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Computer memory basics

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THIS IS A PROJECT ON THE ORIGIN, HOSTORY , DEVELOPMENT AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF COMPUTER MEMORY.

THIS IS A PROJECT ON THE ORIGIN, HOSTORY , DEVELOPMENT AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF COMPUTER MEMORY.

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  • 1. Computer Memory BasicsAlthough memory is technically any form of electronic storage, it is used most often to identifyfast, temporary forms of storage. If your computers CPU had to constantly access the hard driveto retrieve every piece of data it needs, it would operate very slowly. When the information iskept in memory, the CPU can access it much more quickly. Most forms of memory are intendedto store data temporarily.As you can see in the diagram above, the CPU accesses memory according to a distincthierarchy. Whether it comes from permanent storage (the hard drive) or input (the keyboard),most data goes in random access memory (RAM) first. The CPU then stores pieces of data itwill need to access, often in a cache, and maintains certain special instructions in the register.Well talk about cache and registers later.All of the components in your computer, such as the CPU, the hard drive and the operatingsystem, work together as a team, and memory is one of the most essential parts of this team.From the moment you turn your computer on until the time you shut it down, your CPU isconstantly using memory. Lets take a look at a typical scenario: You turn the computer on. The computer loads data from read-only memory (ROM) and performs a power-on self- test (POST) to make sure all the major components are functioning properly. As part of this test, the memory controller checks all of the memory addresses with a quick read/write operation to ensure that there are no errors in the memory chips. Read/write means that data is written to a bit and then read from that bit.
  • 2. The computer loads the basic input/output system (BIOS) from ROM. The BIOS provides the most basic information about storage devices, boot sequence, security, Plug and Play (auto device recognition) capability and a few other items. The computer loads the operating system (OS) from the hard drive into the systems RAM. Generally, the critical parts of the operating system are maintained in RAM as long as the computer is on. This allows the CPU to have immediate access to the operating system, which enhances the performance and functionality of the overall system. When you open an application, it is loaded into RAM. To conserve RAM usage, many applications load only the essential parts of the program initially and then load other pieces as needed. After an application is loaded, any files that are opened for use in that application are loaded into RAM. When you save a file and close the application, the file is written to the specified storage device, and then it and the application are purged from RAM.In the list above, every time something is loaded or opened, it is placed into RAM. This simplymeans that it has been put in the computers temporary storage area so that the CPU can accessthat information more easily. The CPU requests the data it needs from RAM, processes it andwrites new data back to RAM in a continuous cycle. In most computers, this shuffling of databetween the CPU and RAM happens millions of times every second. When an application isclosed, it and any accompanying files are usually purged (deleted) from RAM to make room fornew data. If the changed files are not saved to a permanent storage device before being purged,they are lost.One common question about desktop computers that comes up all the time is, "Why does acomputer need so many memorysHow RAM works???Random access memory (RAM) is the best known form of computer memory. RAM isconsidered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you know therow and column that intersect at that cell.The opposite of RAM is serial access memory (SAM). SAM stores data as a series of memorycells that can only be accessed sequentially (like a cassette tape). If the data is not in the currentlocation, each memory cell is checked until the needed data is found. SAM works very well formemory buffers, where the data is normally stored in the order in which it will be used (a goodexample is the texture buffer memory on a video card). RAM data, on the other hand, can beaccessed in any order.
  • 3. Similar to a microprocessor, a memory chip is an integrated circuit (IC) made of millions oftransistors and capacitors. In the most common form of computer memory, dynamic randomaccess memory (DRAM), a transistor and a capacitor are paired to create a memory cell, whichrepresents a single bit of data. The capacitor holds the bit of information -- a 0 or a 1 (see HowBits and Bytes Work for information on bits). The transistor acts as a switch that lets the controlcircuitry on the memory chip read the capacitor or change its state.A capacitor is like a small bucket that is able to store electrons. To store a 1 in the memory cell,the bucket is filled with electrons. To store a 0, it is emptied. The problem with the capacitorsbucket is that it has a leak. In a matter of a few milliseconds a full bucket becomes empty.Therefore, for dynamic memory to work, either the CPU or the memory controller has to comealong and recharge all of the capacitors holding a 1 before they discharge. To do this, the mem-ory controller reads the memory and then writes it right back. This refresh operation happensautomatically thousands of times per second.How VIRTUAL MEMORY WORKS??/Virtual memory is a common part of most operating systems on desktop computers. It hasbecome so common because it provides a big benefit for users at a very low cost.In this article, you will learn exactly what virtual memory is, what your computer uses it for andhow to configure it on your own machine to achieve optimal performance.Most computers today have something like 32 or 64 megabytes of RAM available for the CPU touse (see How RAM Works for details on RAM). Unfortunately, that amount of RAM is notenough to run all of the programs that most users expect to run at once.For example, if you load the operating system, an e-mail program, a Web browser and wordprocessor into RAM simultaneously, 32 megabytes is not enough to hold it all. If there were nosuch thing as virtual memory, then once you filled up the available RAM your computer wouldhave to say, "Sorry, you can not load any more applications. Please close another application toload a new one." With virtual memory, what the computer can do is look at RAM for areas thathave not been used recently and copy them onto the hard disk. This frees up space in RAM toload the new application.Because this copying happens automatically, you dont even know it is happening, and it makesyour computer feel like is has unlimited RAM space even though it only has 32 megabytesinstalled. Because hard disk space is so much cheaper than RAM chips, it also has a niceeconomic benefit. The read/write speed of a hard drive is much slower than RAM, and the technology of a harddrive is not geared toward accessing small pieces of data at a time. If your system has to rely too
  • 4. heavily on virtual memory, you will notice a significant performance drop. The key is to haveenough RAM to handle everything you tend to work on simultaneously -- then, the only time you"feel" the slowness of virtual memory is is when theres a slight pause when youre changingtasks. When thats the case, virtual memory is perfect.When it is not the case, the operating system has to constantly swap information back and forthbetween RAM and the hard disk. This is called thrashing, and it can make your computer feelincredibly slow.The area of the hard disk that stores the RAM image is called a page file. It holds pages of RAMon the hard disk, and the operating system moves data back and forth between the page file andRAM. On a Windows machine, page files have a .SWP extension.Next, well look at how to configure virtual memory on a computer.RAM
  • 5. PROM Ram is built by using two different techniques: 1. DRAM: DRAM stands for dynamic fandom access memory. It is a type of memory that is used in most computers. It is the least expensive kind of RAM.DRAM requires an electric current to maintain its electrical state. The electrical charge ofDRAM decreases with time that may result in loss of data. DRAM is recharged or refreshedagain and again to maintain its data. The processor cannot access the data of DRAM when it isbeing refreshed. That is why it is slow. 2. SRAM: SRAM stands for static random access memory. The memory cells are made from digital gates. Each cell can store data without any need of frequent recharging. CPU does not need to wait to access data from SRAM during processing. That is why it is faster than DRAM. It utilizes less power than DRAM. SRAM is more expensive. It is normally used to build a very fast memory known as cache memory.What is ROM? Discuss its different types.ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The instructions in ROM prepare the computer for use.These instructions can only be read but cannot be changed or deleted. It is not possible to writenew information or instructions into the ROM.ROM stores data and instructions permanently. When the power is switched off, the instructionsstored in ROM are not lost. That is why ROM is known as non-volatile memory.
  • 6. The information in ROM is stored by the manufacturer. When the computer is switched on, theinstructions in ROM are automatically loaded into the memory of computer.Types of ROMDifferent types of ROM are as follows; 1. PROM: stands for programmable read only memory. This form of ROM is initially blank. The user or manufacturer can write data and programs on it using special devices. The user can write data and instruction on it only once. If there is any error in writing the instructions, the error cannot be removed from PROM. The chip becomes unusable. 1. EPROM: EPROM stands for erasable programmable read only memory. This form of ROM is initially blank. The user or manufacturer can write data and programs on it using special ultraviolet rays. The user then can write new program on it. 3. EEPROM: EEPROM stands for electronically erasable programmable read only memory. In this memory, user can erase and write instructions with the help of electrical pulses. It there is any error in writing the instructions, the user can erase the contents electronically. The contents of EEPROM can be modified easily.