How to Build Effective Dashboards
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  • 1. 7th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 25-Jul-13 7TH BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 JULY 26 & 27 - 2013 Raja Bavani Chief Architect, Mindtree
  • 2. 27th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Good Morning! • Let us know each other – introduce yourself! • What do you expect from this session? • How do you connect with this topic? • How is this tutorial going to enable you at work?
  • 3. 37th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Key things… Only once • Coffee break Always • Silent, restful electronic devices • Conversations and experience sharing • Questions
  • 4. 47th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 TOC • Part 1 - Introduction • Part 2 - Consumers and their needs • Part 3 - Building an effective dashboard • Part 4 - Industry trends • Part 5 - Parting thoughts
  • 5. 57th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Part 1 - Introduction • What is a dashboard? Group Activity 1 Give 3 examples of dashboards you come across in daily life. How impressive are they? Why?
  • 6. 67th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 A dashboard is.. “A dashboard is a visual display of the most important information needed to achieve one or more objectives, consolidated and arranged on a single screen so the information can be monitored at a glance.” - Stephen Few Author of ‘Information Dashboard Design – The Effective Visual Communication of Data’
  • 7. 77th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Dashboards.. “They provide visibility into key performance indicators (KPIs) through simple visual graphics such as gauges, charts and tables within a web browser. Dashboards are appealing because they: • Present a wide number of different metrics in a single consolidated view • Roll up details into high-level summaries • Provide intuitive indicators, such as gauges and stoplights, that are instantly understandable - for example, red bar means problem, green bar means everything is on plan. In many respects a reporting dashboard can be likened to a dashboard in an automobile. It provides an 'at-a-glance view' of the current operational state of the vehicle.” - Dan Dubriwny and Kurt Rivards
  • 8. 87th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Why do we need? • Why do we need dashboards? • Who needs them?
  • 9. 97th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Effective Dashboards • What makes a dashboard effective? What are the characteristics? • Have you come across an effective dashboard? Why do you think it is effective? Was anything missing in that dashboard? • What about efficiency? What does it mean?
  • 10. 107th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 The Process IDENTIFY GATHER PROCESS ANALYZE ASSEMBLEPRESENT
  • 11. 117th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Benefits • What are the expected benefits? • What are the actual benefits? Share your experience.
  • 12. 127th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Measures and Metrics • Context-specific • Multi-dimensional • Seasonal They are the building blocks of dashboards! Source: Quantitative Management, Transparency and Trust –Raja Bavani
  • 13. 137th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 The problem with measures and metrics • Too many - some are not useful • Too much time to gather, analyze and report • Data quality - poor • Lack of baselines • Lack of time to analyze • No contribution to decision making and action planning • Not the priority of Senior leaders and executives
  • 14. 147th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Ineffective Dashboards • What are the disadvantages?
  • 15. 157th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Part 2 – Consumers and their needs Different types of consumers • Project team members • Program manager • Business unit head • Location head • Quality head • CEO
  • 16. 167th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Examples Consumers Dashboard Type Project team Project dashboard Program manager Project portfolio dashboard or program dashboard Business unit head Business unit dashboard Location head Location dashboard Quality head Organizational quality dashboard CEO Organizational quality dashboard* * Is that sufficient?
  • 17. 177th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Let us try.. Group Activity 2 In your opinion, list the different types of consumers of dashboards in your industry. How are their needs different? If you are responsible for delivering dashboards, how will you decide the frequency and content?
  • 18. 187th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 What is the right size? • One page? • One screen? The fundamental challenge of dashboard design is to display all the required information on a single screen: – clearly and without distraction – in a manner that can be quickly examined and understood – Stephen Few
  • 19. 197th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Cockpit of a commercial jet
  • 20. 207th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Cockpit of a commercial jet Years of effort went into its design to enable the pilot to see what’s going on at a glance, even though there is much information to monitor. Every time I board a plane, I’m grateful that knowledgeable designers worked hard to present this information effectively. Similar care is needed for the design of our dashboards. - Stephen Few
  • 21. 217th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Contents of a dashboard Group Activity 3 List the contents of a dashboard you use most frequently. How important are they? Are they related? What are the key parameters you have included in your dashboard? How do you want to represent them? What are the top 3 questions do you want your dashboard to answer?
  • 22. 227th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Traffic Light Today’s status is clear. But where is the project headed?
  • 23. 237th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Traffic Lights “Unlike traffic lights that automatically change, projects don’t change unless the project manager and the team act to change them. Projects tend to continue in the direction the team is heading.” - Johanna Rothman
  • 24. 247th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Weather Report
  • 25. 257th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Which one do you prefer?
  • 26. 267th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Weather Report Status Description Sunny The project schedule is on target Mostly Sunny There is minor project schedule concern, but the schedule can be met. Partly Cloudy There is schedule concern; the schedule can be met by putting extra efforts. Cloudy There will be difficulty meeting the schedule. Rainy To meet the schedule would take great difficulty. Severe The schedule cannot be met in any situation. Source: Sunny Skies or Storms? Project Weather Reports by Johanna Rothman
  • 27. 277th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Do you know? • Hue – a more precise term for what we normally think of as color (red, green, blue, purple, etc.) Folks with normal color vision see the true colors. Those who are color- blind sees it like this. ( 10% of males and 1% of females)
  • 28. 287th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Why? “Despite this fact, many vendors actually promote the use of red, yellow, and green stoplight colors as “business intelligence” colors, the most unintelligent choice.” - Stephen Few
  • 29. 297th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Cool Gadgets
  • 30. 307th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Charts
  • 31. 317th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 What is important? • Understanding the consumers or customers or the context • Not exceeding the size • Providing the right content • Removing the unwanted • Visual communication
  • 32. 327th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 So far…. Part 1 - Introduction Part 2 - Consumers and their needs • Part 3 - Building an effective dashboard • Part 4 - Industry trends • Part 5 - Parting thoughts
  • 33. 337th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Part 3 – Building an effective dashboard 1. Metrics Selection 2. Visual Representation 3. Correctness 4. Accessibility 5. Usability
  • 34. 347th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 3.1 Metrics Selection • Choose what matters the most • Do these metrics connect to the project/program/organizational vision? • Do the consumers of your dashboard understand these metrics?
  • 35. 357th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 GQMM Goals-Questions-Measures Goal 1 Question 1 Measure 1 Measure 2 Question 2 Measure 3 Measure 4 Goal 2 Question 3 Ref: “Goal Question Model Paradigm” In Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, 1st edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1994 - Victor R. Basili and Rombach H Dieter
  • 36. 367th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Hierarchy of Goals Goals are hierarchical ! Goal 1 Question 1 Measure 1 Measure 2 Question 2 Measure 3 Measure 4 Goal 2 Question 3
  • 37. 377th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 3.2 Visual Representation • Is it easy to understand ? • Does it communicate the key things? • Is it intuitive or hard to learn? • Are the representations effective?
  • 38. 387th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Any examples? • We discussed some examples before • Do you want to share your experience?
  • 39. 397th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 3.3 Correctness • Is the data current? • Are the metrics reflecting the current challenges? • Is the data relevant to where you are headed?
  • 40. 407th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 3.4 Accessibility • Is your dashboard accessible? • Are people aware? • Is it simple to access? • Do people access it at an expected frequency?
  • 41. 417th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 3.5 Usability • Is it easy to use? • Is it static or interactive or intelligent? • Is it simple to use? • Does it communicate the key things using the right representations, colors, etc.?
  • 42. 427th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 2 more questions • What can be removed from this dashboard? • What is missing in this dashboard?
  • 43. 437th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Enablers vs. Drivers Enablers ‘reinforce’ the Drivers Drivers ‘ensure’ Results
  • 44. 447th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Do you know? • What are lagging indicators? • What are leading indicators?
  • 45. 457th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Lagging Indicators Lagging indicators are outcome measures that help you gauge progress by examining the final end result or outcomes of your collective efforts. • Indicates the end result. • Tells you what occurred, not what is going on. Examples: Customer Retention, Attrition Rate, Defect Density
  • 46. 467th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Why lagging indicators? • Lagging indicators have a direct impact on margins. • Improvement in lagging indicators means enhancing business results!
  • 47. 477th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Leading Indicators Leading indicators are process measures that help you gauge incremental progress you are making toward key outcome (lagging) measures. • Immediate feedback or early warning • Tells what is happening now • Can be tracked over time to improve end results Examples: Network Availability, Customer Feedback
  • 48. 487th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Why Leading Indicators? • Leading indicators have an indirect impact on margins. • Improvement in leading indicators means enhancing business results over a period of time.
  • 49. 497th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Try this! Group Activity 4 All of us drive cars. What are the leading and lagging indicators related to driving your car from one place to another? At work, what are the leading and lagging indicators?
  • 50. 507th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Balanced Scorecard • Also known as business scorecard • Originated by Drs. Robert Kaplan (Harvard Business School) and David Norton • Performance measurement framework that added strategic non-financial performance measures to traditional financial metrics • Gives managers and executives a more 'balanced' view of organizational performance.
  • 51. 517th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Balanced Scorecard Vision and Strategy Customer Financial Internal Business Processes Learning and Development
  • 52. 527th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 From Mission to Outcomes Source: Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton, The strategy focused organization How Balanced Scorecard companies thrive in the new business environment, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass, 2001
  • 53. 537th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Question How can we apply BSC concepts in designing dashboards?
  • 54. 547th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Try this! Group Activity 5 Consider a dashboard you create or consume at work. Is it balanced? How can you apply BSC concepts to your dashboard?
  • 55. 557th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Well-designed dashboards • Exceptionally well-organized • Condensed – primarily in the form of summaries and exceptions • Specific to and customized for the audience and the objectives • Displayed using concise and often small media that communicate the data and its message in the clearest and most direct way as possible
  • 56. 567th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 So far… Part 1 - Introduction Part 2 - Consumers and their needs Part 3 - Building an effective dashboard • Part 4 - Industry trends • Part 5 - Parting thoughts
  • 57. 577th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Part 4 – Industry Trends • Large electronic visual boards • Real time data • Intelligent dashboards • Interactive dashboards • Enterprise Application Integration(EAI) & Business Intelligence (BI) adding power to dashboards • Design and maintenance – a big challenge!
  • 58. 587th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Part 5 – Parting Thoughts Group Activity 6 What are the 5 things you learned in this tutorial? What are the top 3 takeaways for your group? How are you planning to apply this at work? What are your next steps?
  • 59. 597th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 Q&A
  • 60. 607th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 References • Information Dashboard Design, The Effective Visual Communication of Data, Stephen Few, O’Reilly, 2006 • Show Me the Numbers, Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten, Stephen Few, Analytics Press, 2004 • http://www.prepetualedge.com • Implementing the IT Balanced Scorecard, Jessica Keyes , Auerbach Publications, 2005
  • 61. 617th BSPIN ANNUAL CONFERENCE 2013 THANK YOU!