: Choose the a. Cost Vs Benefit: while choosing the tool remember that your ROI statement shalltool which fits your justify the cost incurredreporting requirement b. Dissemination: tool shall facilitate easy dissemination of reports across various levels of managementSlide - 3 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• 2 Choosing the right graph © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Indicates variation in a measure LINE CHART: over a period of time Denotes trend • Helps to easily identify the trend • Time interval plotted in X axis and over a time the measure plotted in Y axis. For period eg. Sales over Months • Indicates measures over a time BAR CHART: period Values over a • Similar in purpose like Line Chart period but helps to quickly identify relative difference between measures and also the trend PIE CHART: • Indicates the percentage of each Share of a part part out of the total • Helps to identify what part of the over the whole total is a particular constituent. For eg. share of individual products out of the totalSlide - 4 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Indicates value of each item as HORIZONTAL compared to others BAR CHART: • If the values are sorted before mapping, Denotes relative this chart helps to identify the ranking & ranking between relative difference between the ranks. For eg. employees in each department – values depart in y axis and nos. in x axisCLUSTERED BAR • Same as bar charts but a group of itemsCHART: Depicts shown as clusters along with their values • Helps to quickly identify the relativeperformance of performance of items with in a group insame group over a each of the clusters. For eg. sales of 3period products across last 4 years – each bar denoting one product with years in x axisSTACKED BAR • Each bar indicates the total valueCHART: Totals along with the share of the individual constituentswith share of each • Helps to identify the relativeconstituent contribution of each constituentsSlide -5 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• SCATTER • Helps to determine if there is any CHART: Depicts correlation between two values. Correlation could be positive or negative correlation or none. Positive if one goes up the other relationships goes up as well, Negative if one geos up the other goes down. For eg. to see if correlation exists between employee age and employee attrition • Helps to predict or to take proactive steps foreseeing the future recurrence BAR / LINE • Plots the frequency of occurrence of a HISTOGRAM: particular value or an interval Depicts frequency • For eg. Number of employees in each of each class salary bands. Continuous non- overlapping salary bands forms x-axis and and its distribution the number of employees in each such salary band forms the y-axisSlide - 6 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• BIDIRECTIONAL • Plots positive or negative deviation of BAR CHART : value from a standard value. The Depicts extend of extend of deviation becomes evident deviation from the length of the bar • For eg. deviation of actual from a budgeted value. The Deviation (difference between budgeted and actual of each expense head) is plotted as bars BUBBLE CHART: • Beyond the X and Y coordinates of a Depicts three data point, the third dimension is represented in terms of size of the dimensions of data bubble in a two dimension • For eg. Stock Price Vs Performance space YTD in % Vs Profit Margin in % of various companies. The size of bubble represents the Profit MarginSlide - 7 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Represents extend of positive and WATERFALL Expense negative impact of a set of Revenue intermediary values on an initial CHART: Depicts Profit value. The initial and final values are transition of an represented as whole bars and the initial value to a intermediary values are shown as floating bars final value • For eg. main revenue, ancillary revenues, direct and indirect expenses and finally the net profit RADAR CHART: Machine 1 • Used for simultaneous analysis of more than one outcome variables Charts more than • Each spoke represents one of the one outcome outcome variable variables for • Each line represents one entity whose simultaneous variables are charted and connected across the spokes to form lines analysis • For eg. RPM, Down time, Utilization(%), Output etc of various similar machines in a plant. Each Machine 2 connected line representing one machineSlide - 8 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Plots various aspects of performance of Medium a variable GAUGES: • Pointer needle used to point to the Safe Depicts Danger current value. If there are two pointers performance of a then second one can be used to point to the previous period value. Pointers variable can also be used to point to the planned value and actual value. • Frame portion of the gauge is used to Prev Period Current mark the range of performance for eg. Value Period Value Safe, Medium, Danger • Used for plotting performance of KPIs BULLET CHART: or to depict Progress Depicts extend of Below Avg Average Good achievement of • Plots extend of achievement against the target value along target value. Horizontal bar showing actual achievement and the Vertical bar with degree of depicting target value performance • The qualitative ranges like Below Avg, Avg, Good are shown as segments of Achieved Target varying colors • Can also be an alternative for gaugesSlide - 9 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Plots fluctuations in value with Highest in an unit time period (for eg, CANDLE STICK with in a day or week). For eg. Performance CHART: Depicts fluctuations in exchange rate of fluctuations in a Opening Closing a particular currency over a Value Value value week • The bar represents the range between opening and closing values. The wicks (extensions) are used to represent the Closing Opening Value Value highest and lowest performance Lowest • The darker bars indicate that Performance Closing was lower than Closing < Closing > Opening. The white bars Opening Opening indicate that Closing was higher than the Opening • No wicks if Highest and Lowest performance is with in the Opening and Closing range. No Bars (but just a marking) if No Wicks No Bar the Opening is equal to the Closing.Slide - 10 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Plots the spread of a batch of data using BOX AND Max five values - min, max, median, upper and WHISKERS CHART: lower quartiles (a quartile is any one of the Upper Illustrates the quartile values which divide the data set into four spread of a set of equal parts) • Upper quartile - the median of the upper data Median half of values in the data set • Lower quartile – the median of the lower Lower quartile half of values in the data set • For eg. Employee ages in each department. One graph for each department Min • Frequently used in Sales to represent FUNNEL GRAPH: 100% 200 progressive reduction of data as Selling process passes from one phase to another Shows progressive 80% • For eg. 80% of the ‘total contacts made’ 160 reduction in value as has passed to Demo stage. 23% of the business process 23% 46 ‘total contacts made’ has passed to passes from one Finalization stage. Other scenario where this chart can be used is to depict stage to another interview to selection process of candidatesSlide - 11 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• PYRAMID CHART: • Plots performance of individual Shows relative constituents in hierarchical order • For eg. sales figures of individual sales performance in a executive arranged with least performer hierarchical manner on the top and best one as the bottom most and rest in hierarchical order between these two. Each sales person represented as a segment HEAT MAP Mr.Z 51 37 13 • Matrix representation of CHART: Depicts performance with color coding to indicate category/range. comparative Mr.Y 33 07 11 • For eg. Sales Performance of Sales performance Person by Month. Color coding to Mr X 05 55 27 indicate level of performance Jan Feb Mar Good Performance Avg Performance Low PerformanceSlide - 12 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• 3 Mistakes to avoid © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• • Use graphs only if it can more effectively andASPECTS NOT TO efficiently communicate what you intend toIGNORE • When a simple tabular representation can serve the purpose, avoid graphs which might require more Utility mental effort to interpret Aesthetics • Avoid using complicated graph when a simpler alternative is available Simplicity • Appropriately label graphs, coordinates and legends Informative but avoid crowding with too much information • Use constant scale with equal increments on each axis • Avoid 3-D graphs to the extend possible since it can sometimes distort important data • Use visually appealing eye friendly background and graph colors • Costly tool always doesn’t mean the apt tool. Choose the most cost effective tool and the one would serve the intended purposeSlide - 13 © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan
• THANK YOU !!! © 2013-2014 Raju Velayudhan