Chapter 4 - what is-leadership


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Chapter 4 - what is-leadership

  2. 2. TMU Syllabus » » » » » » » » Objectives Leadership Qualities Characteristics of Leadership Techniques of Leadership – Styles / Types Theories of Leadership Co-ordination Motivation Theories of Motivation
  3. 3. Leadership – Key Points » Leadership in Simple Terms » Leader Characteristics » Qualities of Leadership » Leadership as Empowerment » The Leadership Role » The Ingredients of a Successful Leader » What is Successful Leadership » The Lombardi Leadership Model (2001)
  4. 4. Leadership begins with Self-knowledge “Self-knowledge is the basis for character... Character is the root of integrity... Integrity provides the foundation for leadership”. (Lombardi, 2001) What do you know about yourself as a leader?
  5. 5. Leadership in Simple Terms » Understand the vision » Direct and enable others to cooperate in achieving it “Leadership is the ability to direct people, more important, to have those people accept that direction”. (Lombardi, 2001)
  6. 6. Leadership is about: » Motivating » Inspiring » Taking people to greater heights » Working with participants on the how and helping them figure out the what and why » Encouraging them to push themselves to achieve the highest possible performance » Action » Enabling, not telling » Talking the talk and walking the walk...walking alongside
  7. 7. “Leadership that pulls together people with diverse talents, backgrounds, experiences and interests, encourages them to step up to responsibility and continued achievement, and treats them as full scale partners and contributors. Leadership is not about memorising techniques or devising the perfect game plan. It is about really paying attention to people – really believing them, really caring about them, really involving them.” (Peters & Austin, 1985) How would you define leadership?
  8. 8. Leader Characteristics include: » Ability » Knowledge » Experience » Personality What characteristics of leadership do you have?
  9. 9. Qualities of Leadership » Leadership qualities are demonstrated in a leader‟s behaviour, not their position. “Leadership is not just one quality but rather a blend of qualities”.
  10. 10. Leadership Qualities » Enable direction and structure by the group » A clear vision » Charisma » Enable motivation and enthusiasm » Vision and passion » Strong communicating skills » Role model » Have integrity and honesty » Be organised » Make a difference » People-oriented skills » Skilful communicator » Build character » Empathy ( What leadership qualities do you have?
  11. 11. Leadership as Empowerment “A good leader inspires people to have confidence in their leader. A great leader inspires people to have confidence in themselves”. (Anonymous)
  12. 12. Leadership as Empowerment Current ideas on leadership involve empowering followers to self-lead. This is important in a coach-leadership role as empowering athletes enables them to make their own decisions and self-lead during performance. “The best leaders - people do not even notice their existence. The next best - people honour and praise. The next the people fear. The next the people hate. When the best leader‟s work is done the people say „we did it ourselves‟.”
  13. 13. Leaders Build Leadership To build leadership the leader has to enable participant independence so they can perform with freedom and autonomy to make informed decisions without the leader around. (Hinkson, 2001)
  14. 14. The Leadership Role A good leader is a person who: » Is a good teacher » Doesn‟t put down those they are working with » Gets the most from those they are working with » Works within the framework of the rules “A leader is one who knows the way, goes the way, and shows the way.” John C. Maxwell
  15. 15. The Ingredients of a Successful Leader » Create and practise values » Develop committed followers » Inspire lofty accomplishments » Model appropriate behaviour » Focus attention on important issues » Connect the group to the outside world What other ingredients are important to be a successful leader?
  16. 16. What is Successful Leadership? Successful leaders get the most out of the participants and enable them to learn: » How to lead and follow within the team » How to make good decisions » Not to be afraid to fail » Character values » How to be successful leaders and people » To be the best they can be
  17. 17. The Lombardi Leadership Model (2001) Character Belief Habit Courage Responsibility Sacrifice Hard work Willpower Mental Toughness Discipline Which of these leadership traits are the hardest for you?
  18. 18. Finally... Leadership is a combination of character and competence; of who you are and what you can do. (Covey, 2004)
  19. 19. A Leadership Story: » A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. » The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible. » Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.
  20. 20. A Leadership Story: » And shouts down to the assembled group below… » “Wrong Way!” » (Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster). » “Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things” (Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker)
  21. 21. Leadership
  22. 22. Types of Leadership Style Creative & Institutional
  23. 23. Types of Leadership Style » Autocratic: • Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else • High degree of dependency on the leader • Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff • May be valuable in some types of business where decisions need to be made quickly and decisively
  24. 24. Types of Leadership Style » Democratic: » Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation • Consultative: process of consultation before decisions are taken • Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct
  25. 25. Types of Leadership Style » Democratic: •May help motivation and involvement •Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas •Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business •Can delay decision making
  26. 26. Types of Leadership Style » Laissez-Faire: • „Let it be‟ – the leadership responsibilities are shared by all • Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important • Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life • Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction • Relies on good team work • Relies on good interpersonal relations
  27. 27. Types of Leadership Style » Paternalistic: » Leader acts as a „father figure‟ » Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult » Believes in the need to support staff
  28. 28. Theories of Leadership
  29. 29. Theories of Leadership » Trait theories: » Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader? • Personality? • Dominance and personal presence? • Charisma? • Self confidence? • Achievement? • Ability to formulate a clear vision?
  30. 30. Theories of Leadership » Trait theories: • Are such characteristics inherently gender biased? • Do such characteristics produce good leaders? • Is leadership more than just bringing about change? • Does this imply that leaders are born not bred?
  31. 31. Theories of Leadership » Behavioural: » Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things • Structure based behavioural theories – focus on the leader instituting structures – task orientated • Relationship based behavioural theories – focus on the development and maintenance of relationships – process orientated
  32. 32. Theories of Leadership » Contingency Theories: Situational Approach » Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance. » Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed into different contexts
  33. 33. Theories of Leadership » May depend on: • Type of staff • History of the business • Culture of the business • Quality of the relationships • Nature of the changes needed • Accepted norms within the institution
  34. 34. Theories of Leadership » Transformational: • Widespread changes to a business or organisation » Requires: • Long term strategic planning • Clear objectives • Clear vision • Leading by example – walk the walk • Efficiency of systems and processes
  35. 35. Theories of Leadership » Group Approach: • Success of a leader is primarily influenced by the characteristics of the particular group • Group members approve or disapprove of a leader • Culture, patterns, traditions • So an individual can become a good leader only if he adopts the above culture, traditions • Be a roman in Rome to start with
  36. 36. Theories of Leadership » Transactional Theories: • Focus on the management of the organisation • Focus on procedures and efficiency • Focus on working to rules and contracts • Managing current issues and problems
  37. 37. Factors Affecting Style
  38. 38. Factors Affecting Style » Leadership style may be dependent on various factors: • Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved • Type of business – creative business or supply driven? • How important change is – change for change‟s sake? • Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change • Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure?
  39. 39. Change Leadership
  40. 40. Change Leadership » The most challenging aspect of business is leading and managing change » The business environment is subject to fastpaced economic and social change » Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive » Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource management
  41. 41. Change Leadership Self-esteem 2 3 1 5 4 Time 5. Testing out: 4. Acceptance/letting 3. Depression: as reality 2. Minimisation: As thego: 1. Immobilisation 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to The lowest point in selfbegins to rumours of the changeas dawn staff may – becomes Individuals begin to work interact with circulate, the esteem finally and people feel alienatedthe clearer, peopleseesto fit in change try 7 with the change and see change, they start lack of starting to with their own angry, feelings of the ask the changeaccept atosome individual feels how they might be able to questions Fear seeofand may control of events overtake personal positionhow they sense of shock and the make the change work for might is a feature of future believe that it this peoplework they feel will try topossible disbelief – and with the them – self esteem begins change. stage. much so depressed as they try to not affect them. that they so to rise. reconcile what is deem it worthy of happening with their own doing nothing. 7. Internalisation: personal situation. the change is 6 understood and adopted within the individual’s own understanding – they now know how to work with it and feel a renewed sense of confidence and self esteem.
  42. 42. Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: how long a person tries
  43. 43. Motivation and Performance Environment Motivation Effort Ability Performance
  44. 44. 3 Major Types of Motivation Theories » Content Theories of Motivation • WHAT motivates us » Process Theories of Motivation • WHY and HOW motivation occurs » Reinforcement Theory • HOW outcomes influence behaviors
  45. 45. Content Perspectives on Motivation » Content Perspectives • Approaches to motivation that try to answer the question, “What factors in the workplace motivate people?” » Content Perspectives of Motivation • Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs • Aldefer‟s ERG Theory • McGregory‟s Theory X and Theory Y • Herzberg‟s Two-Factor Theory • McClelland‟s Achievement, Power, and Affiliation Needs
  46. 46. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples SelfAchievement actualization Status Friendship Stability Food Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Challenging job Job title Friends at work Pension plan Base salary
  47. 47. Assumptions of Maslow’s Hierarchy Movement up the Pyramid •Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. •Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order Maslow Application: A homeless person will not be motivated to meditate!
  48. 48. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs A Content Perspective » What factor or factors motivate people » Weakness of Theory • Five levels of need are not always present • Order is not always the same • Cultural differences » Need‟s Hierarchy in China…an example: • Belonging • Physiological • Safety • Self actualizing in service to society
  49. 49. Alderfer’s ERG Theory A Content Perspective » Existence needs • Physiological » Relatedness needs • How one individual relates to his/her social environment » Growth needs • Achievement and self actualization
  50. 50. Alderfer’s ERG Theory A Content Perspective Satisfaction-Progression Frustration-Regression Growth Needs Relatedness Needs Existence Needs
  51. 51. Content Theories » McGregor‟s Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X » Assumes that workers have little ambition, dislike work, avoid responsibility, and require close supervision. • Theory Y » Assumes that workers can exercise self-direction, desire responsibility, and like to work. • Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relations.
  52. 52. Content Theories » Herzberg‟s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. »Hygiene factors: extrinsic (environmental) factors that create job dissatisfaction. »Motivators: intrinsic (psychological) factors that create job satisfaction. • Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. »The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.
  53. 53. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  54. 54. Contrasting Views of SatisfactionDissatisfaction
  55. 55. McClelland’s Needs Theory » Three-Needs Theory • There are three major acquired needs that are major motives in work. • Need for achievement (nAch) » The drive to excel and succeed • Need for power (nPow) » The need to influence the behavior of others • Need of affiliation (nAff) » The desire for interpersonal relationships
  56. 56. Process Perspectives of Motivation » Why people choose certain behavioral options to satisfy their needs and how they evaluate their satisfaction after they have attained their goals. » Process perspectives of Motivation • Goal Setting Theory • Equity Theory • Expectancy Theory
  57. 57. Goal-Setting Theory-- A Process Perspective Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance. » Difficulty • Extent to which a goal is challenging and requires effort. » Specificity • Clarity and precision of the goal. Goal Achievement Depends on: » Acceptance • Extent to which persons accept a goal as their own. » Commitment • Extent to which an individual is personally interested in reaching a goal.
  58. 58. Equity Theory: A Process Perspective » Individuals equate value of rewards to effort and compare it to other people. outcomes(self) inputs (self) Equity Inputs/Outcomes Comparison of self with others Inequity = outcomes (other) inputs (other) Motivation to maintain current situation Ways to reduce inequity • Change inputs • Change outcomes • Alter perceptions of self • Alter perceptions of other • Leave situation • Change comparisons
  59. 59. Justice and Equity Theory
  60. 60. Three types of Justice Distributive Justice Procedural Justice Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution). The perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution). “Who got what?” “How was who gets what decided?” Interactional Justice The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. “Was I treated well?”
  61. 61. Expectancy Theory --The Basic Idea » People tend to prefer certain goals, or outcomes, over others. » They anticipate experiencing feelings of satisfaction should such a preferred outcome be achieved. » Basically, people are motivated to behave in ways that produce valued outcomes.
  62. 62. Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective » Motivation depends on how much we want something and how likely we are to get it • Elements »Effort to Performance Expectancy (E) is the probability that effort will lead to performance. »Performance to Outcome Expectancy (I) is the perception that performance leads to an outcome. »Outcome is the consequence or reward for performance. »Valence (V) is how much a particular outcome is valued.
  63. 63. Expectancy Theory A Process Perspective M=ExIxV » For motivated behavior to occur: • Effort-to-performance must be greater than 0 • Performance-to-outcome must be greater than 0 • Sum of valences must be greater than 0* * One or more valences may be negative!
  64. 64. The Expectancy Model of Motivation Outcome Outcome Environment Motivation Effort Ability Performance Valence Valence Outcome Valence Outcome Valence Outcome Valence
  65. 65. A General Model of Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Outcome 1 Performance Goal High Effort Expectancy “What are my chances of reaching my performance goal if I work hard?” Decision to Exert Effort Expectancy “What are my chances of reaching my performance goal if I slack off?” Outcome 2 Outcome 3 Instrumentality “What are my chances of getting various outcomes if I achieve my performance goal?” Valence “How much do I value these outcomes?” Outcome 1 Low Effort Performance Goal Outcome 2 Outcome 3
  66. 66. Reinforcement Theory Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences. Assumptions: •Behavior is environmentally caused. •Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. •Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.
  67. 67. Motivation: From Concepts to Applications
  68. 68. Job Design Theory Job Characteristics Model Identifies five job characteristics and their relationship to personal and work outcomes. Characteristics: 1. Skill variety 2. Task identity 3. Task significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback
  69. 69. Job Design Theory (cont’d) » Job Characteristics Model • Jobs with skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and for which feedback of results is given, directly affect three psychological states of employees: »Knowledge of results »Meaningfulness of work »Personal feelings of responsibility for results • Increases in these psychological states result in increased motivation, performance, and job satisfaction.
  70. 70. The Job Characteristics Model Source: J.R. Hackman and G.R. Oldham, Work Design (excerpted from pp. 78–80). © 1980 by Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. Reprinted by permission of Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.
  71. 71. Job Design Theory (cont’d) Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities (how may different skills are used in a given day, week, month?). Task Identity The degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work (from beginning to end). Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of other people.
  72. 72. Job Design Theory (cont’d) Autonomy The degree to which the job provides substantial freedom and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Feedback The degree to which carrying out the work activities required by a job results in the individual obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
  73. 73. Examples of High and Low Job Characteristics Characteristics Examples Skill Variety • High variety The owner-operator of a garage who does electrical repair, rebuilds engines, does body work, and interacts with customers • Low variety A bodyshop worker who sprays paint eight hours a day Task Identity • High identity A cabinetmaker who designs a piece of furniture, selects the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection • Low identity A worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe to make table legs Task Significance • High significance Nursing the sick in a hospital intensive care unit • Low significance Sweeping hospital floors Autonomy • High autonomy A telephone installer who schedules his or her own work for the day, and decides on the best techniques for a particular installation • Low autonomy A telephone operator who must handle calls as they come according to a routine, highly specified procedure Feedback • High feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then tests it to determine if it operates properly • Low feedback An electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and then routes it to a quality control inspector who tests and adjusts it
  74. 74. Computing a Motivating Potential Score People who work on jobs with high core dimensions are generally more motivated, satisfied, and productive. Job dimensions operate through the psychological states in influencing personal and work outcome variables rather than influencing them directly.