H                                  O               H      H                               O                      C       C...
SpirulinaPublisher : Healthy World Research Organisation635/1 B, BibwewadiNew Gajra Society,Pune 411 037 Maharashtra (Indi...
What is Spirulina?                                                     SPIRULINA    Spirulina is a blue green alga of vege...
Selected strains are used for cultivation of alga in speciallyconstructed ponds. Agitation of algal culture is necessary t...
The washed biomass is spray dried and is pulverized to getdesired particle size and packed in vegetarian capsules. Theseca...
Nutrients Fluids Macronutrients                    Micronutrients          Proteins              Vitamins                M...
Fluids     Fluids are essential for the formation of blood. The human bodygets essential nutrients and oxygen through the ...
body. One gets proteins from meat, fish, milk, rice, soy, potatoes etc.Food ingredients containing proteins               ...
These are essential occasionally.     These proteins/amino acids are required to perform variousfunctions in the body. Som...
adequate intake of nutritional proteins is essential for our existence.Spirulina and Proteins     Spirulina is approximate...
Nutritional ingredient   Protein percentageEggs (whole)                        13.3%Soyabean (whole)                    43...
Wheat germ   29.2%     Peanuts      25.3%12
Spirulina                                             65%Clearly, Spirulina is the highest, most potent and most digestibl...
These (carbohydrates) are abundant in foods of vegetable originsuch as cereals, pulses, fruits, root vegetables, etc.     ...
Spirulina and Carbohydrates     Spirulina is 10-15% carbohydrates in the form ofpolysaccharides. As our cells can easily a...
Lipids are the richest source of energy. They also serve asreservoirs of energy, so whenever the body does not get suffici...
Vitamins     Vitamins are the essential compounds needed in smallquantities for maintaining a normal metabolism, growth ra...
Vitamin and sources   Function in the body          Deficiency may                                                    lead...
VITAMIN K             Aids in the process of blood     Bleeding tendencies.PHYTONADIONE          clotting.Green Vegetables...
B3 NIACIN             Maintains acid secretion in    Pellagra, a diseaseCereals               stomach and Food            ...
B12                     Builds genetic material.        Anemia.COBALAMINES             Protein synthesis.              Ner...
Minaral and sources   Function in the body           Deficiency may                                                     le...
SODIUM         Cellular functioning.        Fatigue.Salts          Maintains blood pressure.    Weakness.Cheese         Ke...
SELENIUM             Antioxidant activity.         Mental retardation.Kidney                                             H...
Spirulina offers a large number of minerals required by thehuman body (as seen in the above given table) and, it can be ea...
can work out to be beneficial in anemia (a condition in whichhemoglobin concentration in the body is reduced). Chlorophyll...
Various carotenes present in Spirulina are:     1)   Alpha-carotene     2)   Beta-carotene     3)   Xanthophylls     4)   ...
Spirulina     An unhealthy standard of living and rapid lifestyle changes (lackof exercise and sedentary lifestyle) associ...
ideal theory, we need a supplemental solution that could bridge thegap between an ideal lifestyle and the real lifestyle. ...
forming.     6)   Greenways Spirulina is a 100% vegetarian product. Unlike          most manufacturers who use capsules ma...
SPIRULINA            Healthcare Private Limited             635/1 B, New Gajra Society, Bibwewadi,               Pune - 41...
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Greenways spirulina

  1. 1. H O H H O C C O N H H H H H O C C N C H H H H Vol.I~Healthy World ResearchOrganization ~Healthy World Research Organization
  2. 2. SpirulinaPublisher : Healthy World Research Organisation635/1 B, BibwewadiNew Gajra Society,Pune 411 037 Maharashtra (India)All rights reservedCopyright 2006 : Healthy World Research OrganisationSpirulina Capsules is a trademark of Pushpam Health Care ProductsNo part of this book may be reproduced ortransmitted in any form or by any means, elec-tronic or mechanical, including photocopying,recording, or by any information storage andretrieval system, without permission in writingfrom the publisher .For questions or comments concerning con-tents in this book directed to the author please ,send correspondence to the above address.No information contained here is meant to re-place the advice of your doctor or health carepractitioner The data and opinions appearing .in this book are for informational purposes only.Healthy World Research Organisation does notoffer medical advice, and it encourages read-ers to seek advice from qualified health profes-sionals.Printed in India20
  3. 3. What is Spirulina? SPIRULINA Spirulina is a blue green alga of vegetable origin. For centuries,Spirulina has been in use as a natural whole-food food source. It isconsidered to be one of the richest sources of a vast range ofnutritional ingredients.The spirulina production involves: Sunlight Condensation Nutrients Co2 Cultivation 03
  4. 4. Selected strains are used for cultivation of alga in speciallyconstructed ponds. Agitation of algal culture is necessary to keepnutrients evenly dispersed and also to expose all the cells to sunlight.Constant agitation of water is one of the important parameters incultivation of spirulina. H2O Washing and Dehydration The algal biomass is carefully washed & harvested usingspecially made filters to recover biomass. Product Drying40
  5. 5. The washed biomass is spray dried and is pulverized to getdesired particle size and packed in vegetarian capsules. Thesecapsules are then packed in appropriate containers. This entireprocedure is done in special & protected area. The fantastic benefits of Spirulina and its positive effects on the human body To understand the health benefits of Spirulina, it is essential tocomprehend the meanings of nutrition and nutritional ingredients. Nutrition is the science of food and its relation to health. Thisscience is the study of understanding what the human body requiresfor its growth, development and maintenance, so as to prevent illhealth or disease. Various nutritional ingredients are required to be present in thediet to perform a number of essential actions in the body to maintainthe health. Nutrients or nutritional ingredients can be broadly classified intotwo groups: Macronutrients and Micronutrients. Macronutrients are nutritional ingredients required (for keepinggood health) in large amounts while Micronutrients are those that arerequired in relatively smaller amounts. Lets look at the table given below to understand thisclassification better: 05
  6. 6. Nutrients Fluids Macronutrients Micronutrients Proteins Vitamins Minerals Carbohydrates Lipids VITAMIN A Calcium VITAMIN B Phosphorous VITAMIN C Magnesium VITAMIN D Sodium VITAMIN E Potassium VITAMIN K Chloride VITAMIN H Sulfur VITAMIN P Iron Iodine Copper Zinc Selenium Fluoride Chromium Manganese Molybdenum Germanium BoronNow, let us have a brief look at what exactly these ingredients are andthe roles they play in the development of the human body.60
  7. 7. Fluids Fluids are essential for the formation of blood. The human bodygets essential nutrients and oxygen through the flowing blood. Fluidsare also present in each and every cell to maintain the environmentand vitality of the cells. All liquids (water and other) we consumeconstitute the fluids part of our nutrition. Proteins Glycine Alanine Protos means first. Proteins are the basic chemical units of the 07
  8. 8. body. One gets proteins from meat, fish, milk, rice, soy, potatoes etc.Food ingredients containing proteins ANIMAL SOURCES PLANT SOURCES Protein molecules are made up of amino acids in variousproportions and arrangements. Amino acids are the basic units thatform proteins. (Amino acids are so called because they have anamino group (NH2) attached to an organic acid (COOH)).Amino acids are further classified into three groups: 1) Essential amino acids: These amino acids are not synthesized in the human body and must be supplied to it by the external food intake. 2) Non-essential amino acids: These can be synthesized in the body. 3) Conditionally essential (semi-essential) amino acids:80
  9. 9. These are essential occasionally. These proteins/amino acids are required to perform variousfunctions in the body. Some of their important functions are asfollows: 1) Proteins are required for growth and development of the human body. 2) Proteins are necessary for repairing damage to the body. 3) Proteins provide energy to the body (1 gm of proteins generates 4kcal of energy). 4) Proteins produce various enzymes in the body. Enzymes are substances that catalyze chemical reactions in the body. 5) Proteins are a requisite in the production of hormones. Hormones are glandular secretions that are required for proper functioning of the bodily systems (e.g. insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas (gland) and is needed for maintaining the blood sugar levels). 6) Proteins are necessary for the synthesis of antibodies and hence are essential for the proper functioning of the bodys defense system. 7) Proteins are required for the transportation of various nutrients and drugs throughout the body. In short, our body cannot survive without proteins and aminoacids. A deficiency of proteins could lead to retarded growth, reduceddefense power, improper wound healing, inadequate absorption ofnutrients and a lot of other disorders. This is the reason why an 09
  10. 10. adequate intake of nutritional proteins is essential for our existence.Spirulina and Proteins Spirulina is approximately 65-71% extremely beneficialproteins. Following is the table that lists the amino acids in Spirulina:Essential amino acids Non-Essential Conditionally essential amino acids amino acidsIsoleucine Alanine CysteineLeucine Arginine HistidineLysine Aspartic Acid TyrosinePhenylalanine Glutamic AcidMethionine GlycineThreonine ProlineTryptophan SerineValine Spirulina contains all of the 8 essential amino acids. It alsocontains non-essential and conditionally essential amino acids. Take a look at the table given below for the information ondifferent types of protein sources and the comparison between thembased on the amount of protein they provide:10
  11. 11. Nutritional ingredient Protein percentageEggs (whole) 13.3%Soyabean (whole) 43.2% 11
  12. 12. Wheat germ 29.2% Peanuts 25.3%12
  13. 13. Spirulina 65%Clearly, Spirulina is the highest, most potent and most digestibleprotein source known, and this is what makes it one of the mostvaluable sources of proteins. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a valuable combination of carbon, oxygenand hydrogen in the same proportion as water. 13
  14. 14. These (carbohydrates) are abundant in foods of vegetable originsuch as cereals, pulses, fruits, root vegetables, etc. The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy to thebody. They provide approximately 50-70% of the total energyrequired by the body (1 gm of carbohydrates provides 4 kcal ofenergy). Apart from providing ready fuel, carbohydrates also play a vitalrole in maintaining proper functioning of the liver, central nervoussystem, heart and muscle contraction. The important thing to know is that when sufficientcarbohydrates are present in the body, proteins are spared frombeing the main source of energy and hence do their (intended) jobslike growth and repair, without being wastefully utilized.14
  15. 15. Spirulina and Carbohydrates Spirulina is 10-15% carbohydrates in the form ofpolysaccharides. As our cells can easily absorb them, these(polysaccharides) make Spirulina a great source of quick energy. Lipids Lipids are organic substances that are soluble in fat solventssuch as alcohol, ether and chloroform but insoluble in water. Dairyfat, butter, beefs, egg yolk, oils from seeds and nuts are the commonsources of lipids. 15
  16. 16. Lipids are the richest source of energy. They also serve asreservoirs of energy, so whenever the body does not get sufficientcarbohydrates or proteins it can draw energy from the lipids (1 gm oflipids provides 9Kcal of energy). A drastic reduction in fat intake leadsto weight loss and weakness. Up to 50-60 gm of lipid intake isconsidered to be adequate.Lipids are necessary because: 1) They serve as vehicles for the absorption of vitamins like A, D, E and K. 2) They aid in growth. 3) They help in the formation of all cell membranes. Spirulina is approximately 7% lipids. These include GammaLinolenic Acid, Glycolipids and Sulfolipids. By providing these lipidsSpirulina helps promote cholesterol normalization.16
  17. 17. Vitamins Vitamins are the essential compounds needed in smallquantities for maintaining a normal metabolism, growth rate andhealth. Spirulina contains a range of vitamins. Following table lists thevitamins present in Spirulina, depicts the role of different vitaminsand reveals the perils of vitamin deficiency. 17
  18. 18. Vitamin and sources Function in the body Deficiency may lead to-VITAMIN A RETINOL Maintains vision function. Xerophtalmia Maintains surface tissue like. (dryness of eyes).Liver skin and eye. Night Blindness.Milk Functioning of immune. Dry, rough skin.Vegetables system. lowered resistanceYellow fruits Antioxidant activity. to infections.Carrot Reduced hair growth in children.VITAMIN D: Absorption of Calcium and Rickets in childrenCHOLECALCIFEROL Phosphorous. (bending and distortion of bones).Egg Yolk Maintains teeth and boneMilk health. Bone softening inLiver adults.ButterSunlight Osteoporosis (decreased density of bones).VITAMIN E: ALPHA Protects cell membranes. Anemia in infants.TOCOPHEROL Enhances the activity ofVegetables Vitamin A.Vegetable oils Development of Red BloodCereals Cells.Poultry Antioxidant activity.FishMeat 18
  19. 19. VITAMIN K Aids in the process of blood Bleeding tendencies.PHYTONADIONE clotting.Green VegetablesCerealsMeatVITAMIN H BIOTIN Maintains Lipid and Skin inflammation.Cheese Carbohydrate metabolismEgg YolkCauliflowerPeanutsButter VITAMIN B is further classified into the following subgroups:B1 THIAMINE Maintains nerve and muscle Lack of appetite.Grains functioning Carbohydrate Weakness.Beans metabolism. ConstipationSunflower Seeds Beriberi:Pork Nerve disorder. Heart disease. Fluid accumulation in the body.B2 RIBOFLAVIN Maintains respiration of cells Cracks and soresMilk and Food metabolism. around the mouthMeat Nerve and blood cell and nose.Cereals development. Eye diseases andPulses Proper functioning of Vitamin Visual problems.Vegetables B6 and B3. 19
  20. 20. B3 NIACIN Maintains acid secretion in Pellagra, a diseaseCereals stomach and Food characterized byMeat metabolism. skin inflammation.Mushroom Maintains the digestive and Diarrhea.Bran nervous system Mouth sores. Nerve disturbances.B5 PANTOTHENIC Synthesis of hormones and Grey hair.ACID chemical regulators that Burning in feetAnimal tissue perform various functions in during night.Whole grain cereals the body.LegumesB6 PYRIDOXINE Maintains Protein and Anemia.Egg yolk Carbohydrate metabolism. Depression.Milk Support red blood cell Convulsions.Meat formation. Loss of appetite.Spinach Promote nerve and brain Nausea.Banana function.CerealsVITAMIN B9 Production of genetic Nervous systemFOLIC ACID material. defects in fetus.Vegetables Maintains Protein metabolism Anemia.Cereals Promotes red blood cell Upset DigestiveMeat formation. system.Liver 20
  21. 21. B12 Builds genetic material. Anemia.COBALAMINES Protein synthesis. Nerve damage.Milk Formation of RedCheese Blood Cells.Eggs By now you must have realized that Spirulina houses a vast store of beneficial vitamins. By offering these vitamins, Spirulina not only maintains the health of human body but also may prevent disorders that result from the deficiency of vitamins. Minerals Minerals are elements required by the human body to perform various important functions and are found in the soil. We are incapable of creating them ourselves. The food that is grown in depleted soil may not contain sufficient amount of minerals. Spirulina contains a vast range of minerals. Following table gives the source of various minerals. The table also gives information about the role of different minerals and the consequences of their deficiency. 21
  22. 22. Minaral and sources Function in the body Deficiency may lead to-CALCIUM Development of bone Rickets in childrenMilk and teeth. (bending andMilk products Nerve transmission. distortion of bones).Cheese Maintains blood pressure. Bone softening in Muscle contraction. adults. Blood clotting. Osteoporosis (decreased density of bones).PHOSPHORUS Formation of bones and Nausea.Chicken Breast teeth. Lack of appetite.Milk Maintains Food metabolism Weakness.Milk products Absorption and Rickets.Lentils transportation of nutrients. Softening of bones.Egg YolkNutsCheeseMAGNESIUM Cellular respiration. Lethargy.Spinach Protein synthesis. Muscle weakness.Beef Muscle relaxation. Depression.Cashews Abnormal functioningWheat of the heart.BranCerealsDairy products 22
  23. 23. SODIUM Cellular functioning. Fatigue.Salts Maintains blood pressure. Weakness.Cheese Keep the acid-base balance Confusion.Fish in the body. Muscle cramps.Butter Muscle contraction.NutsPOTASSIUM Cellular functioning. Nausea.Cereals Maintains blood pressure. Lack of appetite.Peanuts Muscle contraction. Muscle weakness.Bananas Keep the acid-base balance Irritability.Orange Juice in the body. Abdominal distensionGreen BeansMushroomsIRON Production of hemoglobin Anemia (pale skin,Liver (hemoglobin is present in weakness, fatigue,Meat the blood and carries headaches,Green leafy oxygen). breathlessness).vegetables Craving for non food substances.ZINC Maintains Food metabolism. ImmunologicalBeef Support immunity. disorders.Whole grains Wound healing. Growth retardation.Peanuts Growth. Loss of taste.Beans Fetal development.FishPoultry 23
  24. 24. SELENIUM Antioxidant activity. Mental retardation.Kidney Heart abnormalitiesMeat in children.GrainsCHROMIUM Work with insulin to regulate Impaired toleranceAnimal food energy metabolism. for glucose.Wheat Potentiates action of insulin.MANGANESE Maintains Food metabolism. Unknown.Tea Muscle and boneWhole Grains developmentCerealFruits and VegetablesCOPPER Development of skin, hair Premature and lowLiver and other pigments birth weight infants.Meat Formation of Red Blood CellsSea food Connective tissue and nerveCereals formation.PulsesNutsGERMANIUM Immunity enhancement. Unclear.Wheat Stimulation of naturalVegetables killer cells.BranLeguminousseeds 24
  25. 25. Spirulina offers a large number of minerals required by thehuman body (as seen in the above given table) and, it can be easilyunderstood that, Spirulina can play a vital role in maintaining health.The intake of Spirulina may help in the prevention of variousdisorders that result from the deficiency of minerals. In addition to the macro and micronutrients (discussed earlier inthis book), Spirulina also contains a few important natural pigmentphytonutrients like:ChlorophyllPhycocyaninCarotenoids These phytonutrients are essential for the synthesis of variousenzymes that are required for various metabolic processes. Chlorophyll Chlorophyll is supposed to play an important role in maintaininghemoglobin in the body. Hemoglobin is a substance in the red bloodcells, contains iron (heme) and is required for the transportation ofoxygen. The structure of chlorophyll is similar to that of hemoglobin.The only difference is that chlorophyll contains a magnesium ion at itscore, while hemoglobin contains an iron molecule. It is proposed thatif chlorophyll is consumed with iron, the magnesium may bedisplaced and hemoglobin is produced. This is how Spirulina intake 25
  26. 26. can work out to be beneficial in anemia (a condition in whichhemoglobin concentration in the body is reduced). Chlorophyll alsohas beneficial effects on the digestive system. It normalizes thesecretion of acids in the stomach. Chlorophyll stimulates the movements of intestines and canfacilitate the passage of stools. It also helps in the regeneration ofinjured cells. Chlorophyll is even known for its effects on heart: it canincrease the efficiency of the pumping function of the heart.Phycocyanin It is this pigment that gives Spirulina its blue color. Phycocyanincontains both magnesium and iron. It is involved in various bodyfunctions like digestion of amino acids, stimulation of defensesystem, building of blood cells.Carotenoids Spirulina contains natural carotenoids. Carotenoids are theprecursors of vitamin A i.e., they are capable of producing vitamin A(hence Spirulina can offer all the benefits of Vitamin A). The addedadvantage of carotenoids from Spirulina is that these are convertedto Vitamin A only when the body has a demand for it. This minimizesthe chances of a vitamin A overdose.26
  27. 27. Various carotenes present in Spirulina are: 1) Alpha-carotene 2) Beta-carotene 3) Xanthophylls 4) Cryptoxanthin 5) Echinenone 6) Zeaxanthin 7) Lutein (As averted at the start of this informative book) Spirulina hasbeen used for centuries by cultures across the globe. It is also wellresearched upon. Various studies have proven the role andadvantage of Spirulina in different conditions. Also, Spirulina is verywell tolerated- the safety of Spirulina is established by variousresearch studies. 27
  28. 28. Spirulina An unhealthy standard of living and rapid lifestyle changes (lackof exercise and sedentary lifestyle) associated with todays modernlife style are taking their toll on our health. Also, the impendingproblem of malnutrition is getting further aggravated by theworrisome and irregular dietary habits and by the indiscriminateconsumption of fast foods and refined food diets. The only solution to counter this degeneration is the strictobservance of a lifestyle that provides a balanced, square mealcontaining all nutritional ingredients and a diligent effort towardsmaintaining some form of physical activity. But, in reality, it may notbe the most practical thing, as the world today demands a differentand varied set of lifestyle rules. Though we can never debunk the28
  29. 29. ideal theory, we need a supplemental solution that could bridge thegap between an ideal lifestyle and the real lifestyle. We need apowerful nutritional supplement. And, Spirulina could well be ouranswer- it provides all of the essential nutritional ingredients withoutbeing a burden on our time and our lifestyles. 1) GREENWAYS Spirulina is microscopic blue-green algae that exist as a single celled organism turning sunlight into life energy. 2) Greenways Spirulina uses 100% certified organic Spirulina. This ensures that no synthetic and potentially hazardous chemicals have been used during cultivation. 3) Greenways Spirulina contains a unique combination of high-grade proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, trace elements and Phytonutrients. It is a cholesterol free and low calorie source of easily digestible proteins making it a popular food for those who want to stay slim. 4) Spirulina is Natures richest whole food source of Vitamin B12, Vitamin E, Provitamin A (beta carotene) and Chlorophylls. GREENWAYS Spirulina is the "Food of the Future". It is not a drug. It has an important place in modern diet management & provides vital energy. 5) Greenways Spirulina is safe, non-toxic, and non-habit 29
  30. 30. forming. 6) Greenways Spirulina is a 100% vegetarian product. Unlike most manufacturers who use capsules made from animal gelatin origin, the capsules used to hold Greenways Spirulina are made from natural plant ingredients (Greenways Spirulina capsules are manufactured at state- of-the-art, GMP certified facility near Pune, India). 7) Each vegetarian capsule of GREENWAYS Spirulina contains 500 mg of Certified organic Spirulina powder. 8) Suggested use: For adults- 2-3 capsules twice a day For children- 1-2 capsules twice a day.30
  31. 31. SPIRULINA Healthcare Private Limited 635/1 B, New Gajra Society, Bibwewadi, Pune - 411037, Maharashtra, INDIA. Tel. : +91-20-3252 4594 / 3252 4607 Fax : +91-20-2421-6455 email: info@greenwayshealthcare.com website: www.greenwayshealthcare.com 31

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