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Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
Locomotion and Support Systems
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Locomotion and Support Systems

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locomotion and support systems

locomotion and support systems

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  • 1. Locomotion and SuChapter 41
  • 2. 2Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoOutlineOutlineDiversity of SkeletonsDiversity of SkeletonsHydrostatic SkeletonHydrostatic SkeletonExoskeletonsExoskeletonsEndoskeletonsEndoskeletonsHuman Skeletal SystemHuman Skeletal SystemAxial SkeletonAxial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonHuman Muscular SystemHuman Muscular SystemThe MusclesThe MusclesMuscle ContractionMuscle Contraction
  • 3. 3Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoHydrostatic SkeletonHydrostatic SkeletonFunctionsFunctionsSupports body formSupports body formProvides resistance for the contraction ofProvides resistance for the contraction ofmuscles to act againstmuscles to act againstSourceSourceSome organisms use their fluid-filledSome organisms use their fluid-filledgastrovascular cavitygastrovascular cavityOthers use their fluid-filled coelomOthers use their fluid-filled coelom
  • 4. 4Locomotion in anEarthworm
  • 5. 5Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoExoskeletons and EndoskeletonsExoskeletons and EndoskeletonsExoskeleton - External SkeletonExoskeleton - External SkeletonMolluscs - composed of calciumMolluscs - composed of calciumcarbonatecarbonateArthropods - composed of chitinArthropods - composed of chitinEndoskeleton - Internal SkeletonEndoskeleton - Internal SkeletonEchinoderms and vertebratesEchinoderms and vertebratesMineralized bone and cartilageMineralized bone and cartilageGrows as the animal growsGrows as the animal grows­ Does not limit space for internal organsDoes not limit space for internal organs­Supports greater weight
  • 6. 6Exoskeleton
  • 7. 7The VertebrateEndoskeleton
  • 8. 8Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoHuman Skeletal SystemHuman Skeletal SystemFunctionsFunctionsSupports and protects the bodySupports and protects the bodyPermits movementPermits movementProvides resistive foundation for musclesProvides resistive foundation for musclesto act againstto act againstBones store calcium and phosphate ionsBones store calcium and phosphate ionsCertain bones produce red blood cellsCertain bones produce red blood cells
  • 9. 9Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoBone Growth and RenewalBone Growth and RenewalCartilage structures in early developmentCartilage structures in early developmentact as models for future bonesact as models for future bonesCalcium salts deposited in matrix byCalcium salts deposited in matrix bycartilage cells and later by osteoblastscartilage cells and later by osteoblastsEndochondral ossificationEndochondral ossificationOsteoclastsOsteoclastsBreak down boneBreak down boneRemove worn cellsRemove worn cellsDeposit calcium in the bloodDeposit calcium in the bloodWork with osteoblasts to heal brokenWork with osteoblasts to heal broken
  • 10. 10Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoAnatomy of a Long BoneAnatomy of a Long BoneGrossGross Main shankMain shank­ Thick outer cylinder of compact boneThick outer cylinder of compact bone­ Medullary cavity in centerMedullary cavity in center Spongy bone at endsSpongy bone at endsDetailsDetails Compact boneCompact bone­ Unit of structure called osteonUnit of structure called osteon­ Concentric lamellae arranged around central canalConcentric lamellae arranged around central canal­ Osteocytes lie in lacunae at lamellar boundariesOsteocytes lie in lacunae at lamellar boundaries Spongy boneSpongy bone­ Numerous bars and plates separated by irregularNumerous bars and plates separated by irregularspacesspaces­ Spaces filled with red bone marrowSpaces filled with red bone marrow
  • 11. 11Anatomy of a LongBone
  • 12. 12The HumanSkeleton
  • 13. 13Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoThe Axial SkeletonThe Axial SkeletonLies in the midline of the bodyLies in the midline of the bodyConsists ofConsists ofThe skullThe skullThe vertebral columnThe vertebral columnThe sternum, andThe sternum, andThe ribsThe ribs
  • 14. 14Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoThe SkullThe SkullFormed by cranium and facial bonesFormed by cranium and facial bonesMajor bones are named afterMajor bones are named after­ The lobes of the brain, andThe lobes of the brain, and­ The facial bonesThe facial bonesForamen magnumForamen magnum­ Opening at base of skullOpening at base of skull­ Where spinal cord connects to brainWhere spinal cord connects to brainBones of cranium surround sinusesBones of cranium surround sinuses
  • 15. 15TheSkull
  • 16. 16Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoVertebral ColumnVertebral ColumnVertebral columnVertebral columnSupports the head and trunkSupports the head and trunkProtects the spinal cord and roots ofProtects the spinal cord and roots ofspinal nervesspinal nervesSegments (from superior to inferior)Segments (from superior to inferior)Cervical - NeckCervical - NeckThoracic - ThoraxThoracic - ThoraxLumbar - Small of backLumbar - Small of backSacral - SacrumSacral - SacrumCoccyx - TailboneCoccyx - TailboneIntervertebral disks of fibrocartilage actIntervertebral disks of fibrocartilage actas paddingas padding
  • 17. 17Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoRib CageRib CageProtects the heart and lungs, and assistsProtects the heart and lungs, and assistsbreathingbreathingSupport by the thoracic vertebraeSupport by the thoracic vertebraeTwelve pairs of ribsTwelve pairs of ribs­ True ribsTrue ribs Connect directly to sternumConnect directly to sternum Seven pairsSeven pairs­ ““False” ribsFalse” ribs Do not connect directly to sternumDo not connect directly to sternum Five pairsFive pairs
  • 18. 18The RibCage
  • 19. 19Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoThe Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular SkeletonConsists ofConsists of The bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdlesThe bones within the pectoral and pelvic girdles The attached limbsThe attached limbsPectoral girdle – Bones of the shoulderPectoral girdle – Bones of the shoulder AnteriorAnterior Supports the arms and handsSupports the arms and handsPelvic girdle - Bones of the pelvisPelvic girdle - Bones of the pelvis PosteriorPosterior Supports the legs and feetSupports the legs and feet
  • 20. 20Bones of the PectoralGirdle,the Arm, and the Hand
  • 21. 21Bones of the PelvicGirdle,the leg, and the Foot
  • 22. 22Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoClassification of JointsClassification of JointsFibrous JointsFibrous JointsImmovableImmovableBetween cranial bonesBetween cranial bonesCartilaginous JointsCartilaginous JointsSlightly MovableSlightly MovableBetween vertebraeBetween vertebraeSynovial JointsSynovial JointsFreely MovableFreely MovableBones separated by a cavityBones separated by a cavityLigaments bind bones together at jointLigaments bind bones together at joint
  • 23. 23The KneeJoint
  • 24. 24Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoHuman Muscular SystemHuman Muscular SystemSkeletal musclesSkeletal muscles Attached to the skeleton by cable-like fibrousAttached to the skeleton by cable-like fibrousconnective tissue called tendonsconnective tissue called tendons Arranged in antagonistic pairsArranged in antagonistic pairs­ Can only contract, cannot pushCan only contract, cannot push­ When one muscle contracts, it stretches itsWhen one muscle contracts, it stretches itsantagonistic partnerantagonistic partnerA muscle at “rest” exhibits tone (minimalA muscle at “rest” exhibits tone (minimalcontraction)contraction)A muscle in tetany is at maximum sustainedA muscle in tetany is at maximum sustainedcontractioncontraction
  • 25. 25HumanMusculature
  • 26. 26AntagonisticMuscles
  • 27. 27Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoMicroscopic Anatomy and PhysiologyMicroscopic Anatomy and PhysiologySarcolemmaSarcolemmaPlasma membranePlasma membraneSarcoplasmic ReticulumSarcoplasmic ReticulumModified endoplasmic reticulumModified endoplasmic reticulumMyofibrilsMyofibrilsContractile structures in sarcoplasmContractile structures in sarcoplasmSarcomeresSarcomeresUnits of contractionUnits of contractionConsist primarily of proteinsConsist primarily of proteins­ MyosinMyosin­ ActinActin
  • 28. 28Skeletal MuscleFiberStructure andFunction
  • 29. 29Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoSliding Filament ModelSliding Filament ModelActin filaments at both ends of sarcomereActin filaments at both ends of sarcomere One end of each filament attached to a Z-plate at one endOne end of each filament attached to a Z-plate at one endof the sarcomereof the sarcomere Other end suspended in sarcoplasmOther end suspended in sarcoplasmMyosin filaments suspended in between Z-platesMyosin filaments suspended in between Z-plates Myosin filaments contain cross-bridges which pull theMyosin filaments contain cross-bridges which pull theactin filaments inwardactin filaments inward Causes Z-plates to move toward each otherCauses Z-plates to move toward each other Shortens sarcomereShortens sarcomere Sarcomeres stacked together in series and causeSarcomeres stacked together in series and causemyofiber to shortenmyofiber to shortenWorking muscles require ATPWorking muscles require ATP Myosin breaks down ATPMyosin breaks down ATP Sustained exerciseSustained exercise­ Requires cellular respirationRequires cellular respiration­ Regenerates ATPRegenerates ATP
  • 30. 30Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoMuscle InnervationMuscle InnervationNeuromuscular junctionNeuromuscular junctionThe synaptic contact between a nerveThe synaptic contact between a nervefiber and a muscle fiberfiber and a muscle fiberNerve impulses bring about the release ofNerve impulses bring about the release ofa neurotransmitter that cross the synaptica neurotransmitter that cross the synapticcleftcleftSignals the muscle fiber to contractSignals the muscle fiber to contract
  • 31. 31NeuromuscularJunction
  • 32. 32The Role of Calcium andMyosin inMuscle Contraction
  • 33. 33Locomotion and SuppoLocomotion and SuppoReviewReviewDiversity of SkeletonsDiversity of SkeletonsHydrostatic SkeletonHydrostatic SkeletonExoskeletonsExoskeletonsEndoskeletonsEndoskeletonsHuman Skeletal SystemHuman Skeletal SystemAxial SkeletonAxial SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonAppendicular SkeletonHuman Muscular SystemHuman Muscular SystemThe MusclesThe MusclesMuscle ContractionMuscle Contraction
  • 34. Locomotion and SupEnding Slide Chapter 41

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