Presentation on poverty__unemployment_and_education_Nepal


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This presentation was made at the MPhil and PhD student at Kathmandu University in 2013 By Rajendra P Sharma

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Presentation on poverty__unemployment_and_education_Nepal

  1. 1. Presentation on Poverty, Unemployment and Education For the Fulfill the Requirement of an Assignment of Sociology of Education MPhil/PhD Program, Development Studies School of Education, Kathmandu University Rajendra P Sharma April 30 , 2013
  2. 2. Understanding Poverty Poverty has various manifestations: lack of income and productive resources sufficient to : ensure sustainable livelihood; hunger & malnutrition directly connected to employment It is subjective, relative and contextual, Hence, can be described in several ways: BROADLY = Individuals, families and groups in the population can be said poor or to be in poverty, if they lack the resources to have living conditions and amenities which are customary in the society. 22
  3. 3. Poverty can be seen in two ways Absolute poverty is the lack of resources that leads to hunger and physical deprivation Relative poverty refers to a deficiency in material and economic resources compared with some other population Poverty and Unemployment: A cyclical effect Unemployment leads to financial crisis and reduces the purchasing capacity, this results poverty followed by increasing burden of debt (World Bank, 2005). 33
  4. 4. Unemployment A situation, in which the workers are capable of working and willing to work, but do not get employment. Unemployment and poverty are the two major challenges that are facing the world economy at present And off course in Nepal too 4
  5. 5. Types of unemployment Seasonal unemployment Frictional unemployment Moving from one job to another Structural unemployment when the qualification is not enough to meet job responsibilities Cyclical unemployment demand deficient unemployment, when the economy is in need of low workforce 5
  6. 6. Contributors for poverty & unemployment Structural changes/high population/low industrialization/ low employment opportunities Rapid changes in technology Ability to seek employment/seasonal work Exclusion -disability/Age/gender/geography/minorities Foreign competition/inflation Change in the climatic conditions Government socio-economic policies Information and education 6
  7. 7. Philosophical views Functionalist Perspective talks structural unemployment Sometimes, desirable economic changes may affect the level of poverty, as their cumulative impact is to increase an unemployment and poverty that we call structural unemployment such as inflation and technological innovation The Conflict Perspective Views society as involving constant struggle between social classes over scarce resources 7
  8. 8. Philosophical views cont Social Darwinist m theories argue that essentially, the poor are poor because they are lazy, waste their time and money, and simply do not have the self-control to succeed. (by choice but not by chance) Structuralists argue that The poor are most affected by the business cycles of boom and bust creating cycles of employment and unemployment. The poor own very little, means the poor are left without resources when employment comes to an end or become unemployed any time. 8
  9. 9. Nepal, where we are? 9 GDP - per capita: $1,300 (2012) WB: comparison : 207 Unemployment rate: 46% (2008)WB Comparison:192 (Source: CBS 2011) 9
  10. 10. Measuring Poverty in Nepal NOT TO BE POOR - calorie consumption 2,200 /person /day and access to essential non-food items with income NPR 14,430 a year is must earning less than Rs 14,430 per year falls below the poverty line Interesting figures poverty level in the Urban hills (9 percent) is lower than that in Kathmandu (11 percent) highest poor population live in the mountains (42 percent) , and rural hills in the Mid and Far-West regions (37 percent). poverty rate has declined to 25.2 percent households led by agricultural wage workers are the poorest while those headed by professional wage workers are the least poor. households headed by females have a slightly lower poverty rate. (Nepal Living Standards Survey III and Population Census Survey, CBS, 2011) 10
  11. 11. Some government efforts Government has been giving the first priority to the reduction of poverty since eighth five year plan -1992 The 10th plan was considered as poverty reduction strategy MDGs were accepted as one of the signatory UN member state Programmes for Education for all Open economic policy/privatization Creation of poverty alleviation fund Poverty is taking as cross cutting issues in the development plan 1 1 5/11/2013 11
  12. 12. Here comes the role of Education Relation to Education lower a qualifications, the higher risks of being out of, but wanting, work or being in work but low paid. with no qualifications are twice as likely to be lacking paid work Supporting the idea of Amartya Sen Better basic education improve the quality of life directly It also increase a person’s ability to earn an income and be free’ of income-poverty The more inclusive reach of basic education, the more likely the potentially poor would have a better chance of overcoming penury Hence, this connection is crucial point to focus 12
  13. 13. Poverty Cycle: Options for Escape Education Financial stress Job, money, capability to buy material and services to enjoy life (knowledge, skill, confidence Lower educational and occupational level Lower the social status Unemployment Job less, mental stress, dependency to other limited social capital No ability to fulfill family and social obligations 13 13
  14. 14. Breaking cycle of poverty and employment Source: Adopted from Pearson Education (2012). 14
  15. 15. References Central Bureau of Statistic (CBS), (2011). Population census survey. Kathmandu: Author. Martin, B. (2000). Analytic philosophy’s narrative turn: Quine, Rorty, Davidson. In: Dasembrock, R.W. (ed.). Literary theory after Davidson. Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press. NPC, (2007). First three year interim plan. Kathmandu: Author. Pearson Education (2012). A presentation on poverty and unemployment. New Work: Pearson Education, Inc. Sen, A. Townsend, P. (Dec., 1985). A Sociological Approach to the Measurement of Poverty--A Rejoinder to Professor Amartya Sen. Oxford Economic Papers, New Series, 37(4). Retrieved from .Accessed on 25April 2013. Beckley, H. (2002). Capability as Opportunity: How Amartya Sen Revises Equal Opportunity. The Journal of Religious Ethics, 30(1). Retrieved from .Accessed on: 13/04/2013 . 15 15
  16. 16. Thank you very much . 16