EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANTSubmitted to : Submitted by:Er. Mradul Rana Rajat Mani Thapliyal Dheerendra singh Pradeep Madhukar Kaushal shakya
What is Efflunt ? LIQUID WASTE FLOWING OUT OF A FACTORY,FARM, COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENT, OR AHOUSEHOLD INTO A WATER BODY SUCH AS ARIVER, LAKE, OR LAGOON, OR A SEWER SYSTEMOR RESERVOIR. WASTE DISCHARGED INTO AIR ISCALLED EMISSION.
Types of Effluent INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERTREATMENT SEWAGE TREATMENT
INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERTREATMENT Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the environment or its re- use.
Sources of industrialwastewater Agricultural waste Iron and steel industry Mines and quarries Food industry Complex organic chemicals industry Nuclear industry
oSewage Treatmento It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce an environmentally-safe fluid waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste (or treated sludge) suitable for disposal or reuse (usually as farm fertilizer). Using advanced technology it is now possible to re-use sewage effluent for drinking water, although Singapore is the only country to implement such Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic technology on a production scale in its production of NEW Water.
Origins of SewageSEWAGE IS GENERATED BYRESIDENTIAL, INSTITUTIONAL, AND COMMERCIAL ANDINDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS. IT INCLUDES HOUSEHOLDWASTE LIQUID FROMTOILETS, BATHS, SHOWERS, KITCHENS, SINKS AND SOFORTH THAT IS DISPOSED OF VIA SEWERS. IN MANYAREAS, SEWAGE ALSO INCLUDES LIQUID WASTE FROMINDUSTRY AND COMMERCE. THE SEPARATION AND DRAININGOF HOUSEHOLD WASTE INTO GREYWATER AND BLACKWATERIS BECOMING MORE COMMON IN THE DEVELOPEDWORLD, WITH GREYWATER BEING PERMITTED TO BE USEDFOR WATERING PLANTS OR RECYCLED FOR FLUSHINGTOILETS.
•Process Overview•SEWAGE CAN BE TREATED CLOSE TO WHERE IT IS CREATED, ADECENTRALISED SYSTEM, (IN SEPTIC TANKS, BIOFILTERS ORAEROBIC TREATMENT SYSTEMS), OR BE COLLECTED ANDTRANSPORTED VIA A NETWORK OF PIPES AND PUMP STATIONSTO A MUNICIPAL TREATMENT PLANT, A CENTRALISED SYSTEM,(SEWERAGE AND PIPES AND INFRASTRUCTURE). SEWAGECOLLECTION AND TREATMENT IS TYPICALLY SUBJECT TOLOCAL, STATE AND FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS.INDUSTRIAL SOURCES OF WASTEWATER OFTEN REQUIRESPECIALIZED TREATMENT PROCESSES ( INDUSTRIALWASTEWATER TREATMENT).SEWAGE TREATMENT GENERALLY INVOLVES THREE STAGES,CALLED PRIMARY, SECONDARY AND TERTIARY TREATMENT.
THERE ARE THREE TYPES OFPROCESS OVERVIEW :- Pre Treatmant Screening Grit Removel Flow Equalization Fat & Greas Removel Primary Treatment Secondary Treatment Tertiary Treatment
Pre TreatmentPre-treatment removes materials thatcan be easily collected from the rawwaste water before they damage orclog the pumps and skimmers ofprimary treatment clarifiers (trash, treelimbs, leaves, etc.).
ScreeningThe influent sewage water is screened to remove all largeobjects like cans, rags, sticks, plastic packets etc. carried in thesewage stream. This is most commonly done with an automatedmechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving largepopulations, whilst in smaller or less modern plants a manuallycleaned screen may be used. The raking action of a mechanicalbar screen is typically paced according to the accumulation onthe bar screens and/or flow rate. The solids are collected andlater disposed in a landfill or incinerated. Bar screens or meshscreens of varying sizes may be used to optimize solids removal.If gross solids are not removed they become entrained in pipesand moving parts of the treatment plant and can causesubstantial damage and inefficiency in the process.
Grit RemovalPre-treatment may include a sand or grit channelor chamber where the velocity of the incomingwastewater is adjusted to allow the settlement ofsand, grit, stones, and broken glass. Theseparticles are removed because they may damagepumps and other equipment. For small sanitarysewer systems, the grit chambers may not benecessary, but grit removal is desirable at largerplants.
Flow EqualizationClarifiers and mechanized secondary treatment are moreefficient under uniform flow conditions. Equalization basins maybe used for temporary storage of diurnal or wet-weather flowpeaks. Basins provide a place to temporarily hold incomingsewage during plant maintenance and a means of diluting anddistributing batch discharges of toxic or high-strength wastewhich might otherwise inhibit biological secondary treatment(including portable toilet waste, vehicle holding tanks, andseptic tank pumpers). Flow equalization basins require variabledischarge control, typically include provisions for bypass andcleaning, and may also include aerators. Cleaning may be easierif the basin is downstream of screening and grit removal.
Fat & Grease RemovalIn some larger plants, fat and grease isremoved by passing the sewage through asmall tank where skimmers collect the fatfloating on the surface. Air blowers in thebase of the tank may also be used to helprecover the fat as froth. Many plants,however, use primary clarifiers withmechanical surface skimmers for fat andgrease removal.
Primary TreatmentPrimary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary treatment.
Secondary Treatment Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment.
Tertiary TreatmantTertiary treatment is sometimes defined asanything more than primary and secondarytreatment in order to allow rejection into a highlysensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flowrivers, coral reefs,...). Treated water is sometimesdisinfected chemically or physically (forexample, by lagoons and microfiltration) prior todischarge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon orwetland, or it can be used for the irrigation of a golfcourse, green way or park. If it is sufficientlyclean, it can also be used for groundwater recharge
Process Flow Diagram For A TypicalLarge – scale Treatmant Plant
Activated sludgeIn general, activated sludge plantsencompass a variety of mechanisms andprocesses that use dissolved oxygen topromote the growth of biological floc thatsubstantially removes organic material.The process traps particulate material andcan, under ideal conditions, convertammonia to nitrite and nitrate ultimatelyto nitrogen gas.
Types of RemovelI. Nutrient removalII. Nitrogen removalIII. Phosphorus removal
Package plants and batchreactors One type of system that combines secondary treatment and settlement is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Typically, activated sludge is mixed with raw incoming sewage, and then mixed and aerated. The settled sludge is run off and re-aerated before a proportion is returned to the headworks.SBR plants are now being deployed in many parts of the world.
Sludge treatment anddisposal The sludges accumulated in a wastewater treatment process must be treated and disposed of in a safe and effective manner. The purpose of digestion is to reduce the amount of organic matter and the number of disease-causing microorganisms present in the solids. The most common treatment options include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting. Incineration is also used albeit to a much lesser degree.
Effects on Biology Oxidation ponds, which are aerobic bodies of water usually 1–2 meters in depth that receive effluent from sedimentation tanks or other forms of primary treatment. Dominated by algae Polishing ponds are similar to oxidation ponds but receive effluent from an oxidation pond or from a plant with an extended mechanical treatment. Dominated by zooplankton
Sewage treatment indeveloping countries Venezuela Iran Tehrans South America India