Global Warming
WATER

AIR

SOIL

ENVIRONMENT
The climate is changing.
The earth is warming up.
Research has shown that air
pollutants from fossil fuel use make
clou...
By cleaning up global dimming-causing
pollutants without tackling greenhouse gas
emissions, rapid warming has been
observ...
The world mostly agrees that something
needs to be done about global warming and
climate change.
United Nations Environm...
Aquatic Biodiversity

Diatoms
What is Climate Change?
Climate change is one of the biggest issues
facing the world today.
Climate change refers to a ...
Acid rain
• Acid rain is rained any other form of
precipitation that is unusually acidic.
• It has harmful effects on plan...
• Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic
slightly acidic pH of about 5.2 a weak acid
(pH 5.6 in distilled water), but un...
Emissions of chemicals
leading to acidification:
• Natural Phenomena
• Human activity
Chemical processes:
• Gas phase chem...
Global warming
• Global warming is the increase in the
average measured temperature of the
Earth's near-surface air and oc...
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international
agreement linked to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Clim...
Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto mechanisms are:
• Emissions trading – known as “the carbon
market"
• Clean development mechanism...
Greenhouse effect
It is the process by which absorption and
emission of infrared radiation by
atmospheric gases warm a pl...
Greenhouse effect
A mechanism suggested for tackling
climate change and warming has been the
idea of using Carbon Sinks t...
Conference of Parties (COP)

COP7—Marrakesh Climate Conference (Morocco)

COP6—The Hague Climate Conference
COP4—Buenos...
Carbon cycle
• The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which
carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere,
...
Pedosphere
Geospheres
Hydrosphere
Atmosphere
Ozone layer
The ozone layer is a layer in Earth’s
atmosphere which contains relatively high
concentrations of ozone (O3)....
Pollution
• Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an
environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or
d...
Major forms of pollution and major polluted
areas
• Air pollution is the human introduction into the
atmosphere of chemica...
Major forms of pollution and major polluted
areas
• Air pollution is the human introduction into the
atmosphere of chemica...
Water pollution
• Water pollution is the contamination of water
bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and
groundwater caus...
Soil Pollution
• Soil Pollution is caused by the presence
of man-made chemicals or other alteration
in the natural soil en...
Heavy metal
• A heavy metal is a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that
exhibit metallic properties, which would...
Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
(UASB) Process
• This process has been used for water treatment for
many years. In water ...
Questions??....
Global warmin
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Global warmin

  1. 1. Global Warming
  2. 2. WATER AIR SOIL ENVIRONMENT
  3. 3. The climate is changing. The earth is warming up. Research has shown that air pollutants from fossil fuel use make clouds reflect more of the sun’s rays back into space. This leads to Global dimming. Global dimming is also hiding the true power of global warming.
  4. 4. By cleaning up global dimming-causing pollutants without tackling greenhouse gas emissions, rapid warming has been observed, and various human health and ecological disasters have resulted, as witnessed during the European heat wave in 2003, which saw thousands of people.
  5. 5. The world mostly agrees that something needs to be done about global warming and climate change. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to assess the scientific knowledge on global
  6. 6. Aquatic Biodiversity Diatoms
  7. 7. What is Climate Change? Climate change is one of the biggest issues facing the world today. Climate change refers to a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and In addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.
  8. 8. Acid rain • Acid rain is rained any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic. • It has harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. • Acid rain is mostly caused by human emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds which react in the atmosphere to produce acids.
  9. 9. • Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acidic slightly acidic pH of about 5.2 a weak acid (pH 5.6 in distilled water), but unpolluted rain also contains other chemicals. • H2O (l) + CO2 (g) → H2CO3 (aq).
  10. 10. Emissions of chemicals leading to acidification: • Natural Phenomena • Human activity Chemical processes: • Gas phase chemistry • Chemistry in cloud droplets
  11. 11. Global warming • Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century, and its projected continuation.
  12. 12. Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.
  13. 13. Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto mechanisms are: • Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market" • Clean development mechanism (CDM) • Joint implementation (JI).
  14. 14. Greenhouse effect It is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warm a planet’s lower atmosphere and surface. Air pollutants from fossil fuel use make clouds reflect more of the sun’s rays back into space. Global dimming caused the droughts in Ethiopia in the 1970s and 80s where millions died, because the northern hemisphere oceans were not warm enough to allow rain formation
  15. 15. Greenhouse effect A mechanism suggested for tackling climate change and warming has been the idea of using Carbon Sinks to soak up carbon dioxide It seems there has been a recent interest in associating climate change/global warming with “over population” and that countries such as China and India have to do more to help contain global warming United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  16. 16. Conference of Parties (COP) COP7—Marrakesh Climate Conference (Morocco) COP6—The Hague Climate Conference COP4—Buenos Aires Climate Conference COP3—Kyoto Protocol Climate Conference
  17. 17. Carbon cycle • The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geospheres, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth. • The cycle is usually thought of as four major reservoirs of carbon interconnected by pathways of exchange. These reservoirs are: • The atmosphere. • The terrestrial biosphere, which is usually defined to include fresh water systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon. • The oceans, including dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota, • The sediments including fossil fuels.
  18. 18. Pedosphere
  19. 19. Geospheres
  20. 20. Hydrosphere
  21. 21. Atmosphere
  22. 22. Ozone layer The ozone layer is a layer in Earth’s atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer absorbs 93-99% of the sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to life on earth. Over 91% of ozone in earth's atmosphere is present here.
  23. 23. Pollution • Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the physical systems or living organisms • Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy, such as noise, heat, or light energy. • The elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. • Pollution is often classed as point source or no point source pollution.
  24. 24. Major forms of pollution and major polluted areas • Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the environment. Air pollution causes deaths and respiratory disease. Air pollution is often identified with major stationary sources, but the greatest source of emissions is mobile sources, mainly automobiles. Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, have recently gained recognition as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis.
  25. 25. Major forms of pollution and major polluted areas • Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the environment. • Air pollution causes deaths and respiratory disease. Air pollution is often identified with major stationary sources, but the greatest source of emissions is mobile sources, mainly automobiles. • Gases such as CO2, which contribute to global warming, have recently gained recognition as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis.
  26. 26. Water pollution • Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and plants which live in these water bodies. • Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water, water is typically referred to as polluted when it is impaired by anthropogenic contaminants
  27. 27. Soil Pollution • Soil Pollution is caused by the presence of man-made chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil.
  28. 28. Heavy metal • A heavy metal is a member of an ill-defined subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties, which would mainly include the transition metals, some metalloids, lanthanides, and actinides. Many different definitions have been proposed—some based on density, some on atomic number or atomic weight, and some on chemical properties or toxicity. The term heavy metal has been called "meaningless and misleading" in an IUPAC technical report due to the contradictory definitions and its lack of a "coherent scientific basis". There is an alternative term toxic metal, for which no consensus of exact definition exists either. As discussed below, depending on context, heavy metal can include elements lighter than carbon and can exclude some of the heaviest metals. One source defines "heavy metal" as "... common transition metals, such as copper, lead, and zinc. These metals are a cause of environmental pollution (heavymetal pollution) from a number of sources, including lead in petrol, industrial effluents, and leaching of metal ions from the soil into lakes and rivers by acid rain."
  29. 29. Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Process • This process has been used for water treatment for many years. In water treatment many plants have been built and operated purely for water treatment purposes. Nowadays, the technology is being increasingly used for the benefits of the methane it produces. • Strictly liquid phase Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Process installations which treat largely soluble COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) must inevitably comprise some of the most proven Anaerobic Digestion systems available today. This is simply because they have been used for a long while, before the methane generation benefits of the process became important as an energy source, and the negative effects of methane escaping as a greenhouse gas were appreciated.
  30. 30. Questions??....

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