From:
rajnideveloper@gmail.com
Enzymes
2
What Are Enzymes?
• Most enzymes are
Proteins (tertiary
and quaternary
structures)
• Act as Catalyst to
accelerates a
re...
3
Enzymes
• Are specific for
what they will
catalyze
• Are Reusable
• End in –ase
-Sucrase
-Lactase
-Maltase
4
How do enzymes Work?
Enzymes work by
weakening
bonds which
lowers
activation
energy
5
Enzymes
Free
Energy
Progress of the reaction
Reactants
Products
Free energy of activation
Without Enzyme
With Enzyme
6
7
Enzyme-Substrate Complex
The substance
(reactant) an
enzyme acts on
is the substrate
EnzymeSubstrate
Joins
8
Active Site
• A restricted region of an enzyme
molecule which binds to the substrate.
Enzyme
Substrate
Active
Site
9
Induced Fit
• A change in the
shape of an
enzyme’s active
site
• Induced by the
substrate
10
Induced Fit
• A change in the configuration of an
enzyme’s active site (H+ and ionic
bonds are involved).
• Induced by ...
11
What Affects Enzyme Activity?
• Three factors:
1. Environmental Conditions
2. Cofactors and Coenzymes
3. Enzyme Inhibit...
12
1. Environmental Conditions
1. Extreme Temperature are the most
dangerous
- high temps may denature (unfold)
the enzyme...
13
2. Cofactors and Coenzymes
• Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and
vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need
for prope...
14
Two examples of Enzyme
Inhibitors
a. Competitive inhibitors: are
chemicals that resemble an
enzyme’s normal substrate a...
15
Inhibitors
b. Noncompetitive inhibitors:
Inhibitors that do not enter the
active site, but bind to another part
of the ...
ANY QUERIES???
16
THANK YOU
From:
rajnideveloper@gmail.com
89010-53666
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enzyme ppt

  1. 1. From: rajnideveloper@gmail.com Enzymes
  2. 2. 2 What Are Enzymes? • Most enzymes are Proteins (tertiary and quaternary structures) • Act as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction • Not permanently changed in the process
  3. 3. 3 Enzymes • Are specific for what they will catalyze • Are Reusable • End in –ase -Sucrase -Lactase -Maltase
  4. 4. 4 How do enzymes Work? Enzymes work by weakening bonds which lowers activation energy
  5. 5. 5 Enzymes Free Energy Progress of the reaction Reactants Products Free energy of activation Without Enzyme With Enzyme
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. 7 Enzyme-Substrate Complex The substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate EnzymeSubstrate Joins
  8. 8. 8 Active Site • A restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate. Enzyme Substrate Active Site
  9. 9. 9 Induced Fit • A change in the shape of an enzyme’s active site • Induced by the substrate
  10. 10. 10 Induced Fit • A change in the configuration of an enzyme’s active site (H+ and ionic bonds are involved). • Induced by the substrate. Enzyme Active Site substrate induced fit
  11. 11. 11 What Affects Enzyme Activity? • Three factors: 1. Environmental Conditions 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes 3. Enzyme Inhibitors
  12. 12. 12 1. Environmental Conditions 1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous - high temps may denature (unfold) the enzyme. 2.pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral) 3.Ionic concentration (salt ions)
  13. 13. 13 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes • Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity. • Example: Iron must be present in the quaternary structure - hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.
  14. 14. 14 Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site. Enzyme Competitive inhibitor Substrate
  15. 15. 15 Inhibitors b. Noncompetitive inhibitors: Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site. Enzyme active site altered Noncompetitive Inhibitor Substrate
  16. 16. ANY QUERIES??? 16
  17. 17. THANK YOU From: rajnideveloper@gmail.com 89010-53666
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