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Rail Deflection

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Presented by: Prof. Hannes Grabe at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

Presented by: Prof. Hannes Grabe at the 2009 Railways and Harbours Conference in Cape Town.

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Track Deflection Measurement using Particle Image Velocimetry Hannes Gr äbe University of Pretoria Chair in Railway Engineering
    • 2. Definition ? What is an Engineer Someone who knows how to measure !
    • 3. Contents of presentation
      • Introduction
      • The need for deflection measurement
      • Applications of deflection measurement
      • Currents methods of track deflection measurement
      • The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method
      • Measurements at three sites
      • Recent developments
      • Advantages of the system
      • Conclusions
    • 4. Dynamic loading on non-rigid track deflection
    • 5. Deflection measurement: Field tests
    • 6. Deflection measurement: Lab testing
    • 7. Deflection calculation: Analysis
    • 8. Deflection measurement: Construction
    • 9. Deflection measurement: Failures
    • 10. Deflection measurement…
      • … is ESSENTIAL in:
      • Field tests
      • Laboratory tests
      • Numerical analysis
      • Construction
      • Failures and remedial measures
    • 11. Instrumentation ? What capabilities should instrumentation have Reliability 1. Optical 2. Mechanical 3. Hydraulic 4. Pneumatic 5. Electrical Simplicity Quality Cost!
    • 12. Track loading & deflection Ballast Subballast Subgrade 1 Subgrade 2
    • 13. Electrical: Multi-Depth Deflectometer
    • 14. MDD Installation
    • 15. Field Instrumentation MDD module Load plate Soil sampling
    • 16. MDD Results Time
    • 17. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
    • 18. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
    • 19. Electrical: LVDT* * Linear Variable Differential Transducer
    • 20. Mechanical: Sleeper deflection meter* * Design: Sakkie van der Linde
    • 21. Mechanical: Geometry car measurements
    • 22. Mechanical: Geometry car measurements Versine measurement Gauge measurement
    • 23. Optical: Manual and digital level
    • 24. Optic deflection measurement Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) For optical track deflection measurement
    • 25. Visual: Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV)
      • Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) originated in the field of experimental fluid mechanics (Adrian, 1991)
      • Recent developments: Soil deformation measurements & Landfill settlement (White, Take & Bolton, 2003 & 2005)
      • This research: Based on work by Bowness et al. (2006): Monitor Railway Track Displacements by using a webcam attached to a telescope, and a target attached to the side of the rail.
        • The telescope magnifies the video images
        • Images are captured by the webcam
        • Images and analysed by a computer
        • Software calculation of horizontal and vertical displacement
    • 26. Transnet Freight Rail PIV system
    • 27. Target fixed to the rail
    • 28. Target fixed to the rail * 2cm x 2cm square target
    • 29. PIV Calibration
    • 30. PIV System: Resolution * Standard deviation: 0.003 – 0.005mm
    • 31. Applications of PIV Amandelbult Centurion Ermelo
    • 32. Amandelbult
    • 33. Amandelbult
    • 34. Amandelbult PIV tests
    • 35. Amandelbult: resolution
    • 36. Amandelbult test results 32km/h 7km/h
    • 37. Amandelbult: Camera vibration
    • 38. Centurion station
    • 39. Centurion station measurements Conventional track Tubular track
    • 40. Centurion measurements Tubular Track: Platform 2 (Rail & Beam deflection) -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Time (s) Deflection (mm) Rail Beam
    • 41. Centurion measurements Tubular and Conventional Track Comparison -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Time (s) Deflection (mm) Tubular Conventional
    • 42. Ermelo Yard
    • 43. Eremlo Yard
    • 44. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
    • 45. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
    • 46. Ermelo Yard PIV measurements
    • 47. PIV measurements Ermelo: Rail , Beam , Grout , Formation Deflection -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 30 35 40 45 50 55 Time (s) Deflection (mm)
    • 48. Tubular vs. Conventional turnout
    • 49. Comparative analysis A: End-of-beam C: End-of-beam B: Mid-beam
    • 50. End of beam deflection: Position B A B C
    • 51. Current developments
      • PIV system comprising single data analysis software license with multiple video cameras
      • Stabilisation of the camera (accelerometer measurements)
      • Noise reduction (increased resolution and optical zoom)
      • Higher frequency sampling
      • At least two research projects
      • conducted at Centurion
      • station
    • 52. Advantages
      • Optical measurements
      • No calibration required
      • Equipment relatively simple, available and affordable
      • Data post-processing in the office
      • Calculation of track stiffness
      • Comparative analysis
      • Quick way of evaluating slacks, track
      • condition and transition areas
    • 53. Acknowledgements
      • Transnet Freight Rail (Track Technology)
      • Tubular Track (Pty) Ltd.
      • Motswedi TLC Software
      • University of Pretoria
    • 54. Questions… Thank you for your attention!
    • 55. References
      • Adrian, R. J. Particle imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech ., 1991, 23, 261–304.
      • Bowness, D., Lock, A. C., Powrie, W., Priest, J. A. and Richards, D. J. Monitoring the dynamic displacements of railway track. Proc. IMechE , 2006, Vol. 221 Part F: J. Rail and Rapid Transit.
      • Van der Linde, I. The performance of the four Tubular turnouts which were installed during May – June 2007 in Ermelo shunting yard. Progress Report 1, A P.E.C. Report, 2008, May.
      • White, D. J., Take, W. A., and Bolton, M. D. Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Géotechnique , 2003, 53(7), 619–631.
      • White, D. J. and Bolton, M. D. Displacement and strain paths during plane-strain model pile installation in sand. Géotechnique , 2004, 54(6), 375–397.

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