Macromolecules

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Macromolecules

  1. 1. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>straight chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>branched chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ring </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Macromolecules </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are referred to as macromolecules because of their large size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are made up of monomers . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monomers are the individual subunits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymers are made of many monomers. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Four main types of carbon-based molecules are found in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classification: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simple sugars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hexose- glucose, fructose, galactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pentose – ribose and deoxyribose </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Disaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two monosaccharides chemically bonded together by dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maltose, sucrose, lactose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- polymers of monosaccharides formed by dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Carbohydrates can be broken down to provide energy for cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure. </li></ul>Polymer (starch) Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure. Polymer (cellulose) Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure monomer
  9. 12. <ul><li>Why is cellulose nondigestible in humans? </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Lipids are nonpolar molecules that include fats, oils, and cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Insoluble in water due to hydrocarbon chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Fats and Oils (Triglycerides) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain glycerol and fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol - Contains three OH - groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triglycerides - Three fatty acids attached to each glycerol molecule. Fats and oil. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid consists of long hydrocarbon chain. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><ul><li>Fats and oils contain fatty acids bonded to glycerol. </li></ul></ul>Triglyceride
  12. 16. <ul><li>Fats and oils have different types of fatty acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>saturated fatty acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unsaturated fatty acids </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>Types of Fats and Fatty Acids </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Coronary Arteries and Plaque </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar phosphate “head” (hydrophilic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonpolar fatty acid “tails” (hydrophobic) </li></ul></ul>Phospholipid
  16. 20. <ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul>
  17. 21. <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have skeletons of four fused carbon rings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Waxes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-chain fatty acid bonds with a long-chain alcohol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High melting point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waterproof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to degradation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>Lipids have several different functions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term energy energy storage compound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broken down as a source of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make up cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>used to make hormones </li></ul>
  19. 24. <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are polymers of amino acid monomers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. <ul><ul><li>Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><ul><li>Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers of amino acid monomers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids differ in side groups, or R groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twenty different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 29. <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Protein Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary - Sequence of amino acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary - Polypeptide coils or folds in a particular fashion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary - Folding and twisting that results in final three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary - Consists of more than one polypeptide. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect amino acids change a protein’s structure and function. </li></ul></ul>hydrogen bond Hemoglobin
  25. 34. <ul><li>DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>RIBONUCLEIC ACID </li></ul>
  26. 35. <ul><ul><li>Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. </li></ul>A phosphate group nitrogen-containing molecule, called a base deoxyribose (sugar)
  27. 36. <ul><ul><li>DNA stores genetic information. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers of monomers called nucleotides. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides are made of a sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA builds proteins. </li></ul></ul>DNA RNA
  28. 37. <ul><li>DNA Complementary base-pairing </li></ul>

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