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Presentation made at the MPhil and PhD Program at Kathmandu University in 2013

Presentation made at the MPhil and PhD Program at Kathmandu University in 2013

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Presentation on equity__equality_and_education_may_22_2013_rajendra_p_sharma.nepal Presentation on equity__equality_and_education_may_22_2013_rajendra_p_sharma.nepal Presentation Transcript

  • Equality, Equity and Education Rajendra P Sharma May 22, 2013 A Presentation for Fulfillment of Requirement of an Assignment Foundation of Education, Development Studies MPhil/PhD Program I School of Education I Kathmandu University Photo curtsey: The Kathmandu Post, imageofnepal.blogpost.com and SOS Children's Village ,Nepal
  • Discussion Points for Today Worldwide - Equality, Parity and Equity in Education is fundamentally accepted Phenomena (rights), BUT Equality and equity in Education is not exits So, what is equality and equity in terms of quality education in general is discussion for today 2
  • How we see, it matters 3 https://www.google.com.np/search?q=equity and equality
  • Defining Equality and Equity Equality Ensuring the fair and equitable treatment of all girls and boys, women and men in the education system (UNESCO, 2003). Equity Method of distributing resources to groups and is linked to excellence regardless of race, ethnicity, economic status (Sirotnick, 2001). Ensuring fairness and basic equal rights to women and men with sometimes actions must be taken to compensate for social or historical disadvantages (UNESCO, 2003). 4
  • Connecting and differentiating Equality •  means treating everyone  involves giving people the same under the law 5 Equity the treatment they need https://www.google.com.np/search? q=equity and equality
  • Horizontal Equity — — Horizontal equity is measured by calculating the dispersion, or inequality, in the distribution of funds Horizontal equity can be applied broadly in comparing large and similar subgroups — Students who are alike should receive equal shares (of funding) For example, — All students at the high school kindergarten or in general classrooms 6 - Jean-Sigur, R. (n.d).
  • Vertical Equity  Vertical equity means providing what people need  Vertical equity recognizes that students and schools are different, and that the treatment of unequal requires appropriate unequal treatment  While horizontal equity is rather easy to quantify, vertical equity choices are based on value 7 - Jean-Sigur, R. (n.d).
  • Parity, equality and equity  Parity is a limited concept  A numerical construct  Tells nothing about equality in terms of − educational environment − infrastructure − attitudes or attainment − nor does it necessarily mean high enrolment either for boys or girls.   8 Inequality exists even there is parity Nevertheless, it is a step along the long road to equality. (UNESCO, 2003).
  • Why we talk about parity, equality & equity in education ?  Because, if we do not clear ourselves about these concepts:  There is no way to ensure equitable quality education to all, for which we and our nation is committed to. So, lets talk about   What are the international convention and commitments  9 What is quality education? What are the framework to achieve this?
  • Horace Mann’s view Education, then, beyond all other devices of human origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of men —the balance wheel of the social machinery. (Louis, 1965) 10 HM
  • Understanding of Quality Education Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century , Jacques Delors,1996)  Learning to know  Learning to do  Learning to live together  Learning to be 11 (Delors ,1996)
  • UNESCO’s rights-based approach  Education is public good & human right from which nobody can be excluded  Calls for inclusive quality education  A particular focus on vulnerable and marginalized group  Schooling be free and obligatory  Rights of non-discrimination and full participation  Assure equity in 3 dimensions: − in access, − in process, and − in results. (regardless of age, sex, caste, ethnicity, geography, differently-able -- seniors and children or men and women or boys and girls) 12 (Adopted from UNESCO, 2003text in parenthesis is added by author)
  • Quality Education for All: Issue of human rights Under the rights framework for quality of education: Three substantive aspects: Relevance Pertinence Equity Includes 2 key operational aspects ----Efficacy -----Efficiency (OREALC/UNESCO Santiago, 2007) 13
  • International Commitments on Education & Equity EFA Dakar Goals Education for All Goals reaffirmed in Dakar in 2000, emphasized a focus on gender equality in education 1. Expanding early childhood care and education 2. Free and compulsory primary education for all 3. Learning and life skills for young people and adults 4. Increase adult literacy 5. Eliminating gender disparities and achieving gender equality 14 6. Improving all aspects of the quality of education Millennium Development Goals MDG 2. Achieve universal primary education MDG 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 2015
  • International Convention Cont  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW, 1981): Article 10 : Equal rights in education  Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 1990): Articles 28 and 29: Equal right to education for children  United Nations Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 13 on Education:  Compulsory & free primary education to all  Different forms secondary education including technical and vocational  Make available and accessible to all by every appropriate means, and  in particular by the progressive introduction of free education 15
  • A Broad Concept of Quality Education (at a glance) Pertinence Relevance Quality Education Efficacy Efficiency 16 Equity     Diversity and flexibility Curriculum Regulation Classroom practices/assessment analysis     Rights, 4 pillars, meanings Curriculum Regulation Practices/assessment       Objective achievement, curriculum management Access Completion Students academic achievement Teachers (who are they, conditions, practices) Climate  Finance, resources management, social responsibility  Management, participation  Availability/use of resources     Inclusion, equal opportunities, resources Achievement parity (efficacy) Tendencies Alternative education/positive discrimination Adopted from UNESCO, 2003.
  • Equity: is possible? — Equity is achieved when the distribution of services is determined by the preferences for education and not by the fiscal capacity of the locality or state — This is also known as equity or wealth neutrality (Noguera, n.d & UNGEI GAC, 2008). 17 https://www.google.com.np/se arch?q=equity and equality
  • Framework for Equality Property Rights Rule of Law Access to Justice Legal Empowerment Legal Mechanisms to Empower Informal Businesses Labor Rights 18 Adopted from Singh, N. (n.d.).
  • Ten steps to equity in education Design 1. Limit early tracking and streaming and postpone academic selection. 2. Manage school choice so as to contain the risks to equity. 3. Provide attractive alternatives, remove dead ends and prevent dropout. 4. Offer second chances to gain from education. Practices 5. Identify/provide help to those who fall behind at school & reduce year repetition 6. Link school & home to help disadvantaged parents and children to learn 7. Respond to diversity and inclusion of migrants and minorities in mainstream education. Resourcing 8. Provide education for all, giving priority to early childhood basic schooling 9. Direct resources to the students with the greatest needs 10. Set concrete targets for equity, low school attainment and dropouts. 19 (Field, S., M. Kuczera, & B. Pont, 2008)
  • My thesis (argument) • Inequity is universal and serious effect the people who are most disfavored economically, culturally and socially • The pretended solution of favoring equality, which is applied in many education systems - only leads to greater inequality I agree with Aristotle: “Justice is thought to be, and is, equality – not however, for all, but only for equals. And inequality is thought to be, and is, justice: neither is this for all, but only for unequal” 20 • In other words – it is not fair to treat unequal equally, nor
  • References Field, S., Kuczera, M. & Pont B. (2008). No more failures: Ten steps to equity in education. The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Policy Briefs. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/publications/Policybriefs on 2 May 2013. Jean-Sigur, R. (n.d). A presentation on educational equity. Retrieved from slideshare.com on 1 May 2013. Louis, F. (1965). Horace Mann on the crisis in education. Ohio: Antioch Press. Noguera, P. A. (n.d.). Presentation on In Pursuit of Equity and Excellence in Education. Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. Pizarro, A. (2011). UNESCO’s understanding of education quality, The right to a quality education for all in Latin America and the Caribbean, Seminar in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 20-22 September, 2011. Singh, N. (n.d.). Legal Empowerment of Poor Women and Girls. Canada: Commission on Legal empowerment of the Poor. Sirotnick, K. A. (2001). Renewing Schools And Teacher Education: An Odyssey in Educational Change. Retrieved from www.amazon.com on 10 May  2013. UNGEI GAC, (2008). Gender inequalities in teaching and learning processes group 3 outcomes. UNGEI GAC meeting on equity, gender and quality in education, 11-12 September 2008, Kathmandu. Photo curtsey: The Kathmandu Post, imageofnepal.blogpost.com and SOS Children's Village Nepal
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