Track Deflection Measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry Hannes Gr äbe University of Pretoria Chair in Railway Engine...
Definition ? What is an Engineer Someone who knows how to measure !
Contents of presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The need for deflection measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Appl...
Dynamic loading on non-rigid track  deflection
Deflection measurement: Field tests
Deflection measurement: Lab testing
Deflection calculation: Analysis
Deflection measurement: Construction
Deflection measurement: Failures
Deflection measurement… <ul><li>… is ESSENTIAL in: </li></ul><ul><li>Field tests </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory tests </li><...
Instrumentation ? What capabilities should instrumentation have Reliability 1. Optical 2. Mechanical 3. Hydraulic 4. Pneum...
Track loading & deflection Ballast Subballast Subgrade 1 Subgrade 2
Electrical: Multi-Depth Deflectometer
MDD Installation
Field Instrumentation MDD module Load plate Soil sampling
MDD Results Time
Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
Mechanical: Sleeper deflection meter* * Design: Sakkie van der Linde
Mechanical: Geometry car measurements
Mechanical: Geometry car measurements  Versine measurement Gauge measurement
Optical: Manual and digital level
Optic deflection measurement Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) For optical track deflection measurement
Visual: Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) <ul><li>Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) originated in the field of experimental ...
Transnet Freight Rail PIV system
Target fixed to the rail
Target fixed to the rail * 2cm x 2cm square target
PIV Calibration
PIV System: Resolution * Standard deviation: 0.003 – 0.005mm
Applications of PIV Amandelbult Centurion Ermelo
Amandelbult
Amandelbult
Amandelbult PIV tests
Amandelbult: resolution
Amandelbult test results 32km/h 7km/h
Amandelbult: Camera vibration
Centurion station
Centurion station measurements Conventional track Tubular track
Centurion measurements Tubular Track: Platform 2 (Rail & Beam deflection) -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 ...
Centurion measurements Tubular and Conventional Track Comparison -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0...
Ermelo Yard
Eremlo Yard
Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
PIV measurements Ermelo:  Rail ,  Beam ,  Grout ,  Formation  Deflection -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 30 35 ...
Tubular vs. Conventional turnout
Comparative analysis A: End-of-beam C: End-of-beam B: Mid-beam
End of beam deflection: Position B A B C
Current developments <ul><li>PIV system comprising single data analysis software license with multiple video cameras </li>...
Advantages <ul><li>Optical measurements </li></ul><ul><li>No calibration required </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment relatively s...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Transnet Freight Rail (Track Technology) </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular Track (Pty) Ltd. </li></ul><ul...
Questions… Thank you for your attention!
References <ul><li>Adrian, R. J. Particle imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics.  Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech ., 19...
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Rail Deflection

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Presented by: Prof. Hannes Grabe at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

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  • Rail Deflection

    1. 1. Track Deflection Measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry Hannes Gr äbe University of Pretoria Chair in Railway Engineering
    2. 2. Definition ? What is an Engineer Someone who knows how to measure !
    3. 3. Contents of presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>The need for deflection measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of deflection measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Currents methods of track deflection measurement </li></ul><ul><li>The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method </li></ul><ul><li>Measurements at three sites </li></ul><ul><li>Recent developments </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>
    4. 4. Dynamic loading on non-rigid track deflection
    5. 5. Deflection measurement: Field tests
    6. 6. Deflection measurement: Lab testing
    7. 7. Deflection calculation: Analysis
    8. 8. Deflection measurement: Construction
    9. 9. Deflection measurement: Failures
    10. 10. Deflection measurement… <ul><li>… is ESSENTIAL in: </li></ul><ul><li>Field tests </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory tests </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Failures and remedial measures </li></ul>
    11. 11. Instrumentation ? What capabilities should instrumentation have Reliability 1. Optical 2. Mechanical 3. Hydraulic 4. Pneumatic 5. Electrical Simplicity Quality Cost!
    12. 12. Track loading & deflection Ballast Subballast Subgrade 1 Subgrade 2
    13. 13. Electrical: Multi-Depth Deflectometer
    14. 14. MDD Installation
    15. 15. Field Instrumentation MDD module Load plate Soil sampling
    16. 16. MDD Results Time
    17. 17. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
    18. 18. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
    19. 19. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
    20. 20. Mechanical: Sleeper deflection meter* * Design: Sakkie van der Linde
    21. 21. Mechanical: Geometry car measurements
    22. 22. Mechanical: Geometry car measurements Versine measurement Gauge measurement
    23. 23. Optical: Manual and digital level
    24. 24. Optic deflection measurement Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) For optical track deflection measurement
    25. 25. Visual: Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) <ul><li>Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) originated in the field of experimental fluid mechanics (Adrian, 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent developments: Soil deformation measurements & Landfill settlement (White, Take & Bolton, 2003 & 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>This research: Based on work by Bowness et al. (2006): Monitor Railway Track Displacements by using a webcam attached to a telescope, and a target attached to the side of the rail. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The telescope magnifies the video images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images are captured by the webcam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Images and analysed by a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software calculation of horizontal and vertical displacement </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Transnet Freight Rail PIV system
    27. 27. Target fixed to the rail
    28. 28. Target fixed to the rail * 2cm x 2cm square target
    29. 29. PIV Calibration
    30. 30. PIV System: Resolution * Standard deviation: 0.003 – 0.005mm
    31. 31. Applications of PIV Amandelbult Centurion Ermelo
    32. 32. Amandelbult
    33. 33. Amandelbult
    34. 34. Amandelbult PIV tests
    35. 35. Amandelbult: resolution
    36. 36. Amandelbult test results 32km/h 7km/h
    37. 37. Amandelbult: Camera vibration
    38. 38. Centurion station
    39. 39. Centurion station measurements Conventional track Tubular track
    40. 40. Centurion measurements Tubular Track: Platform 2 (Rail & Beam deflection) -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Time (s) Deflection (mm) Rail Beam
    41. 41. Centurion measurements Tubular and Conventional Track Comparison -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Time (s) Deflection (mm) Tubular Conventional
    42. 42. Ermelo Yard
    43. 43. Eremlo Yard
    44. 44. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
    45. 45. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
    46. 46. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
    47. 47. PIV measurements Ermelo: Rail , Beam , Grout , Formation Deflection -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 30 35 40 45 50 55 Time (s) Deflection (mm)
    48. 48. Tubular vs. Conventional turnout
    49. 49. Comparative analysis A: End-of-beam C: End-of-beam B: Mid-beam
    50. 50. End of beam deflection: Position B A B C
    51. 51. Current developments <ul><li>PIV system comprising single data analysis software license with multiple video cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilisation of the camera (accelerometer measurements) </li></ul><ul><li>Noise reduction (increased resolution and optical zoom) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher frequency sampling </li></ul><ul><li>At least two research projects </li></ul><ul><li>conducted at Centurion </li></ul><ul><li>station </li></ul>
    52. 52. Advantages <ul><li>Optical measurements </li></ul><ul><li>No calibration required </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment relatively simple, available and affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Data post-processing in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of track stiffness </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Quick way of evaluating slacks, track </li></ul><ul><li>condition and transition areas </li></ul>
    53. 53. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Transnet Freight Rail (Track Technology) </li></ul><ul><li>Tubular Track (Pty) Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Motswedi TLC Software </li></ul><ul><li>University of Pretoria </li></ul>
    54. 54. Questions… Thank you for your attention!
    55. 55. References <ul><li>Adrian, R. J. Particle imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech ., 1991, 23, 261–304. </li></ul><ul><li>Bowness, D., Lock, A. C., Powrie, W., Priest, J. A. and Richards, D. J. Monitoring the dynamic displacements of railway track. Proc. IMechE , 2006, Vol. 221 Part F: J. Rail and Rapid Transit. </li></ul><ul><li>Van der Linde, I. The performance of the four Tubular turnouts which were installed during May – June 2007 in Ermelo shunting yard. Progress Report 1, A P.E.C. Report, 2008, May. </li></ul><ul><li>White, D. J., Take, W. A., and Bolton, M. D. Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Géotechnique , 2003, 53(7), 619–631. </li></ul><ul><li>White, D. J. and Bolton, M. D. Displacement and strain paths during plane-strain model pile installation in sand. Géotechnique , 2004, 54(6), 375–397. </li></ul>

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