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Presented by: Prof. Hannes Grabe at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

Presented by: Prof. Hannes Grabe at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

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Rail Deflection Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Track Deflection Measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry Hannes Gr äbe University of Pretoria Chair in Railway Engineering
  • 2. Definition ? What is an Engineer Someone who knows how to measure !
  • 3. Contents of presentation
    • Introduction
    • The need for deflection measurement
    • Applications of deflection measurement
    • Currents methods of track deflection measurement
    • The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method
    • Measurements at three sites
    • Recent developments
    • Advantages of the system
    • Conclusions
  • 4. Dynamic loading on non-rigid track deflection
  • 5. Deflection measurement: Field tests
  • 6. Deflection measurement: Lab testing
  • 7. Deflection calculation: Analysis
  • 8. Deflection measurement: Construction
  • 9. Deflection measurement: Failures
  • 10. Deflection measurement…
    • … is ESSENTIAL in:
    • Field tests
    • Laboratory tests
    • Numerical analysis
    • Construction
    • Failures and remedial measures
  • 11. Instrumentation ? What capabilities should instrumentation have Reliability 1. Optical 2. Mechanical 3. Hydraulic 4. Pneumatic 5. Electrical Simplicity Quality Cost!
  • 12. Track loading & deflection Ballast Subballast Subgrade 1 Subgrade 2
  • 13. Electrical: Multi-Depth Deflectometer
  • 14. MDD Installation
  • 15. Field Instrumentation MDD module Load plate Soil sampling
  • 16. MDD Results Time
  • 17. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
  • 18. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
  • 19. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
  • 20. Mechanical: Sleeper deflection meter* * Design: Sakkie van der Linde
  • 21. Mechanical: Geometry car measurements
  • 22. Mechanical: Geometry car measurements Versine measurement Gauge measurement
  • 23. Optical: Manual and digital level
  • 24. Optic deflection measurement Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) For optical track deflection measurement
  • 25. Visual: Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
    • Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) originated in the field of experimental fluid mechanics (Adrian, 1991)
    • Recent developments: Soil deformation measurements & Landfill settlement (White, Take & Bolton, 2003 & 2005)
    • This research: Based on work by Bowness et al. (2006): Monitor Railway Track Displacements by using a webcam attached to a telescope, and a target attached to the side of the rail.
      • The telescope magnifies the video images
      • Images are captured by the webcam
      • Images and analysed by a computer
      • Software calculation of horizontal and vertical displacement
  • 26. Transnet Freight Rail PIV system
  • 27. Target fixed to the rail
  • 28. Target fixed to the rail * 2cm x 2cm square target
  • 29. PIV Calibration
  • 30. PIV System: Resolution * Standard deviation: 0.003 – 0.005mm
  • 31. Applications of PIV Amandelbult Centurion Ermelo
  • 32. Amandelbult
  • 33. Amandelbult
  • 34. Amandelbult PIV tests
  • 35. Amandelbult: resolution
  • 36. Amandelbult test results 32km/h 7km/h
  • 37. Amandelbult: Camera vibration
  • 38. Centurion station
  • 39. Centurion station measurements Conventional track Tubular track
  • 40. Centurion measurements Tubular Track: Platform 2 (Rail & Beam deflection) -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Time (s) Deflection (mm) Rail Beam
  • 41. Centurion measurements Tubular and Conventional Track Comparison -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Time (s) Deflection (mm) Tubular Conventional
  • 42. Ermelo Yard
  • 43. Eremlo Yard
  • 44. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
  • 45. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
  • 46. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
  • 47. PIV measurements Ermelo: Rail , Beam , Grout , Formation Deflection -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 30 35 40 45 50 55 Time (s) Deflection (mm)
  • 48. Tubular vs. Conventional turnout
  • 49. Comparative analysis A: End-of-beam C: End-of-beam B: Mid-beam
  • 50. End of beam deflection: Position B A B C
  • 51. Current developments
    • PIV system comprising single data analysis software license with multiple video cameras
    • Stabilisation of the camera (accelerometer measurements)
    • Noise reduction (increased resolution and optical zoom)
    • Higher frequency sampling
    • At least two research projects
    • conducted at Centurion
    • station
  • 52. Advantages
    • Optical measurements
    • No calibration required
    • Equipment relatively simple, available and affordable
    • Data post-processing in the office
    • Calculation of track stiffness
    • Comparative analysis
    • Quick way of evaluating slacks, track
    • condition and transition areas
  • 53. Acknowledgements
    • Transnet Freight Rail (Track Technology)
    • Tubular Track (Pty) Ltd.
    • Motswedi TLC Software
    • University of Pretoria
  • 54. Questions… Thank you for your attention!
  • 55. References
    • Adrian, R. J. Particle imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech ., 1991, 23, 261–304.
    • Bowness, D., Lock, A. C., Powrie, W., Priest, J. A. and Richards, D. J. Monitoring the dynamic displacements of railway track. Proc. IMechE , 2006, Vol. 221 Part F: J. Rail and Rapid Transit.
    • Van der Linde, I. The performance of the four Tubular turnouts which were installed during May – June 2007 in Ermelo shunting yard. Progress Report 1, A P.E.C. Report, 2008, May.
    • White, D. J., Take, W. A., and Bolton, M. D. Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Géotechnique , 2003, 53(7), 619–631.
    • White, D. J. and Bolton, M. D. Displacement and strain paths during plane-strain model pile installation in sand. Géotechnique , 2004, 54(6), 375–397.