Jessica Arnaldo Abraham Bayan Bettina Camacho Sharmaine Dianquinay Pauline Gusto Raizel Leuterio Khay Marzan Dawn Pecson Speech Thea Ruiz Katsi Tanchuling MilestonesUniversity of the Philippines ManilaCollege of Allied Medical ProfessionsSP 104 Audiology – 1st Sem AY 2012-2013
0-6 months 1) Reflexive soundsCrying • First utterance of infants • Used to signal pain or hungerBurpingSneezingFussingGOOD TO KNOW :)• Basic or hunger cry - rhythmic pattern of loud crying, silence, whistling inhalation, & rest• Pain cry - loud shrill cry, followed by breath holding silence and series of short whimpers
0-6 months 2) Cooing Appear from 0-3 months • Velar-consonantal sounds • Believed to pave the way for producing velar consonants like /k/ & /g/ • Intentional sounds • Improvement in resonated sound
0-6 months SYLLABLESInfant can produce single syllables at the first year PITCH INTENSITY Intensity variability is greater than Pitch variability Longer utterances = Greater Amplitude Shorter Utterances = Lesser Amplitude
0-6 months 3) Vocal Play 4 to 6 months • syllable-like productions with long vowels • Squeals • bilabial or labiodental trills • friction noises • “raspberries” infants play with the sounds their vocal tract can make so that they can explore its possibilities 6-9 months Intonation Start of variations in intonation and stress
6-12 months 4) BabblingWeek 24-35 6-9 months Marginal Babbling “consonant-like sounds”: /m/, /p/, /b/, /d/, /n/ CV or VC syllables: “baaaa”, “maaaa”, or “uuuum” Precursor to Canonical Babbling - disappearance of /k/, /g/ for a whileMonth 7 PROSODY -Prosody: the intonation contour of language -Begin with falling contour -Flat or level contour, usually accompanied by variations such as falsettos or variations in duration of loudness
6-12 monthsWeek 36/ Month 9 6-9 months Reduplicated (canonical) babbling: the infant produces true syllables like [dada], [nΛnΛnΛ]; repetitive series Within the child’s voluntary control NOTE: Late development of canonical babbling may be a predictor of disorders
6-12 months 9-12 monthsContinues to have variation in intonationWeek 48 Variegated babbling: -the infant can use the combination of C+V+C series -the infant already uses different vowels at a time: -ex. “babeebaa” not just “bababa” anymore Prosody becomes more noticeable at the this babbling stage Once prosody is added with this babbling, it results to Jargon.
6-12 months 5) Jargon 9-12 months10-12 months Jargon - melody of language without words; wordless sentence - maybe due to motherese or signals from parents - may vary in volume and intensityMonth 12 First word – single or reduplicated syllabes - “small inventory of vowels and consonants” *There is a lack of consistency in the manner of production of sounds at this stage.*
-teeth are starting to emerge - child has started to walk and gain trunk control with more proficient oral movementsphonemesBy the first year, the child is able toPronounce consonants such as a few stops and nasals(b, d, g, m, n)…until a few more consonants later develop due tothe emerging teeth (t, s, w, h)
Child starts to say first words and more wordfollow for the next months! Syllables words produced in a VC or CVC structure Clusters simply become one consonant
Speech? :OKid may exhibit imitating speechKid may also utter unintelligible speechNames few objects and simple needs IntonationUses sentence-like intonations in which the child’spitch varies from high to low
12-18 months Young children are usually able to control intonation first be fore syllable timing (Snow, 1994).PROSODY1;1 – 1;3 = Rising contour. High falling contour that beginswith a high pitch and drops to a lower oneprior to 1;6 = high rising and high rising falling contouraround 1;6 = falling-rising contour. Rising falling contour
18-24 months Syllables Can produce CVC words “hat Jargon diminishes as intelligible words and vocabulary increases By imitation, repetition, and practice, children learn to approximate their pronunciation of sound sequences to that of adults. (Gleason, 1999)
24-36 months ord s tage 2w Morpheme formation period begins at 2 years of ageand lasts until 6 years of age • combines Intelligibility words in 2-3 Intelligibility increases word :speaks in a way that issentences such understood by family as "me do it“ members and friends
24-36 months phonemes /p/, /m/, /h/, /n/, /w/, /b/, /f/, /k/, /p/, /m/, /h/, /n/, /w/, /b/, /f/, /k/, /g/, /d/, /t/, /ŋ/ /g/, /d/, /t/, /ŋ/ ACQUIRED SOUNDS MASTERED SPEECH SOUNDS by age 3The medial /ŋ/ is mastered by 3 years but the sound in final position is not mastered until after 6.
24-36 months Syllables :Can have polysyllabic words
Phonological processes: Refers to the patterns young children use to simplify adult speech as their speech and language develops *Processes that disappear by age 3:1.Unstressed syllable deletion. Children will leaveout the unstressed syllable. For example, telphone for telephone. *(Merkel-Piccini, 2001)
2. Final Consonant Deletion. Children willleave off the last consonant of a word.For example, boo for book.3. Consonant Assimilation. One consonantin the word influences another.For example, beb for bed, or coke for coat.
4. Reduplication. The child repeats the firstsyllable twice. For example, baba for bottle, ormamam for mommy.5. Velar Fronting. The phonemes /k/ and /g/which are made in the back of the throat orthe velum, are substituted for sounds madein the front. For example, tookie for cookie or doat for goat.
Processes persisting a fte r 3 years:1.*Cluster reduction - omitting one or more consonants ina sequence of consonantsFor example, Santa Caus for Santa Claus or back for black.2. Epenthesis: A vowel is misplaced or inserted in a word.For example, balack for black.3. Gliding - substituting /w/ or /j/ for another consonant ; /r/and /l/ are replaced by /w/.For example, wun for run.4. Vocalization: Consonants are replaced by vowels.For example, boyd for bird.5. Stopping: Fricative (ongoing) sounds are replaced bystops.For example, toup for soup or pit for peach.*one of the most common
3-4 yearsphonemes• May have all major phoneme classes, except liquids sibilant lisps may still be common until the age of 7 years” /m, p, b, w, n, t, d, N, k, g, h, f, w, s, (l), j, h/ (Grunwell, 1987)
3-4 years Acquisition of Speech Sounds (Smit et al. 1990) FEMALES Mastered by 4 (3-4 y/o) – /m, n, h, w, p, b, t, d, k, g, f, s, j, v, ð, ʃ, tʃ/ MALES – /tw, kw, pl, bl, kl/ Mastered by 4 (3-4 y/o) − /m, n, h, w, p, b, t, d, k, g,Legends: not yet found in males j, f, dʒ / found in earlier in females; foundearlier in males − /tw, kw/ newly acquired consonant clusters in females newly acquired consonant clusters in males
3-4 yearsIntelligibility- Production of consonant clusters improve,although they are not the same as adultlanguage-vowels produced individually are beingmastered
3-4 years Intelligibility• At 4 years old a child is expected to have an intelligibility percentage of at least 75%; (Peňa- Brooks & Hegde, 2007)• A child exhibiting only 66% intelligibility or being understood only 2/3 of the time he/she speaks might be a candidate for intervention. (Gordon-Brannan and Hodson, 2000) Prosody -May have problems in applying the right stress to words
4-5 yearsUsually resolved by 5 years: Stopping voiceless th: thing = ting Stopping voiced th: them = dem Gliding of liquids: run = one leg = weg leg = yeg
Speech Milestones: 4 – 5 y/oReasons for Mastery of Speech Sounds:(1) frequency of usage [the more frequent the phoneme is used, the earlier it is acquired/mastered],(2) the position of the phoneme in the word [initial, medial or final],(3) neighboring sounds or phonemes [in the word; e.g. consonant clusters],(4) development of parts involved in speech production [e.g. places of structures in the tongue cavity],(5) size of vocabulary [this has something to do about the child’s ability to attach more detailed representations],
6-7 years Speech at 6-7 yearsGenerally, children at this age can produce ALL consonants -(females)– (males) = / m, n, N, d, p, b, h, w, k, g, j, t, f, l, ∫, t∫, dʒ, s, ʒ , r/ (Smit, et al., 1990)
6-7 years Speech at 6-7 yearsVowels – syntagmatic production (production of vowels in context such as polysyllabic words) takes up to at least 6 years of age. (James, van Doorn & McLeod, 2001) -can accomplish coarticulationConsonant clusters /tw, kw, sp, st, sk, sm, sn, pl, bl, kl, gl, fl, pr, br, tr, dr, kr, gr, fr, skw, str/
6-7 years Syllables Complete syllable structure Prosody Presence of intonation, rhythm and stress (Prosody); understanding of rhyming Intelligibility • Speech is intelligible Communicates easily and effectively
6-7 years Speech at 6-7 years “During the school-age years, children are developing more sophisticated syntactics and semantic forms. They are becoming more effective communicators andconversationalists. They are developing the ability to reflect on the nature of the language system itself. And, they arelearning about the written language system.” (James, 1990, p. 134)
7+ years More improvements? Should have all speech sounds, including consonant blends Controlled rate, pitch, and volume Lisps where the tongue is placed between the teeth should have disappeared.
7+ years Intelligibility :D• The child should be able to talk clearly and easily use the language thats spoken at homeMore mastered phonemes:/l/, /r/, /s/, /th/ :D
Phonological AwarenessSyllable segmentation – refers to the ability to identify the components of a wordRhyme awareness – to be aware that words can have a similar end- sound implies a critical step in metalinguistic understanding - that of ignoring the meaning of a word in order to attend to its internal structure