Transcript of "Presentation on equity__equality_and_education_may_22_2013_rajendra_p_sharma.nepal"
Equality, Equity and
Rajendra P Sharma
May 22, 2013
A Presentation for Fulfillment of Requirement of an Assignment
Foundation of Education, Development Studies
MPhil/PhD Program I School of Education I Kathmandu University
Photo curtsey: The Kathmandu Post, imageofnepal.blogpost.com and SOS Children's Village ,Nepal
Discussion Points for Today
Worldwide - Equality, Parity and Equity in Education
is fundamentally accepted Phenomena (rights),
Equality and equity in Education is not exits
So, what is equality and equity in terms of quality
education in general is discussion for today
How we see, it matters
https://www.google.com.np/search?q=equity and equality
Defining Equality and Equity
Ensuring the fair and equitable treatment of all girls and boys,
women and men in the education system (UNESCO, 2003).
Method of distributing resources to groups and is linked to
excellence regardless of race, ethnicity, economic status
Ensuring fairness and basic equal rights to women and men
with sometimes actions must be taken to compensate for
social or historical disadvantages (UNESCO, 2003).
Connecting and differentiating
means treating everyone
involves giving people
the same under the law
the treatment they need
q=equity and equality
Horizontal equity is
measured by calculating the
dispersion, or inequality, in
the distribution of funds
Horizontal equity can be
applied broadly in
comparing large and
Students who are alike
should receive equal
shares (of funding)
— All students at the high school
kindergarten or in general
- Jean-Sigur, R. (n.d).
Vertical equity means providing what people need
Vertical equity recognizes that students and schools are
different, and that the treatment of unequal requires
appropriate unequal treatment
While horizontal equity is rather easy to quantify, vertical
equity choices are based on value
- Jean-Sigur, R. (n.d).
Parity, equality and equity
Parity is a limited concept
A numerical construct
Tells nothing about equality in terms of
− educational environment
− attitudes or attainment
− nor does it necessarily mean high enrolment
either for boys or girls.
Inequality exists even there is parity
Nevertheless, it is a step along the long road to
Why we talk about parity, equality & equity in
Because, if we do not clear ourselves about these
There is no way to ensure equitable quality
education to all, for which we and our nation is
So, lets talk about
What are the international convention and
What is quality education?
What are the framework to achieve this?
Horace Mann’s view
Education, then, beyond all other devices of human
origin, is the great equalizer of the conditions of men
—the balance wheel of the social machinery.
Understanding of Quality Education
Learning: The Treasure Within, Report to UNESCO of the
International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first
Century , Jacques Delors,1996)
Learning to know
Learning to do
Learning to live together
Learning to be
UNESCO’s rights-based approach
Education is public good & human right from which nobody
can be excluded
Calls for inclusive quality education
A particular focus on vulnerable and marginalized group
Schooling be free and obligatory
Rights of non-discrimination and full participation
Assure equity in 3 dimensions:
− in process, and
− in results.
(regardless of age, sex, caste, ethnicity, geography, differently-able -- seniors and children or
men and women or boys and girls)
(Adopted from UNESCO, 2003text in parenthesis is added by author)
Quality Education for All: Issue of human rights
Under the rights framework for quality of education:
Three substantive aspects:
Includes 2 key operational aspects
(OREALC/UNESCO Santiago, 2007)
International Commitments on Education & Equity
EFA Dakar Goals
Education for All Goals reaffirmed in Dakar in 2000, emphasized a focus on
gender equality in education
1. Expanding early childhood care and
2. Free and compulsory primary
education for all
3. Learning and life skills for young
people and adults
4. Increase adult literacy
5. Eliminating gender disparities and
achieving gender equality
6. Improving all aspects of the quality
Millennium Development Goals
universal primary education
gender equality and empower women
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against
Women (CEDAW, 1981): Article 10 : Equal rights in education
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 1990): Articles 28 and
29: Equal right to education for children
United Nations Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,
Article 13 on Education:
Compulsory & free primary education to all
Different forms secondary education including technical and vocational
Make available and accessible to all by every appropriate means, and
in particular by the progressive introduction of free education
A Broad Concept of Quality Education (at a glance)
Diversity and flexibility
Classroom practices/assessment analysis
Rights, 4 pillars, meanings
Objective achievement, curriculum management
Students academic achievement
Teachers (who are they, conditions, practices)
Finance, resources management, social responsibility
Availability/use of resources
Inclusion, equal opportunities, resources
Achievement parity (efficacy)
Alternative education/positive discrimination
Adopted from UNESCO, 2003.
Equity: is possible?
Equity is achieved when the distribution of services is
determined by the preferences for education and not by
the fiscal capacity of the locality or state
This is also known as equity or wealth neutrality
(Noguera, n.d & UNGEI GAC, 2008).
arch?q=equity and equality
Framework for Equality
Rule of Law
Legal Mechanisms to
Adopted from Singh, N. (n.d.).
Ten steps to equity in education
1. Limit early tracking and streaming and postpone academic selection.
2. Manage school choice so as to contain the risks to equity.
3. Provide attractive alternatives, remove dead ends and prevent dropout.
4. Offer second chances to gain from education.
5. Identify/provide help to those who fall behind at school & reduce year
6. Link school & home to help disadvantaged parents and children to learn
7. Respond to diversity and inclusion of migrants and minorities in
8. Provide education for all, giving priority to early childhood basic schooling
9. Direct resources to the students with the greatest needs
10. Set concrete targets for equity, low school attainment and dropouts.
(Field, S., M. Kuczera, & B. Pont, 2008)
My thesis (argument)
Inequity is universal and serious effect the
people who are most disfavored economically, culturally
The pretended solution of favoring equality, which is
applied in many education systems - only leads to greater
I agree with Aristotle: “Justice is thought to be, and is,
equality – not however, for all, but only for equals. And
inequality is thought to be, and is, justice: neither is this for
all, but only for unequal”
In other words – it is not fair to treat unequal equally, nor
Field, S., Kuczera, M. & Pont B. (2008). No more failures: Ten steps to
education. The Organization for Economic Co-Operation
(OECD) Policy Briefs. Retrieved from www.oecd.org/publications/Policybriefs on 2 May
Jean-Sigur, R. (n.d). A presentation on educational equity. Retrieved from slideshare.com on
Louis, F. (1965). Horace Mann on the crisis in education. Ohio: Antioch Press.
Noguera, P. A. (n.d.). Presentation on In Pursuit of Equity and Excellence in Education. Graduate
School of Education, Harvard University.
Pizarro, A. (2011). UNESCO’s understanding of education quality, The right to a quality
education for all in Latin America and the Caribbean, Seminar in Cartagena de
Indias, Colombia, 20-22 September,
Singh, N. (n.d.). Legal Empowerment of Poor Women and Girls. Canada: Commission on
Legal empowerment of the Poor.
Sirotnick, K. A. (2001). Renewing Schools And Teacher Education: An Odyssey in
Change. Retrieved from www.amazon.com on 10 May 2013.
UNGEI GAC, (2008). Gender inequalities in teaching and learning processes group 3 outcomes.
UNGEI GAC meeting on equity, gender and quality in education, 11-12
September 2008, Kathmandu.
Photo curtsey: The Kathmandu Post, imageofnepal.blogpost.com and SOS Children's Village Nepal
Life Skills Can Eat My Dust | Mister G Kidsmistergkids.com
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