Jessica Arnaldo                                           Abraham Bayan                                          Bettina C...
Pre-speech vocalizations0-6 months
0-6 months             1) Reflexive soundsCrying   • First utterance of infants   • Used to signal pain or hungerBurping...
0-6 months                   2) Cooing Appear from 0-3 months  • Velar-consonantal sounds  • Believed to pave the way for...
0-6 months                  SYLLABLESInfant can produce single syllables at the first year                       PITCH   ...
0-6 months                   3) Vocal Play 4 to 6 months  •   syllable-like productions with long vowels  •   Squeals  • ...
phonemes/b/, /p/, and /m/ Low non-rounded vowels(McLeod & Bleile , 2003)
Pre-speech vocalizations6-12 months
6-12 months                4) BabblingWeek 24-35                                          6-9 months   Marginal Babbling...
6-12 monthsWeek 36/ Month 9                                 6-9 months   Reduplicated (canonical) babbling:     the inf...
6-12 months                                            9-12 monthsContinues to have variation in intonationWeek 48   Va...
6-12 months                     5) Jargon                                                   9-12 months10-12 months   Ja...
phonemes - /m/, /p/, /b/, /d/, /n/, /t/, /y/-Low non-rounded vowels(McLeod & Bleile , 2003)
12-18 months
-teeth are starting to emerge        - child has started to walk and gain trunk        control with more proficient oral m...
Child starts to say first words and more wordfollow for the next months!                 Syllables     words produced in...
Speech? :OKid may exhibit imitating speechKid may also utter unintelligible speechNames few objects and simple needs  ...
12-18 months              Young children are usually able to control               intonation first be fore syllable timin...
18-24 months
18-24 monthsphonemesConsonants (females)  • 2;0 = /m, n, h, g/ (Chirlian & Sharpley, 1982)Consonants (males)  • 2;0 = /m...
18-24 months• Vowels (American)
18-24 months  Syllables       Can produce CVC words “hat Jargon diminishes as intelligible words and  vocabulary increase...
24-36 months
24-36 months       ord s tage     2w Morpheme formation period begins at 2 years of ageand lasts until 6 years of age • co...
24-36 months phonemes   /p/, /m/, /h/, /n/, /w/, /b/, /f/, /k/,     /p/, /m/, /h/, /n/, /w/, /b/, /f/,               /k/, ...
24-36 months      Syllables :Can have polysyllabic words
Phonological processes:      Refers to     the patterns young children use  to simplify adult speech as their speech and ...
2. Final Consonant Deletion. Children willleave off the last consonant of a word.For example, boo for book.3. Consonant As...
4. Reduplication. The child repeats the firstsyllable twice.     For example, baba for bottle, ormamam for mommy.5. Velar ...
Processes persisting a fte r 3 years:1.*Cluster reduction - omitting one or more consonants ina sequence of consonantsFor ...
3-4 years
3-4 yearsphonemes• May have all major phoneme classes, except  liquids sibilant lisps may still be common  until the age ...
3-4 years        Acquisition of Speech Sounds                               (Smit et al. 1990)                FEMALES Mas...
3-4 yearsIntelligibility- Production of consonant clusters improve,although they are not the same as adultlanguage-vowels ...
3-4 years                     Intelligibility• At 4 years old a child is expected to have an  intelligibility percentage o...
4-5 years
4-5 yearsLong and detailed sentences in aclear & fluent manner  •Sentences can be 8 or more wordsSpeak intelligibly with...
4-5 yearsPhonemes Mastered• /t/, /l/, /ng/, /v/ /m, p, b, w, n, t, d, N, k, g, h, f, v, w, s, z, ∫, t∫, dʒ, l, r, j, h/ (G...
Syllable Structure (Shriberg, 1993)CVVCCVCCn__CnCn_Cn2-syllable3-syllable
4-5 yearsUsually resolved by 5 years:  Stopping voiceless th: thing = ting  Stopping voiced th: them = dem  Gliding of ...
Speech Milestones: 4 – 5 y/oReasons for Mastery of Speech Sounds:(1) frequency of usage [the more frequent the phoneme  is...
Speech6-7 years
6-7 years            Speech at 6-7 yearsGenerally, children at this age can produce             ALL consonants -(females)–...
6-7 years              Speech at 6-7 yearsVowels  – syntagmatic production (production of vowels in    context such as po...
6-7 years                Syllables       Complete syllable structure                Prosody Presence of intonation, rhyt...
6-7 years        Speech at 6-7 years “During the school-age years, children are developing more sophisticated syntactics  ...
7+ years     More improvements?  Should have all speech sounds, including  consonant blends Controlled rate, pitch, and...
7+ years          Intelligibility :D• The child should be able to talk clearly  and easily use the language thats spoken  ...
Some Pointers/Refreshers 
Some Pointers/Refreshers General Guideline in the acquired speech sounds children must least have(by Merckel;-Piccini, 20...
References (0-6 months)
References (6-12 months)
References (6-12 months)
References (13-18 months)
References (18-24 months)
References (24-36 months)
References (4-5 years)
References (6 years)
References (7 years)
Other References
Other References
Phonological AwarenessSyllable segmentation  – refers to the ability to identify the components of    a wordRhyme awaren...
Thank youfor listening! :D
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Sp104.milestones.speech.2012

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  • • Basic or hunger cry - rhythmic pattern of loud crying, silence, whistling inhalation, & rest • Pain cry - loud shrill cry, followed by breathholding silence and series of short whimpers http://www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/newman/newman_classes/newman400/babbling.pdf
  • • Basic or hunger cry - rhythmic pattern of loud crying, silence, whistling inhalation, & rest • Pain cry - loud shrill cry, followed by breathholding silence and series of short whimpers http://www.bsos.umd.edu/hesp/newman/newman_classes/newman400/babbling.pdf
  • PROSODY
  • http://www.playingwithwords365.com/2011/10/what-is-babbling/
  • McLeod & Bleile – ASHA 2003
  • Vowels (American) 1;3 = /I, U, √, A/ 1;6 = /i, u, U, √, ç, A, Q/ 1;9 = /i,I , u, E, o, √, ç, A/ 2;0 = /i, I, u, E, e, o, ç, A, Q/
  • 3;0 = /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, s, f, h, tS, D, w, j, l/ (Watson & Scukanec, 1997b) /m, p, b, w, n, t, d, (N), (k), (g), h/ (Grunwell, 1987) 2;0, 2;5, 2;9 = /p, b, t, d,
  • Cluster reduction omitting one or more consonants in a sequence of consonants (e.g. clean  /kin/) DECLINING (Grunwell, 1987) Gliding substituting /w/ or /j/ for another consonant (e.g. run  /wʌn/) DECLINING (James, 2001) Depalatalization substituting a nonpalatal consonant for a fricative, liquid, nasal, or glide (e.g. shy  /sɑ ɪ /) DECLINING (James, 2001) * Data from Stoel-Gammon & Dunn (1985)
  • Mastered after 4 (4-4.6 y/o) + / dʒ , l/ /tw, kw, sp , st , sk , sw , pl, bl, kl, gl , fl , kr , skw / Mastered after 4 (4-4.6 y/o) + / v , z/ /tw, kw, gl /
  • Sp104.milestones.speech.2012

    1. 1. Jessica Arnaldo Abraham Bayan Bettina Camacho Sharmaine Dianquinay Pauline Gusto Raizel Leuterio Khay Marzan Dawn Pecson Speech Thea Ruiz Katsi Tanchuling MilestonesUniversity of the Philippines ManilaCollege of Allied Medical ProfessionsSP 104 Audiology – 1st Sem AY 2012-2013
    2. 2. Pre-speech vocalizations0-6 months
    3. 3. 0-6 months 1) Reflexive soundsCrying • First utterance of infants • Used to signal pain or hungerBurpingSneezingFussingGOOD TO KNOW :)• Basic or hunger cry - rhythmic pattern of loud crying, silence, whistling inhalation, & rest• Pain cry - loud shrill cry, followed by breath holding silence and series of short whimpers
    4. 4. 0-6 months 2) Cooing Appear from 0-3 months • Velar-consonantal sounds • Believed to pave the way for producing velar consonants like /k/ & /g/ • Intentional sounds • Improvement in resonated sound
    5. 5. 0-6 months SYLLABLESInfant can produce single syllables at the first year PITCH INTENSITY  Intensity variability is greater than Pitch variability  Longer utterances = Greater Amplitude  Shorter Utterances = Lesser Amplitude
    6. 6. 0-6 months 3) Vocal Play 4 to 6 months • syllable-like productions with long vowels • Squeals • bilabial or labiodental trills • friction noises • “raspberries” infants play with the sounds their vocal tract can make so that they can explore its possibilities 6-9 months Intonation Start of variations in intonation and stress
    7. 7. phonemes/b/, /p/, and /m/ Low non-rounded vowels(McLeod & Bleile , 2003)
    8. 8. Pre-speech vocalizations6-12 months
    9. 9. 6-12 months 4) BabblingWeek 24-35 6-9 months  Marginal Babbling “consonant-like sounds”: /m/, /p/, /b/, /d/, /n/ CV or VC syllables: “baaaa”, “maaaa”, or “uuuum” Precursor to Canonical Babbling - disappearance of /k/, /g/ for a whileMonth 7 PROSODY -Prosody: the intonation contour of language -Begin with falling contour -Flat or level contour, usually accompanied by variations such as falsettos or variations in duration of loudness
    10. 10. 6-12 monthsWeek 36/ Month 9 6-9 months  Reduplicated (canonical) babbling: the infant produces true syllables like [dada], [nΛnΛnΛ]; repetitive series Within the child’s voluntary control NOTE: Late development of canonical babbling may be a predictor of disorders
    11. 11. 6-12 months 9-12 monthsContinues to have variation in intonationWeek 48  Variegated babbling: -the infant can use the combination of C+V+C series -the infant already uses different vowels at a time: -ex. “babeebaa” not just “bababa” anymore  Prosody becomes more noticeable at the this babbling stage  Once prosody is added with this babbling, it results to Jargon.
    12. 12. 6-12 months 5) Jargon 9-12 months10-12 months  Jargon - melody of language without words; wordless sentence - maybe due to motherese or signals from parents - may vary in volume and intensityMonth 12  First word – single or reduplicated syllabes - “small inventory of vowels and consonants” *There is a lack of consistency in the manner of production of sounds at this stage.*
    13. 13. phonemes - /m/, /p/, /b/, /d/, /n/, /t/, /y/-Low non-rounded vowels(McLeod & Bleile , 2003)
    14. 14. 12-18 months
    15. 15. -teeth are starting to emerge - child has started to walk and gain trunk control with more proficient oral movementsphonemesBy the first year, the child is able toPronounce consonants such as a few stops and nasals(b, d, g, m, n)…until a few more consonants later develop due tothe emerging teeth (t, s, w, h)
    16. 16. Child starts to say first words and more wordfollow for the next months! Syllables  words produced in a VC or CVC structure  Clusters simply become one consonant
    17. 17. Speech? :OKid may exhibit imitating speechKid may also utter unintelligible speechNames few objects and simple needs IntonationUses sentence-like intonations in which the child’spitch varies from high to low
    18. 18. 12-18 months Young children are usually able to control intonation first be fore syllable timing (Snow, 1994).PROSODY1;1 – 1;3 = Rising contour. High falling contour that beginswith a high pitch and drops to a lower oneprior to 1;6 = high rising and high rising falling contouraround 1;6 = falling-rising contour. Rising falling contour
    19. 19. 18-24 months
    20. 20. 18-24 monthsphonemesConsonants (females) • 2;0 = /m, n, h, g/ (Chirlian & Sharpley, 1982)Consonants (males) • 2;0 = /m, n/ (Chirlian & Sharpley, 1982)/m, p, b, w, n, t, d/ (Grunwell, 1987)
    21. 21. 18-24 months• Vowels (American)
    22. 22. 18-24 months Syllables Can produce CVC words “hat Jargon diminishes as intelligible words and vocabulary increases By imitation, repetition, and practice, children learn to approximate their pronunciation of sound sequences to that of adults. (Gleason, 1999)
    23. 23. 24-36 months
    24. 24. 24-36 months ord s tage 2w Morpheme formation period begins at 2 years of ageand lasts until 6 years of age • combines Intelligibility words in 2-3 Intelligibility increases word :speaks in a way that issentences such understood by family as "me do it“ members and friends
    25. 25. 24-36 months phonemes /p/, /m/, /h/, /n/, /w/, /b/, /f/, /k/, /p/, /m/, /h/, /n/, /w/, /b/, /f/, /k/, /g/, /d/, /t/, /ŋ/ /g/, /d/, /t/, /ŋ/ ACQUIRED SOUNDS MASTERED SPEECH SOUNDS by age 3The medial /ŋ/ is mastered by 3 years but the sound in final position is not mastered until after 6.
    26. 26. 24-36 months Syllables :Can have polysyllabic words
    27. 27. Phonological processes: Refers to the patterns young children use to simplify adult speech as their speech and language develops *Processes that disappear by age 3:1.Unstressed syllable deletion. Children will leaveout the unstressed syllable. For example, telphone for telephone. *(Merkel-Piccini, 2001)
    28. 28. 2. Final Consonant Deletion. Children willleave off the last consonant of a word.For example, boo for book.3. Consonant Assimilation. One consonantin the word influences another.For example, beb for bed, or coke for coat.
    29. 29. 4. Reduplication. The child repeats the firstsyllable twice. For example, baba for bottle, ormamam for mommy.5. Velar Fronting. The phonemes /k/ and /g/which are made in the back of the throat orthe velum, are substituted for sounds madein the front. For example, tookie for cookie or doat for goat.
    30. 30. Processes persisting a fte r 3 years:1.*Cluster reduction - omitting one or more consonants ina sequence of consonantsFor example, Santa Caus for Santa Claus or back for black.2. Epenthesis: A vowel is misplaced or inserted in a word.For example, balack for black.3. Gliding - substituting /w/ or /j/ for another consonant ; /r/and /l/ are replaced by /w/.For example, wun for run.4. Vocalization: Consonants are replaced by vowels.For example, boyd for bird.5. Stopping: Fricative (ongoing) sounds are replaced bystops.For example, toup for soup or pit for peach.*one of the most common
    31. 31. 3-4 years
    32. 32. 3-4 yearsphonemes• May have all major phoneme classes, except liquids sibilant lisps may still be common until the age of 7 years” /m, p, b, w, n, t, d, N, k, g, h, f, w, s, (l), j, h/ (Grunwell, 1987)
    33. 33. 3-4 years Acquisition of Speech Sounds (Smit et al. 1990) FEMALES Mastered by 4 (3-4 y/o) – /m, n, h, w, p, b, t, d, k, g, f, s, j, v, ð, ʃ, tʃ/ MALES – /tw, kw, pl, bl, kl/  Mastered by 4 (3-4 y/o) − /m, n, h, w, p, b, t, d, k, g,Legends: not yet found in males j, f, dʒ / found in earlier in females; foundearlier in males − /tw, kw/ newly acquired consonant clusters in females newly acquired consonant clusters in males
    34. 34. 3-4 yearsIntelligibility- Production of consonant clusters improve,although they are not the same as adultlanguage-vowels produced individually are beingmastered
    35. 35. 3-4 years Intelligibility• At 4 years old a child is expected to have an intelligibility percentage of at least 75%; (Peňa- Brooks & Hegde, 2007)• A child exhibiting only 66% intelligibility or being understood only 2/3 of the time he/she speaks might be a candidate for intervention. (Gordon-Brannan and Hodson, 2000) Prosody -May have problems in applying the right stress to words
    36. 36. 4-5 years
    37. 37. 4-5 yearsLong and detailed sentences in aclear & fluent manner •Sentences can be 8 or more wordsSpeak intelligibly with adult-likegrammar
    38. 38. 4-5 yearsPhonemes Mastered• /t/, /l/, /ng/, /v/ /m, p, b, w, n, t, d, N, k, g, h, f, v, w, s, z, ∫, t∫, dʒ, l, r, j, h/ (Grunwell, 1987) Syllables Can say words that have more than 3 syllables
    39. 39. Syllable Structure (Shriberg, 1993)CVVCCVCCn__CnCn_Cn2-syllable3-syllable
    40. 40. 4-5 yearsUsually resolved by 5 years: Stopping voiceless th: thing = ting Stopping voiced th: them = dem Gliding of liquids: run = one leg = weg leg = yeg
    41. 41. Speech Milestones: 4 – 5 y/oReasons for Mastery of Speech Sounds:(1) frequency of usage [the more frequent the phoneme is used, the earlier it is acquired/mastered],(2) the position of the phoneme in the word [initial, medial or final],(3) neighboring sounds or phonemes [in the word; e.g. consonant clusters],(4) development of parts involved in speech production [e.g. places of structures in the tongue cavity],(5) size of vocabulary [this has something to do about the child’s ability to attach more detailed representations],
    42. 42. Speech6-7 years
    43. 43. 6-7 years Speech at 6-7 yearsGenerally, children at this age can produce ALL consonants -(females)– (males) = / m, n, N, d, p, b, h, w, k, g, j, t, f, l, ∫, t∫, dʒ, s, ʒ , r/ (Smit, et al., 1990)
    44. 44. 6-7 years Speech at 6-7 yearsVowels – syntagmatic production (production of vowels in context such as polysyllabic words) takes up to at least 6 years of age. (James, van Doorn & McLeod, 2001) -can accomplish coarticulationConsonant clusters /tw, kw, sp, st, sk, sm, sn, pl, bl, kl, gl, fl, pr, br, tr, dr, kr, gr, fr, skw, str/
    45. 45. 6-7 years Syllables  Complete syllable structure Prosody Presence of intonation, rhythm and stress (Prosody); understanding of rhyming Intelligibility • Speech is intelligible  Communicates easily and effectively
    46. 46. 6-7 years Speech at 6-7 years “During the school-age years, children are developing more sophisticated syntactics and semantic forms. They are becoming more effective communicators andconversationalists. They are developing the ability to reflect on the nature of the language system itself. And, they arelearning about the written language system.” (James, 1990, p. 134)
    47. 47. 7+ years More improvements?  Should have all speech sounds, including consonant blends Controlled rate, pitch, and volume Lisps where the tongue is placed between the teeth should have disappeared.
    48. 48. 7+ years Intelligibility :D• The child should be able to talk clearly and easily use the language thats spoken at homeMore mastered phonemes:/l/, /r/, /s/, /th/ :D
    49. 49. Some Pointers/Refreshers 
    50. 50. Some Pointers/Refreshers General Guideline in the acquired speech sounds children must least have(by Merckel;-Piccini, 2001):
    51. 51. References (0-6 months)
    52. 52. References (6-12 months)
    53. 53. References (6-12 months)
    54. 54. References (13-18 months)
    55. 55. References (18-24 months)
    56. 56. References (24-36 months)
    57. 57. References (4-5 years)
    58. 58. References (6 years)
    59. 59. References (7 years)
    60. 60. Other References
    61. 61. Other References
    62. 62. Phonological AwarenessSyllable segmentation – refers to the ability to identify the components of a wordRhyme awareness – to be aware that words can have a similar end- sound implies a critical step in metalinguistic understanding - that of ignoring the meaning of a word in order to attend to its internal structure
    63. 63. Thank youfor listening! :D

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