Acid deposition_by Rajkumar


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Acid deposition_by Rajkumar

  1. 1. ……………………………. RBMahajan
  2. 2. 1. Dry deposition - Acidic gases and particles 2. Wet deposition - Acidic rain, fog and snow
  3. 3. What is Acid rain? - Acid rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. ACID RAIN DROP
  4. 4. • Sources of primary pollutants • Deposition of secondary pollutants
  5. 5.  Produced by natural phenomena and anthropogenic activities [like combustion of fossil fuels , oxidation of organic material in soils , volcanic eruptions, biomass burning]  It is soluble in water  It can be oxidised within airborne water droplets producing sulphuric acid
  6. 6. Produced by Combustion Of Fuels Residential, cars , commercial Industrial furnaces, electrical-utility boilers, Engines, other equipment  It is soluble in water  It can be oxidised within airborne water droplets producing nitric acid
  7. 7. Acid Rain (Acid Precipitation) Any precipitation carrying dissolved acids from natural or man made causes. Examples; a. CO2 dissolves in H2O---------> Creates carbonic acid (H2CO3) b. Sulfur dioxide (from internal combustion) mixes with H2O ---------> Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4) c. Nitrogen oxides (from internal combustion) mixes with H2O ---------> Nitric Acid (HNO3) *Acid precipitation may have a pH as low as 3. Very Acidic! *Acids in the air may be carried thousands of miles from their source, polluting soil & water in pristine areas!
  8. 8.  marble and limestone are calcium carbonate (2CaCO3 + 2SO2 + O2 --> 2CaSO4 + 2CO2);  sulfur dioxide in dry deposition increases metal corrosion (Fe + SO2 + O2 --> FeSO4);  protective oxide layer removed from metals (Al2O3 + 3H2SO4 -->Al2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
  9. 9. • Depends on – Transport downwind – Buffering in soils (alkalinity) • On thin, non-buffering soils • On buffers – carbonate rocks, limestone often used for buildings, • Limestone and concrete structures
  10. 10.  Leaching (washes) out essential nutrients from soil like;Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+) ions  Damages roots by releasing Al(3+) ions from rocks;  SO2 blocks stomata and prevents photosynthesis;  Leaves are damaged by acidity.
  11. 11. • Forests
  12. 12. aluminum oxide trapped in rocks can be released and Al(3+) interferes with gills' ability to take in O2; (Al(OH)3 + 3H(+) --> Al(3+) + 3H2O) nitric acid can cause eutrophication (plant deaths, anaerobic decomp, etc) destruction of food chain pH 4 is dead lake
  13. 13. • Lakes, rivers - Deduced diversity and abundance of aquatic ecosystems
  14. 14.  Effects of acid deposition on human life-  acid gases irritate respiratory tract; increased risk of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema;  poisonous metal ions released from pipes are tied to some diseases (Alzheimer's)
  15. 15.  reduce industrial emission levels,  alternative energy sources,  reduced demands for fossil fuels,  reduce acid rain damage in lakes by adding lime/calcium hydroxide to neutralize acids (CaO + H2SO4 --> CaSO4 +H2O)
  16. 16. Problem- In this experiment, you will, 1. Generate three gaseous oxides, CO2, SO2, and NO2. 2. Simulate the formation of acid rain by bubbling each of the three gases into water and producing three acidic solutions. 3. Measure the pH of the three resulting acidic solutions to compare their relative strengths  You can use data logger.  You will be assessed for DCP and CE
  17. 17. Acid Formation Equation Explanation Sulfurous Acid Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric Acid #2 Nitrous Acid Nitric Acid Acid Deposition work sheet 1.What is acid deposition? 2.How is carbonic acid a natural contributor to acid rain? Provide equations to support your response: 3.There are four common routes for Wet Acid Deposition, complete the table:
  18. 18. Environmental Effect on Detailed information regarding effect Appropriate Equations Explanation of Process Limit the Production Neutralize the effects 1.What are the five environmental effects of acid rain? Explain each below: : 1.There are two generic methods to counter acid deposition, describe each method below: