Chemical Composition Of The CellImportanceA. ElementB. CompoundOrganic compounds Inorganic compounds• Carbohydrates• Proteins• Lipids• Nucleic acids• Watersuch assuch asSubstance ofEssential element Trace elementTypes ofTypes of
Learning Outcome:A student is able to:State the elements in the cell.List the chemical compounds in the cell.Explain the importance of organiccompounds in the cell.Explain the importance of water in the cell.
Element• Substance composed of only one kind of atom• Can’t be broken down into simpler substances• Chemical reactionsEssential elements Traces elements• Carbon, C• Hydrogen, H• Oxygen, O• Nitrogen, N• Calcium, Ca• Potassium, K• Phosphorus, P• Sulphur, S• Sodium, Na• Chlorine, Cl• Magnesium, Mg• Copper, Cu• Iodine, I• Ferum, FeNeed in large amounts Need in small amounts
Elements FunctionsAnimal cells Plant cellsH, C, O, N • Synthesis of organic compounds.E.g.: Proteins, Lipids & Nucleic Acids.S • A component of some proteins.Na • Regulates osmotic pressure incells.• Helps in the transmission ofnerve impulses.No required.Mg • Involved in protein synthesis.• Acts as a cofactor of someenzymes.• Required of the synthesis ofchlorophyll.• Activates enzymes in the cells.Ca • Required for the formation ofstrong bones and teeth.• Helps in the contraction ofmuscle cells.• Promotes blood clotting.• Synthesis of cell walls(cellulose).• Helps maintain the semi-permeability of plasmamembranes.Fe • Involved in the synthesis ofhemoglobin and respiratoryenzymes.• Synthesis of chlorophyll.• Acts as an electron carrierduring photosynthesis andrespiration.Functions of elements in animal cells and plant cells:
Elements FunctionsAnimal cells Plant cellsP • Formation of strong bones &teeth.• Helps in the contraction ofmuscle cells.• Synthesis of ATP.• As essential component ofnucleic acids.• Induces the formation of flowers& seeds.• Promotes cell division.• Synthesis of ATP & nucleicacids.K • Required in muscle contractions& transmission of nerveimpulses.• Synthesis of carbohydrates.• Activates certain enzymes.Cl • synthesis of hydrochloric acid bythe gastric glands in thestomach.• Photolysis of water during lightreaction in photosynthesis.Functions of elements in animal cells and plant cells:
CompoundInorganic compounds• Substance• consists of 2 @ more elements• chemically combined in a fixed ratioOrganic compounds• Carbohydrates• Proteins• Lipids• Nucleic acids• Water• Contain C & H.• Associated with livingorganisms.• Not contain C & H.• Associated with non-livingorganisms.
Compounds ImportanceCarbohydrates Primary source of energy.Lipids Source of energy.Provides physical protection to major organs in the body.Major constituent of the plasma membrane.Solvent for fat-solute vitamins A, D, E & K..Proteins Build new cells for growth & renew damaged tissue.Required in synthesis of enzymes, antibodies & hormones.Form structural components.Important components of the plasma membrane.Involved in the synthesis of hemoglobin.Nucleic acids Store genetic information.Water As biochemical reactions & transport medium.As solvent.Maintaining osmotic balance, turgidity & continuous flow of water upthe stem to the leaves.Providing support to the structure of a cell.Provide moisture to respiratory surface.Maintaining body temperature.For lubrication.Importance of chemical compounds in the cell:
Questions:1. Which substance acts as a medium for biochemical reactions in a cell?A. Amino acidB. GlucoseC. GlycerolD. Water2. Which of these elements are found in very small amounts?A. CarbonB. OxygenC. CalciumD. Hydrogen