Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts
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Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts

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Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts Genetically modified crops and food Security..scientific facts Presentation Transcript

  • Genetically Modified Crops (GM) & Food Security By: - Rajdeep Singh Sidhu - Gaurav Ghai
  • What is GM crops/ food?  According to „World Health Organisation‟ “Genetically modified (GM) foods are foods derived from organisms whose genetic material (DNA) has been modified in a way at does not occur naturally, i.e. through the introduction of a gene from a different organism.  GM Crops are described by many different names – •Genetically Engineered crops(GE) •Transgenic or Biotech crops •Genetically Modified Organism(GMO) BT Gene BT Gene inserted into DNA of the crop Genetically Modified Plant Injected
  • Genetically modified crops Insect Resistance Herbicide Tolerance Drought resistance Yield increase Nutrient Enhancement Virus Tolerance Advantages of GM Crops
  • Insect Resistance (IR)  Insect pests have become an integral part of agricultural crops worldwide and significantly reduce yield of the plants. So IR trait is inserted into crops.  IR trait is helpful in following ways •Reduction in Insecticide spraying •Targeting of the insecticide solely to the plant to be protected . GM plant Killed European Corn Borer Toxin is Present European Corn Borer (Insect)
  • Herbicide Tolerance Over 63% of Gm crops grown globally have herbicide tolerance traits.  Herbicide tolerance is achieved through the introduction of a gene from a bacterium conveying resistance to some herbicides. In situations where weed pressure is high, the use of such crops has resulted in a reduction in the quantity of the herbicides used. GM crop GM Crop (Unaffected) Weed KilledWeed Herbicide Spray Result Of Herbicide Spray
  • Virus Resistance Virus resistance makes plants less susceptible to diseases caused by such viruses, resulting in higher crop yields. For Example- Hawaiian Papaya- Hawaiian papaya is made resistant to the devastating effects of Papaya Ring Spot Virus (PRSV). Hawaiian Papaya Papaya Ring Spot Virus
  • Disadvantages of GM crops Allergenicity Gene transfer Outcrossing Super Weeds
  • Allergenicity In India, hundreds of laborers picking cotton and working in cotton ginning factories developed allergic reactions when handling the BT cotton. This didn‟t happen with the non-Bt varieties. [Ashish Gupta et. al., “Impact of Bt Cotton on Farmers‟ Health (in Barwani and Dhar District of Madhya Pradesh),” Investigation Report, Oct–Dec 2005] Hospital records: “ Show that victims of itching have increased massively this year, and all of them are related to BT cotton farming.” [The Sunday Indian, 10/26/08] Itching all over the body, eruptions, wounds, discoloration
  • Out-crossing The movement of genes from GM plants into conventional crops or related species in the wild (referred to as “out crossing”), as well as the mixing of crops derived from conventional seeds with those grown using GM crops, may have an indirect effect on food safety and food security. pollens Direction of wind GM Crops Conventional crops
  • Super Weeds :A wild plant that has been accidentally pollinated by a genetically-modified plant and now contains that plant's abilities to resist herbicides and insects. Glyphosate is the chemical name for an herbicide. Certain invasive grasses and weeds have proven themselves to be resistant to glyphosate, meaning that the herbicide is no longer effective against these plants. Examples of weeds resistant to Glyphosate •Common Ragweed •Italian Ryegrass Super Weeds pollens WeedGM Crop Cross Pollination of GM crop With Weeds Super Weed Herbicide Spray GM Crop Super Weed No Effect of Herbicide Spray GM Crop
  • Food Security  Definition: According to United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) „Food security for a household means access by all members at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. Food security includes at a minimum : (1) the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods. (2) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (that is, without resorting to emergency food supplies, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies).
  • Food Security Human Food Availability Food Access Utilization Stability
  • Food Availability  Availability of sufficient Quantity of Food.  Quality should be appropriate.
  • Food Access Having sufficient resources to:- • Obtain appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Money RESOURCES
  • Stability • In case of : Earthquakes Floods Drought
  • Utilization • Utilization of food through Proper : Clean Water Hand Wash Flushing Washing Utensils Proper Sanitation
  • Why we need food security?  To cope with situations like: Drought Floods No market to sell the Goods
  • Food Crisis in the World during period 1986-2005 • Africa has > 15 years of food crisis and worst in the world where the average number of crises has tripled over the last two decades. Food Emergencies in Years
  • Yield Increase Conventional Seeds Genetically Modified Seeds Low yield High yield
  • Drought Resistant  Genetically Modified Crops requires less water for their growth , hence are capable to sustain in drought conditions.  Useful in areas which receive less rainfall.
  • Nutrient Enhancement  White rice is a staple food in most countries.  It provides 80% daily calories. Concern Arises  White rice doesn‟t contain beta-carotene which human body converts it to Vitamin A.  WHO says 5 Lakh people get blind due to vitamin A deficiency every year .  To tackle this beta-carotene is added to white rice to make “Golden Rice”.
  • Adding Nutritive Value Gene added from:- 1. Maize or Daffodil Plant 2. Common soil bacteria (Erwinia) Lycopene Beta-carotene Yellow-Orange rice grain Or Golden rice White Rice Golden Rice is rich in Vitamin A
  • Food shell life Increase Transportation By various means Storage • Spoiling of vegetable decreases. • The first genetically modified crop approved for sale in the U.S. was the Falvrsvr tomato. Ware-House
  • Conclusion  GMO‟s present both positive and negative aspects to society as a whole.  They are a topic of much deliberation and tension; very prevalent in some parts of the world and banned in others.  GE crops are required for meeting Food Security in today‟s growing population.  Ultimately, GMO‟s are still a relatively premature technology and in the developmental process. Only time will reveal their ultimate effect on humans.