Circulation and Cardiovascular System

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Circulation and Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. Circulatory SystemChapter 34
  2. 2. 2Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsOutlineOutlineTransport in InvertebratesTransport in InvertebratesOpen versus Closed Circulatory SystemsOpen versus Closed Circulatory SystemsTransport in VertebratesTransport in VertebratesTransport in HumansTransport in HumansHeartbeatHeartbeatVascular PathwaysVascular PathwaysBlood PressureBlood PressureCardiovascular DisordersCardiovascular DisordersBloodBloodComponentsComponentsClottingClotting
  3. 3. 3Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsTransport in InvertebratesTransport in InvertebratesSmall aquatic animals with no circulatorySmall aquatic animals with no circulatorysystemsystemMay rely on external water inMay rely on external water ingastrovascular cavity to service cellsgastrovascular cavity to service cellsRoundworms and otherRoundworms and otherpseudocoelomatespseudocoelomatesUse a fluid-filled body cavity as a meansUse a fluid-filled body cavity as a meansof transporting substancesof transporting substancesFluid-filled cavity can also act as aFluid-filled cavity can also act as ahydrostatic skeletonhydrostatic skeletonAnimals that have a rigid skeletonAnimals that have a rigid skeletonMay still rely on body fluids for theMay still rely on body fluids for thepurpose of locomotionpurpose of locomotionBivalves pump hemolymph into the footBivalves pump hemolymph into the foot
  4. 4. 4Aquatic OrganismsWithout a CirculatorySystem
  5. 5. 5Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsOpen vs. ClosedOpen vs. ClosedInvertebrate CirculationInvertebrate CirculationTwo types of circulatory fluids:Two types of circulatory fluids: Blood - contained within blood vesselsBlood - contained within blood vessels Hemolymph - flows into hemocoelHemolymph - flows into hemocoelOpen Circulatory SystemOpen Circulatory System Heart pumps hemolymph via vesselsHeart pumps hemolymph via vessels Vessels empty into tissue spacesVessels empty into tissue spacesClosed Circulatory SystemClosed Circulatory System Heart pumps blood to capillariesHeart pumps blood to capillaries Gases and materials diffuse to and from nearbyGases and materials diffuse to and from nearbycellscells Vessels return blood to heart without itVessels return blood to heart without it
  6. 6. 6Open vs. Closed CirculatorySystems
  7. 7. 7Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsTransport in the VertebratesTransport in the VertebratesAll vertebrates have a closed cardiovascularAll vertebrates have a closed cardiovascularsystemsystemVertebrate heart:Vertebrate heart: Atrial chamber(s) of heart receive blood fromAtrial chamber(s) of heart receive blood fromgeneral circulationgeneral circulation Ventricle chamber(s) of heart pump blood outVentricle chamber(s) of heart pump blood outthrough blood vesselsthrough blood vesselsVertebrate vessels:Vertebrate vessels: Arteries - Carry blood away from heartArteries - Carry blood away from heart Arterioles – Lead to capillariesArterioles – Lead to capillaries Capillaries - Exchange materials with tissueCapillaries - Exchange materials with tissuefluidfluid Venules - Lead to veinsVenules - Lead to veins
  8. 8. 8Transport in Birds andMammals
  9. 9. 9Comparison of CirculatoryCircuitsin Vertebrates
  10. 10. 10Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsComparison of Circulatory PathwaysComparison of Circulatory PathwaysFish - Blood flows in single loopFish - Blood flows in single loopSingle atrium and single ventricleSingle atrium and single ventricleAmphibians - Blood flows in double loopAmphibians - Blood flows in double loopTwo atria with single ventricleTwo atria with single ventricleOther vertebrates - Blood flows in aOther vertebrates - Blood flows in adouble loopdouble loopHeart divided by septum into separateHeart divided by septum into separatesidessides
  11. 11. 11Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsTransport in HumansTransport in HumansHuman HeartHuman HeartFist-sizedFist-sizedCone-shapedCone-shapedVery muscular organ (special cardiacVery muscular organ (special cardiacfibers)fibers)Lies within a fluid-filled sac (theLies within a fluid-filled sac (thepericardium)pericardium)
  12. 12. 12Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsHuman Heart:Human Heart:Gross AnatomyGross AnatomySeptum separates heart into left & rightSeptum separates heart into left & righthalveshalvesEach half has two chambersEach half has two chambersUpper two chambers are the atriaUpper two chambers are the atria­ Thin-walledThin-walled­ Receive blood from circulationReceive blood from circulationLower two chambers are the ventriclesLower two chambers are the ventricles­ Thick-walledThick-walled­ Pump blood away from heartPump blood away from heart
  13. 13. 13External HeartAnatomy
  14. 14. 14Internal View of theHeart
  15. 15. 15Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsHuman Heart:Human Heart:ValvesValvesValves open and close to control bloodValves open and close to control bloodflow through heartflow through heartAtrioventricular valvesAtrioventricular valves­ TricuspidTricuspid­ BicuspidBicuspidSemilunar valvesSemilunar valves­ PulmonaryPulmonary­ AorticAortic
  16. 16. 16Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsTransport in HumansTransport in HumansBlood returning to heart from systemic circuitBlood returning to heart from systemic circuit Enters right atriumEnters right atrium Right atrium pumps through tricuspid valve toRight atrium pumps through tricuspid valve toright ventricleright ventricle Right ventricle pumps blood through pulmonaryRight ventricle pumps blood through pulmonaryvalve to the pulmonary circuitvalve to the pulmonary circuitBlood returning to heart from pulmonary circuitBlood returning to heart from pulmonary circuit Enters left atriumEnters left atrium Left atrium pumps through mitral valve to leftLeft atrium pumps through mitral valve to leftventricleventricle Left ventricle pumps blood through aortic valveLeft ventricle pumps blood through aortic valveto the systemic circuitto the systemic circuitOxygen-poor blood never mixes with oxygen-Oxygen-poor blood never mixes with oxygen-rich blood (in humans)rich blood (in humans)
  17. 17. 17Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsHeartbeatHeartbeatSystole - Contraction of heart chambersSystole - Contraction of heart chambersDiastole - Relaxation of heart chambersDiastole - Relaxation of heart chambersPulse - Two-part pumping action that takesPulse - Two-part pumping action that takesabout a secondabout a second Blood collects in atria, the atria contractBlood collects in atria, the atria contract­ Pushes blood through tricuspid and mitral valvesPushes blood through tricuspid and mitral valvesinto the resting lower ventriclesinto the resting lower ventricles­ This phase (the longer of the two) is called theThis phase (the longer of the two) is called thediastolediastole Second part begins when ventricles fillSecond part begins when ventricles fill­ Ventricles contractVentricles contract­ This is called systoleThis is called systole After blood moves into the pulmonary artery andAfter blood moves into the pulmonary artery andaorta, the ventricles relaxaorta, the ventricles relax
  18. 18. 18Conduction System of theHeart
  19. 19. 19Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsHeartbeatHeartbeatRhythmic contraction due to cardiacRhythmic contraction due to cardiacconduction systemconduction systemSinoatrial node (SA) keeps the heartbeatSinoatrial node (SA) keeps the heartbeatregularregularAtrioventricular node (AV) signalsAtrioventricular node (AV) signalsventricles to contract - Purkinje Fibersventricles to contract - Purkinje FibersElectrocardiogram (ECG)Electrocardiogram (ECG)A recording of electrical changes thatA recording of electrical changes thatoccurring in myocardium during cardiacoccurring in myocardium during cardiaccyclecycleWhen SA node triggers an impulse, theWhen SA node triggers an impulse, the
  20. 20. 20Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsVascular PathwaysVascular PathwaysHuman cardiovascular system includesHuman cardiovascular system includestwo major circular pathways:two major circular pathways:Pulmonary CircuitPulmonary Circuit­ Takes oxygen-poor blood to the lungs andTakes oxygen-poor blood to the lungs andreturns oxygen-rich blood to the heartreturns oxygen-rich blood to the heartSystemic CircuitSystemic Circuit­ Takes blood throughout the body from theTakes blood throughout the body from theaorta to the vena cavaaorta to the vena cava
  21. 21. 21Path ofBlood
  22. 22. 22Velocity and BloodPressure
  23. 23. 23Cross Section of a Valve ina Vein
  24. 24. 24Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsBlood PressureBlood PressureThe beat of the heart supplies pressureThe beat of the heart supplies pressurethat keeps blood moving in the arteriesthat keeps blood moving in the arteriesSystolic Pressure results from bloodSystolic Pressure results from bloodforced into the arteries during ventricularforced into the arteries during ventricularsystolesystoleDiastolic Pressure is the pressure in theDiastolic Pressure is the pressure in thearteries during during ventricular diastolearteries during during ventricular diastoleSkeletal muscle contraction pushes bloodSkeletal muscle contraction pushes bloodin the veins toward the heartin the veins toward the heartBlood pressureBlood pressureNormally measured with aNormally measured with asphygmomanometer on the brachial arterysphygmomanometer on the brachial arteryExpressed in the form: Systolic “over”Expressed in the form: Systolic “over”
  25. 25. 25Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsCardiovascular DisordersCardiovascular DisordersHypertension - High blood pressureHypertension - High blood pressureAtherosclerosis - Accumulation of fattyAtherosclerosis - Accumulation of fattymaterials in inner linings of arteriesmaterials in inner linings of arteriesStroke - Cranial arteriole bursts or isStroke - Cranial arteriole bursts or isblocked by an embolusblocked by an embolusHeart attack – (Myocardial infarction)Heart attack – (Myocardial infarction)Coronary artery becomes partiallyCoronary artery becomes partiallyblockedblockedAngina pectoris – Painful squeezingAngina pectoris – Painful squeezingsensation from myocardial oxygensensation from myocardial oxygen
  26. 26. 26Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsBlood:Blood:Homeostasis FunctionsHomeostasis FunctionsTransports substances to and fromTransports substances to and fromcapillaries for exchange with tissue fluidcapillaries for exchange with tissue fluidGuards against pathogen invasionGuards against pathogen invasionRegulates body temperatureRegulates body temperatureBuffers body pHBuffers body pHMaintain osmotic pressureMaintain osmotic pressureClots prevent blood/fluid lossClots prevent blood/fluid loss
  27. 27. 27Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsRed Blood CellsRed Blood CellsSmall, biconcave disksSmall, biconcave disksLack a nucleus and contain hemoglobinLack a nucleus and contain hemoglobinHemoglobin containsHemoglobin contains­ Four globin protein chainsFour globin protein chains­ Each associated with an iron-containingEach associated with an iron-containinghemeheme­ Manufactured continuously in bone marrowManufactured continuously in bone marrowof skull, ribs, vertebrae, and ends of longof skull, ribs, vertebrae, and ends of longbonesbones
  28. 28. 28Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsWhite Blood CellsWhite Blood CellsMost types larger than red blood cellsMost types larger than red blood cellsContain a nucleus and lack hemoglobinContain a nucleus and lack hemoglobinImportant in inflammatory responseImportant in inflammatory responseNeutrophils enter tissue fluid andNeutrophils enter tissue fluid andphagocytize foreign materialphagocytize foreign materialLymphocytes (T Cells) attack infectedLymphocytes (T Cells) attack infectedcellscellsAntigens cause body to produceAntigens cause body to produceantibodiesantibodies
  29. 29. 29Composition ofBlood
  30. 30. 30Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsPlateletsPlateletsPlateletsPlateletsResult from fragmentation ofResult from fragmentation ofmegakaryocytesmegakaryocytesInvolved in coagulationInvolved in coagulationBlood clot consists of:Blood clot consists of:PlateletsPlateletsRed blood cellsRed blood cellsAll entangled within fibrin threadsAll entangled within fibrin threads
  31. 31. 31BloodClotting
  32. 32. 32Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsCapillary ExchangeCapillary ExchangeCapillaries very narrow – Tiny RBCs mustCapillaries very narrow – Tiny RBCs mustgo through single filego through single fileWall of capillaries very thin to facilitateWall of capillaries very thin to facilitatediffusion of nutrients, gasses and wastesdiffusion of nutrients, gasses and wastesOxygen and nutrients exit a capillary nearOxygen and nutrients exit a capillary nearthe arterial endthe arterial endCarbon dioxide and waste moleculesCarbon dioxide and waste moleculesenter a capillary near the venous endenter a capillary near the venous end
  33. 33. 33CapillaryExchange
  34. 34. 34CapillaryBed
  35. 35. 35Circulatory SystemsCirculatory SystemsReviewReviewTransport in InvertebratesTransport in InvertebratesOpen versus Closed Circulatory SystemsOpen versus Closed Circulatory SystemsTransport in VertebratesTransport in VertebratesTransport in HumansTransport in HumansHeartbeatHeartbeatVascular PathwaysVascular PathwaysBlood PressureBlood PressureCardiovascular DisordersCardiovascular DisordersBloodBloodComponentsComponentsClottingClotting
  36. 36. Circulatory SystemEnding Slide Chapter 34

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