Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Chapter 1 od
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter 1 od

1,817

Published on

Published in: Education, Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,817
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
104
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Organization development (OD) is a planned, top-down, organization-wide effort to increase the organization's effectiveness and health. OD is achieved through interventions in the organization's "processes," using behavioral science knowledge. [1] According to Warren Bennis , OD is a complex strategy intended to change the beliefs, attitudes, values, and structure of organizations so that they can better adapt to new technologies, markets, and challenges. emphasizes that OD is not just "anything done to better an organization"; it is a particular kind of change process designed to bring about a particular kind of end result. OD involves organizational reflection, system improvement, planning, and self-analysis. The term "Organization Development" is often used interchangeably with Organizational effectiveness , especially when used as the name of a department or a part of the Human Resources function within an organization. Organization Development is a growing field that is responsive to many new approaches including Positive Adult Development . At the core of OD is the concept of organization , defined as two or more people working together toward one or more shared goal(s). Development in this context is the notion that an organization may become more effective over time at achieving its goals. OD is a long range effort to improve organization's problem solving and renewal processes, particularly through more effective and collaborative management of organizational culture, often with the assistance of a change agent or catalyst and the use of the theory and technology of applied behavioral science. Organization development is a contractual relationship between a change agent and a sponsoring organization entered into for the purpose of using applied behavioral science in a systems context to improve organizational performance and the capacity of the organization to improve itself . Organizational development is an ongoing, systematic process to implement effective change in an organization. Organizational development is known as both a field of applied behavioral science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology, psychology, and theories of motivation, learning, and personality. One of the outstanding characteristics of OD that distinguishes it from most other improvement programs is that it is based on a "helping relationship." The change agent is not a physician to the organization's ills; he does not examine the "patient," make a diagnosis , and write a prescription. Nor does he try to teach organizational members a new inventory of knowledge which they then transfer to the job situation. Using theory and methods drawn from such behavioral sciences as , industrial sociology , communication , cultural anthropology , , organizational behavior , economics , and political science , the change agent's main function is to help the organization define and solve its own problems. The basic method used is known as action research. This approach, which is described in detail later, consists of a preliminary diagnosis, collecting data, feedback of the data to the client, data exploration by the client group, action planning based on the data, and taking action. [4] Systems Context . OD deals with a total system — the organization as a whole, including its relevant environment — or with a subsystem or systems — departments or work groups — in the context of the total system. Parts of systems, for example, individuals, cliques, structures, norms, values, and products are not considered in isolation; the principle of interdependency, that is, that change in one part of a system affects the other parts, is fully recognized. Thus, OD interventions focus on the total culture and cultural processes of organizations. The focus is also on groups, since the relevant behavior of individuals in organizations and groups is generally a product of group influences rather than personality. [2] Improved Organizational Performance . The objective of OD is to improve the organization's capacity to handle its internal and external functioning and relationships. This would include such things as improved interpersonal and group processes, more effective communication, enhanced ability to cope with organizational problems of all kinds, more effective decision processes, more appropriate leadership style, improved skill in dealing with destructive conflict, and higher levels of trust and cooperation among organizational members. These objectives stem from a value system based on an optimistic view of the nature of man — that man in a supportive environment is capable of achieving higher levels of development and accomplishment. Essential to organization development and effectiveness is the scientific method — inquiry, a rigorous search for causes, experimental testing of hypotheses, and review of results. Organizational Self-Renewal . The ultimate aim of the outside OD practitioner is to "work himself out of a job" by leaving the client organization with a set of tools, behaviors, attitudes, and an action plan with which to monitor its own state of health and to take corrective steps toward its own renewal and development. This is consistent with the systems concept of feedback as a regulatory and corrective mechanism. [2]
  • Planned. OD takes a long-range approach to improving organizational performance and efficiency. It avoids the (usual) "quick-fix". O rganization-wide. OD focuses on the total system. Managed from the top. To be effective, OD must have the support of top-management. They have to model it, not just espouse it. The OD process also needs the buy-in and ownership of workers throughout the organization. Increase organization effectiveness and health. OD is tied to the bottom-line. Its goal is to improve the organization, to make it more efficient and more competitive by aligning the organization's systems with its people. Planned interventions. After proper preparation, OD uses activities called interventions to make system-wide, permanent changes in the organization. Using behavioral-science knowledge. OD is a discipline that combines research and experience to understanding people, business systems, and their interactions.
  • Early development Kurt Lewin (1898 - 1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD, although he died before the concept became current in the mid-1950s. From Lewin came the ideas of group dynamics , and action research which underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. Institutionally, Lewin founded the at MIT , which moved to Michigan after his death. RCGD colleagues were among those who founded the National Training Laboratories (NTL), from which the T-group and group-based OD emerged. In the UK, working as close as was possible with Lewin and his colleagues, the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations was important in developing systems theories. Important too was the joint TIHR journal Human Relations , although nowadays the is seen as the leading OD journal. Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today. As early as World War II , Lewin experimented with a collaborative change process (involving himself as consultant and a client group) based on a three-step process of planning, taking action, and measuring results. This was the forerunner of action research, an important element of OD, which will be discussed later. Lewin then participated in the beginnings of laboratory training, or T-groups , and, after his death in 1947, his close associates helped to develop survey-research methods at the University of Michigan . These procedures became important parts of OD as developments in this field continued at the and in growing numbers of universities and private consulting firms across the country. The failure of off-site laboratory training to live up to its early promise was one of the important forces stimulating the development of OD. Laboratory training is learning from a person's "here and now" experience as a member of an ongoing training group. Such groups usually meet without a specific agenda. Their purpose is for the members to learn about themselves from their spontaneous "here and now" responses to an ambiguous hypothetical situation. Problems of leadership , structure, status, communication , and self-serving behavior typically arise in such a group. The members have an opportunity to learn something about themselves and to practice such skills as listening, observing others, and functioning as effective group members. [5] As formerly practiced (and occasionally still practiced for special purposes), laboratory training was conducted in "stranger groups," or groups composed of individuals from different organizations, situations, and backgrounds.A major difficulty developed, however, in transferring knowledge gained from these "stranger labs" to the actual situation "back home". This required a transfer between two different cultures, the relatively safe and protected environment of the T-group (or training group) and the give-and-take of the organizational environment with its traditional values. This led the early pioneers in this type of learning to begin to apply it to "family groups" — that is, groups located within an organization. From this shift in the locale of the training site and the realization that culture was an important factor in influencing group members (along with some other developments in the behavioral sciences) emerged the concept of organization development.
  • Transcript

    • 1.  
    • 2. Organisational development (OD)
      • Organisational development is concerned with the diagnosis of organisational health & performance, & the ability of the organisation to adapt to change
      • It involves the application of organisational behaviour & the recognition of the social processes of the organisation
    • 3. Major topics associated with organisational development
    • 4. Organisation Development
      • Definition:-
      • Organisation development is an effort, planned,--- organisation-wide, and ----managed from the top, ----to increase organisation effectiveness and health through ----planned interventions in the organization's processes, using behavioural-science knowledge.”
      • (Beckhard, 1969)
    • 5. Characteristics of OD
      • OD focuses on culture and processes.
      • OD encourages collaboration between leaders and members in managing culture and processes.
      • OD focuses on task accomplishment
      • Participation and involvement in problem solving
      • Total system change
    • 6. OD Assumptions
      • Higher performance is possible
      • Higher levels of human performance require well functioning human systems
      • Professional expertise is possible and necessary
      • Organisations must be adaptive
    • 7. OD Values
      • 1. Humanistic Values :-
      • - focuses on importance of the individuals
      • - Respect the whole person
      • - Treat people with respect and dignity
      • - Assume that everyone has inherent worth
      • - View all people as having potential for growth and development
    • 8.
      • 2. Optimistic Values :-
      • - People are basically good
      • - Progress is possible
      • - Rationality, reason and goodwill are the tools for making progress.
      • 3. Democratic Values :-
      • - Importance of fair and equitable treatment to all
      • - The need for justice through the rule of law and due process
    • 9. Assumptions & values underlying OD
      • Assumptions
      • Individuals
      • People want to grow, mature& have much to offer that is not being used @ work
      • ( people desire , seek & appreciate empowerment)
      • Values
      • . Individuals
      • OD aims to overcome obstacles to human growth enabling employees to contribute more to the Orgz
      • OD stresses open communication & treats employees with dignity & respect
    • 10.
      • Groups
      • Groups r critical to Orgz Success as they have powerful influence on individual behaviour
      • Complex role played in group requires skill development
      • Groups
      • Restricted feelings or non acceptance by groups diminishes individual willingness to solve problems constructively
      • Acceptance, collaboration & involvement leads to expression of feelings & perception
    • 11.
      • Organisation
      • Excessive control Rules & policies r detrimental
      • Conflict can be functional if properly channelized
      • Individual & organizational goals can be compactable
      • Organisation
      • The way groups r linked influences their effectiveness
      • Change should start @ top & gradually introduced through the rest of the orgz
      • The group links the top & bottom of the organisation
    • 12. GOALS OF OD
      • Improvement in interpersonal competence
      • Development of increased understanding between and within working groups to reduce tensions
      • Development of better methods of conflict resolution
    • 13. Evolution
    • 14.
      • Robert Tannenbaum has come up with new session called as Team Building in 1952 and 1953 at U.S Naval Ordnance test station at China Lake, California. According to Tannenbaum, the term vertically structured groups was used with groups dealing with “Personal Topics”( such as Interpersonal relationship, self analysis etc) and with organization topics( such as duties and responsibilities, policies and procedures etc). These sessions were conducted with all managers of a given organization.
    • 15. Douglas McGregor
      • Beginning about 1957, Douglas McGregor, as a professor-consultant, working with Union Carbide was one of the first behavioral scientists to solve the complex problems. John Paul Jones, who had come up through industrial relations at Union Carbide in collaboration with McGregor and with the support of a corporate executive vice president and director, Birny Mason, established a small internal consulting group. This group used behavioral science knowledge to help line managers and their subordinated learn how to be more effective in groups.
    • 16. Evolution
      • Kurt Lewin (1898 - 1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD, although he died before the concept became current in the mid-1950s. From Lewin came the ideas of group dynamics , and action research which underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. Institutionally, Lewin had been recuited to MIT.
      • Kurt Lewin played a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today.
    • 17.
      • As early as World War II , Lewin experimented with a collaborative change process (involving himself as consultant and a client group) based on a three-step process of planning, taking action, and measuring results. Lewin then participated in the beginnings of laboratory training, or T-groups , and, after his death in 1947, his close associates helped to develop survey-research methods at the University of Michigan . These procedures became important parts of OD as developments in this field continued at the and in growing numbers of universities and private consulting firms across the country.

    ×