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Protein synthesis
 

Protein synthesis

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    Protein synthesis Protein synthesis Presentation Transcript

    • Gene Activity: How Genes Work Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Outline
      • Function of Genes
        • One Gene-One Enzyme Hypothesis
      • Genetic Code
      • Transcription
        • Processing Messenger RNA
      • Translation
        • Transfer RNA
        • Ribosomal RNA
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Function of Genes
      • Genes Specify a Polypeptide
        • The one gene-one enzyme hypothesis suggests a genetic mutation causes a change in the structure of a protein.
          • A gene is a segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide of a protein.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • From DNA to RNA to Protein
      • Central Dogma of Molecular Biology:
        • Genes code for the sequence of nucleotides in RNA molecules.
          • RNA brings about formation of a protein coded for by DNA of a particular gene.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. Transcription DNA Replication mRNA Translation PROTEIN Nucleus Cytoplasm
    • DNA Replication Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • RNA
      • Uracil (U) replaces thymine (T) of DNA.
        • Types of RNA
          • Messenger (mRNA) - Takes message from DNA in nucleus to ribosomes in cytoplasm.
          • Transfer (tRNA) - Transfers amino acids to ribosomes.
          • Ribosomal (rRNA) - Help make up ribosomes.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Structure of RNA Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Steps of Gene Expression
      • During transcription , DNA serves as a template for RNA formation.
      • During translation , an mRNA transcript directs the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Gene Expression Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • The Genetic Code
      • There is a genetic code for each of the 20 amino acids found in proteins.
        • Genetic code is a triplet code , with each codon consisting of three nucleotide bases.
          • Code Properties
            • Universal
            • Degenerate
            • Unambiguous
            • Contains start and stop signals
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Transcription
      • During transcription, an mRNA molecule is formed with a sequence of bases complementary to a portion of one DNA strand.
        • RNA polymerase joins the nucleotides together in 5’  3’ direction.
          • Promoter defines start of a gene, the direction of transcription, and the strand to be transcribed.
            • Elongation continues until polymerase comes to a DNA terminator sequence.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Transcription Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Processing Messenger RNA
      • Newly formed mRNA molecule, primary mRNA transcript, is modified before it leaves the eukaryotic nucleus.
        • Cap on 5’ end, and poly-A tail on 3’ end.
        • Introns are removed during RNA processing, leaving only exons .
          • Mature mRNA
            • In most cases, mRNA splicing is done by a spliceosome.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Translation
      • Transfer RNA molecules transfer amino acids to the ribosomes.
        • tRNA molecules bind with one particular amino acid, and bear an anticodon complementary to the codon for that amino acid.
          • tRNA synthetases attach correct amino acid to the correct tRNA molecule.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Transfer RNA Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Role of Ribosomal RNA
      • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is produced off a DNA template in the nucleolus of a nucleus.
        • Packaged with proteins into ribosomal subunits, one larger than the other.
          • Contain binding sites to facilitate complementary base pairing between tRNA anticodons and mRNA codons.
      Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
      • Ribosomes consist of two subunits.
        • The large subunit has three binding sites for tRNA.
        • The small subunit binds to mRNA.
    • Ribosome Structure and Function Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • A. Initiation Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • B. Elongation Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • C. Termination Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
    • Online Activities and Tutorials Mader: Biology 8 th Ed. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/dna/transcribe/ http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/free/0072437316/120077/micro06.swf::Protein%20Synthesis http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072943696/student_view0/chapter3/animation__mrna_synthesis__transcription___quiz_1_.html http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/transcription/tcproc.html http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072943696/student_view0/chapter3/animation__mrna_synthesis__transcription___quiz_2_.html