Communication

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the basic understanding and meaning of communication.

the basic understanding and meaning of communication.

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  • 1. COMMUNICATION By: Raj Singh (An Entrepreneur)
  • 2. • Describe the communication process. • Distinguish between the different elements of communication. • Understand the various channels of communication. After studying this chapter, you should be able to: LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  • 3. • Identify common barriers to effective communication. • The importance of context and feedback in a communication process. LEARNINGOBJECTIVES(cont’d) After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
  • 4. WHAT IS COMMUNICATION??? Communication is “the transfer of information, understanding from one person to another person. It is a way of reaching others with facts, ideas, thoughts, and values.
  • 5. PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION • In business we communicate to: INFORM PERSUADE
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICATIO N INTRA PERSONAL COMMUNICAITON INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICAITON GROUP COMMUNICATION MASS COMMUNICATION
  • 7. PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION • LINEAR CONCEPT (Harold lasswell) • Who? • Says What? • To Whom? • In which channel? • With what effect?
  • 8.  The sender  Encoding  The message  The channel  Decoding  The receiver  Noise  Feedback Elements of the Communication Process
  • 9. Shannon Weaver Model (Basic Comm process) SENDER (Has an Idea) ENCODING (sender encodes the idea into a message) CHANNEL (Sender selects a channel to convey the message) RECEIVER DECODING (the receiver decodes the message) FEEDBACK From the Sender FEEDBACK from the Receiver NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE
  • 10. The Communication Process •Channel The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. •Types of Channels Formal Channels Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. Informal Channels Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.
  • 11. Flow of Communication • Communication usually flows in three directions… • Upward Communication • Downward Communication • Horizontal Communication
  • 12. • ORAL COMMUNICATION – Speeches – Meetings – Face to face conversations – Telephonic conversation • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION – Memo’s – Letters – Reports – Bulletins – Emails • NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION – Body language (gestures, postures) CHANNELS
  • 13. CHANNELS Low channel richness High channel richness
  • 14. Barriers to Effective Communication • Socio-psychological barriers • Emotions • Selective perception • Information overload • Loss by transmission • Poor retention • Goal conflict • Offensive style • Abstracting • Slanting • Inferring
  • 15. Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.
  • 16. Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.
  • 17. Barriers attributed to the speaker • Lack of planning • Vagueness of the purpose of comm. • Poor choice of words • Unshared or incorrect assumptions • Different perceptions of reality • Wrong choice of channel
  • 18. Barriers attributed to the receiver • Poor listening skills • Inattention • Mistrust • Lack of interest • Premature evaluation
  • 19. • Semantic difficulties • Diff. perception of reality • Bias • Attitudinal clash with the sender • Unfit physical state Barriers attributed to the receiver
  • 20. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 10–20 Communication Barriers Between Men and Women • Men talk to: – Emphasize status, power, and independence. – Complain that women talk on and on. – Offer solutions. – To boast about their accomplishments. • Women talk to: – Establish connection and intimacy. – Criticize men for not listening. – Speak of problems to promote closeness. – Express regret and restore balance to a conversation.
  • 21. 7 C’s of Communication • Candidness • Clarity • Completeness • Conciseness • Concreteness • Correctness • Courtesy