Human trafficking in migration process of bangladesh

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Trafficking is a crucial violation of human rights and is considered as a form of slavery all over the world. Women and children, particularly, are in great demand in so far as the different sites of trafficking are concerned.

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  • This piece is almost copied from my M.Phil thesis. There is no acknowledgement, no citation, and the lines are exactly copied. I hope you understand what plagiarism is. Please be careful before posting others hard work on your name. This is not accepted, shameful as well as considered as crime. Here is the link - https://bora.uib.no/bitstream/handle/1956/7328/108992019.pdf?sequence=1
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Human trafficking in migration process of bangladesh

  1. 1. Human Trafficking in migration process of Bangladesh Submitted to Miraj Hossen Assistant Professor Department of management studies Submitted by: Group: Reflection Section: B Management studies 5th batch
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgements Table of contents List of table List of abbreviations Abstract CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………………….……1 1.2 Motivation of the study……………………………………………………………………3 1.3Objective of the research……………………………………………………………….…4 1.4 Significance of the study………………………………………………………………....4 CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING AND RESEARCHING TRAFFICKING 2.1 Purpose and factors influence trafficking……………………………………………5 2.2 Impact of trafficking…………………………………………………………………………6 2.3 Studies on reintegration…………………………………………………………………...7 2.4 Contribution of the study……………………………………………………………………8 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Study settings………………………………………………………………………………...9 3.2 Sources of data…………………………………………………………………………….…11 3.3 Methods of data collection………………………………………………………………...11 3.3.1 In-depth interview…………………………………………………………………..…...12 3.3.2 Interview with the gatekeepers or key persons……………………………..12 3.3.3 Focus group discussion…………………………………………………………………12 3.4 Data analysis………………………………………………………………………………....13 3.6 Ours role as a researcher…………………………………………………………………...…
  3. 3. CHAPTER 4: TRAFFICKING SCENARIO IN BANGLADESH: AN OVERVIEW 4.1 Beginning of trafficking………………………………………………………………14 4.2 Very recent report on trafficking…………………………………………………….15 4.3 Process, causes and consequences of Trafficking…………………………..16 CHAPTER 5: Data Analysis 5.1 Personal Factor 5.1.1 Age at the time of being trafficked…………………………....................…….17 5.1.2. Income before trafficked………………………………………………….………18 5.1.3 Marital status at the time of being trafficked………………………….…..18 5.1.4 Working skilled of Victims………………………………………………..………19 5.1.5 Profession (Before being trafficked)………………………………..………..19 5.1.6 Financial compensation………………………………………..…………………20 5.1.7 Financial Loss due to trafficking……………………………………………..20 5.2 Social factor: 5.2.1 Monthly income of the family…………………………………………..………..21 5.2.2. Educational qualification……………………………………………..…………21 5.2.3 Trafficking related to social class…………………………….………………22 5.2.4 Financial help………………………………………………………..……………..23 5.2.5 Idea about Govt. assistance………………………………………………….23 5.2.5 Dowry in marriage……………………………………………….……………24 5.2.6 Awareness arising organization………………………….………………24 5.2.7Proposal given by traffickers………………………………………………25 5.2.8 Types of incidents encountered after being trafficked………….25 5.2.8 Origin and Destination of trafficking…………………………………..26 5.3 Legal service……………………………………………………………………....26
  4. 4. 5.3.1 Idea about trafficking related law……………………………………..27 5.4 Compensation and punishment……………………………………..……27 5.5 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES……………………………………….……..28 Chapter: 6 CONCLUSION AND IDEAS FOR FUTURE APPROACHES 6.1 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………….…………32 6.2 IDEAS FOR FUTURE APPROACHES……………………………………33 REFERENCES……………………………………………………………35 Appendix: Questionnaire and checklist for Interview
  5. 5. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AIDS- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome BDR- Bangladesh Rifles CEDAW- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CRC- Convention on the Rights of the Child CWCS- Center for Women and Children Studies DCs- The Deputy Commissioners FGD- Focus Group Discussion GATTW- Global Alliance against Traffic in Women GO- Government Organization HIV- Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICCDR,B- International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh INCIDIN Bangladesh- Integrated Community and Industrial Development in Bangladesh INGO- International Non-governmental Organization ILO- International Labor Organization IOM- International Organization for Migration NGO- Non-governmental Organization NSD- Norwegian Social Science Data Services OCs- Officers in Charge of Police Stations SAARC- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SANLAAP- Sanlaap is an Indian feminist NGO SPs- Superintendents of Police SHISUK -Shikha Shastha Unnayan Karzakram UNDP- United Nations Development Program UNICEF- United Nations Children Fund UN- United Nation
  6. 6. Acknowledgements Firstly, I would like to thank the victims from the bottom of my heart for giving me time and sharing their personal experiences. I feel expressing my gratitude in words is not possible and I will remain thankful to them. I also want to thank the staffs of SHISUK: Kamrunnahar lipi,Shakiul millat morshed ,Jillur rahman ,Firoz hossan ,Alamin noyon for their valuable support to conduct field work and collect resources about trafficking issues. I am highly indebted to my supervisor, Assistant Professor ,Miraj Hossen for the guidance and support from the beginning of my study. Her valuable comments, suggestions and guidance not only helped me to formulate each line but also inspired me to come up with a completed thesis.
  7. 7. 44 ABSTRACT This study aims to focus on the challenges behind the migration process of trafficking survivors in their families and communities in Bangladesh. In doing so, this research tries to explore the experiences of trafficked survivors in the process of being trafficked, their life in brothel and returning to Bangladesh. In addition, it helps to understand the perception of survivors in their reintegration along with the perceptions of community people and family members. This study also brings forth in discussion how their experiences in brothel and challenges to reintegration have affected their construction of identity. This research was carried out with the help of SHISUK and it intends to find out what SHISUK is doing to reduce those challenges. This study is consisted of 50 in-depth interviews with trafficking survivors, two focus group discussion with community people, some interviews with survivors’ parents and SHISUK key persons. The data was collected in April-May and analyzed . The study findings show that reintegration of survivors is challenging. Shelter home provides facilities to the survivors to recover themselves. It takes long time to recover psychologically for the survivors and they lose the self-interest to return to community. Self-stigmatization of survivors becomes severe when they start living in community. SHISUK is working to change people’s mind about the reintegration of survivors and provide facilities to the survivors to get empowered. However, the empowerment of survivors is not easy due to poverty and stigma imposed by the community people. This study recommends increasing the awareness among people about survivors’ reintegration. SHISUK should be more strategic to ensure sustainable sources of income that will stop the survivor re-trafficking. Government, donor agencies and other NGOs should collaborate with each other to strengthen the anti-trafficking program and facilitate the reintegration of survivors.
  8. 8. 44 Chapter: 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background: Trafficking is a crucial violation of human rights and is considered as a form of slavery all over the world. Women and children, particularly, are in great demand in so far as the different sites of trafficking are concerned. Trafficking is a wide spread business that not only violates women and children’s human rights but also push them towards a vulnerable state with no protection of life. Women and girls are demanded to fulfill the “demand for a vast array of personalized, reproductive services in the entertainment and sex industry, domestic work, and the marriage market” (Sanghera, 1999: 4). Trafficking, which is a human rights concern, creates the situation where survivors experience different forms of violence and exploitation. Every year many men, women and children are trafficked for different purposes; women mostly for prostitution or commercial sex work, and children for the purposes of camel jockeying, domestic labor and so on (Shamim, 2001). The International Labor Organization (ILO)1 estimates that there are 2.4 billion people in the world at any given time are engaged in forced labor and are subjected to exploitation as a result of trafficking (ILO, 2008). There has been a long debate in last few decades about the definition of trafficking as it includes various issues like prostitution, forced work, pornography, sex work, and mutilation of human body. Considering those facts, the United Nations Protocol on Trafficking in Persons, adopted in November 2000 (UN, 2000), has given a definition that is commonly accepted by all institutions. It defines trafficking as: “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, or deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs” Trafficking is generally identified as a cross-border crime, but it also happens within national boundaries. Then it is called internal trafficking (NPA, 2012). Bangladesh is a
  9. 9. 44 country that faces both the problem of internal trafficking and a huge amount of cross border trafficking every year. Following the UN definition, Bangladesh in the present NPA 2012 (National Action Plan for Combating Human Trafficking) presents the following definition of human trafficking given by the The Human Trafficking Deterrence and Suppression Ordinance 2011 as: "the selling, buying, recruitment, receipt, transportation, transfer, or harboring of any person for the purpose of sexual-exploitation, labor-exploitation or any other form of exploitation whether in or outside of Bangladesh by means of (a) threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, or (b) abduction, fraud or deception, or of the abuse of any person's socio-economic, environmental or other types of vulnerability, or (c) of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person" (NPA, 2012: 7).2 Bangladesh is considered as a source country of trafficking. Also, trafficking in women in Bangladesh has become an issue of concern during the last few decades having huge impacts on survivors’ life. Bangladesh government has taken lots of initiatives to combat trafficking; however, the achievement is very limited to control trafficking. NGOs and other agencies also have not succeeded in generating notable changes through the advocacy and intervention programs (BIPSS, 2011). Bangladeshi women who are trafficked, generally go through severe physical and psychological violence’s that hamper their socio-economic well-being and destroy their self esteem, confidence level and potentiality. After coming back, stigmatization excludes women from the mainstream society and survivors come back is not appreciated by the community members and families (Shamim and Kabir, 1997). 1.2 Motivation of the Research: There is a limited number of studies focusing on women trafficked survivors and their reintegration in Bangladesh. Studies available on trafficking mostly are oriented to the causes and consequences of trafficking in Bangladesh. Some studies are conducted to change the national policy and challenge the national measures or laws regarding trafficking. Many NGOs in Bangladesh with the government support have started working on reintegration of trafficked survivors in society (Gazi et. al., 2001; Shamim, 2010; Bangladesh Country Report, 2011). However, concerns have been
  10. 10. 44 developed for the successful reintegration of the returnees and new laws and national measures are drawn to reduce the gap in policy (NPA, 2012). In Bangladesh, specific studies on reintegration of women survivors cannot be found directly; rather the issue of reintegration comes out very briefly in some studies showing the challenges of reintegration due to socio-cultural norms. Bangladesh Country Report (2011) manifests the NGOs intervention program and care service to the survivors’ reintegration. However, it is not possible to measure the effectiveness of anti-trafficking program or skill development program of NGOs reviewing one government report. The experience of survivors in brothel and also in reintegration process should be understood to get a detailed understanding of trafficking situation and also to develop the strategies to combat trafficking. This study is designed to know the survivors situation after returning and their perspectives on the process of reintegration. While I was going through the trafficking literature, I could not find any specific study on the reintegration of trafficked survivors. As a Bangladeshi, I wanted to discover this unnoticed part of trafficking violence and it can be considered as the main motivation to undertake this study. This study will, however, help to understand the experience of survivors on a broader scale and will help to design the strategies to process the reintegration in Bangladesh. 1.3 Objective of the Research: The main objectives of this research are - to identify causes and consequences of trafficking in Bangladesh in migration process and how to control trafficking. It also knows the survivors situation after returning and their perspectives on the process of reintegration. , I wanted to discover this unnoticed part of trafficking violence and it can be considered as the main objective to undertake this study.
  11. 11. 44 1.4 Significance of the study: At present human trafficking is a widely discussed issue nationally and internationally. Many actions have been taken at national, regional and international levels to prevent and combat trafficking in persons especially W&C. In Bangladesh also Government and Non- government organizations are playing extended role in prevention of W&C trafficking and there is no denying the fact that NGOs are the real grass root level actors in prevention of trafficking. NGO involvement is being emphasized by organizations like WB, ADB, UNICEF and a fair amount of donation is being sanctioned to and spent through NGOs directly; though actual outcome is neither noticeable nor satisfactory. This inspires me to do this research. Till now works done on women and children trafficking focused on issues like concept of trafficking, causes and consequences of trafficking, role of government organizations in combating trafficking and so on. No exclusive attempt is taken to identify and evaluate the role of NGOs and its effectiveness in prevention of W&C trafficking. This study attempts to find out actually what role NGOs are playing in prevention and which factors are affecting their activities. CHAPTER 2: UNDERSTANDING AND RESEARCHING TRAFFICKING This chapter is intended to outline the literature on trafficking issues from global, regional and Bangladeshi context, however, the main focus is on Bangladesh. This chapter will help to understand the purpose and reasons for trafficking and its impact on survivors. The last section will depict the studies dealing with reintegration process and the contribution of this study.
  12. 12. 44 2.1Purpose and Factors influence trafficking: Several studies on trafficking in women and children in South Asia have been conducted. Trafficking in women occurred for various purposes but prostitution is one of the main reasons why women are trafficked. Penttinen (2000) says that globalization is not only increasing the marginalization but also the chance to get involved in international prostitution. The factors influence trafficking are categorized in two groups. One is ‘push factor’ that includes the conditions to traffic people from one country to another country. Another group is ‘pull factor’ and it supports the demand of trafficked people. Push factors are known as poverty, low per capita income, lack of employment, lack of education, lack of awareness, family structure, easy divorce, dram of better living, large family size, over population, inadequate, insufficient and corrupted law enforcement authority (, UNICEF, 1997: 10). Push factors work strongly to motivate women to migrate in cities or abroad to change own situation. The same study described the pull factors as urbanization, industrialization, migration, tourism and development of road links. Again, deception, misrepresentation, exploitation, force, coercion are often used as the means for trafficking (Bangladesh Country Report, 2007). These factors create the demand for women and push factors help to supply women all over the world for sexual exploitation. 2.2 Impact of trafficking: Trafficking has a major impact on health and socio-economic life of a survivor. Violence is closely connected to prostitution. In a study of Nepalese women trafficked for prostitution in India’s brothels, Human Rights Watch/Asia documents that "most girls and women start out in these cheap brothels where they are 'broken in' through a process of rapes and beatings"(Human Rights Watch/Asia, 1995: 34). While working as a prostitute, they experience several health impacts like anxiety, insomnia, depression, traumatic stress or disorder that weaken their self confidence and self power to live a normal life. The living condition of prostitutes in brothel leads them to get infected with diseases (see more in chapter 5). Lives in brothels often harm the survivors’ physically and psychologically and damage their reproductive organs and increase the risk of other communicable diseases (TIP, 2004). Moreover, transmission of HIV/AIDS
  13. 13. 44 endangers women’s lives and social status. It works as a major form of violence against women. Women who are rescued and are reintegrated in society often experience social stigma due to their involvement in prostitution. They are ostracized in society and it creates the possibility of survivors to get involved in crime. They are more likely to get involved in smuggling of drug or illegal prostitution (TIP, 2004). The abuse survivors face through the reintegration process complicates their psychological and physical rehabilitation or reintegration in family or society. Trafficking in women for prostitution has various impacts on women’s lives. Specifically, survivors go through health problems, social exclusion due to stigma and economic problems also. 2.3 Studies on reintegration: Reintegration of survivors means amalgamate then within the existing society. This will involve achieving social acceptance and the reclaiming of dignity for women (Gazi et al, 2001). Crawford and Kaufman’s (2008) study on sex trafficking in Nepal states that reintegration program was positive as many survivors went back to families. Many started economic activities and got married also. The reason for this success was the intervention of NGOs that made people aware of trafficking. However, they mentioned that due to the extreme stigma, NGOs reintegration program faced challenges. Income generating activities gave women a foundation to live an independent life but stigma was also persisting. Chaulagai (2009) in his exploratory study of trafficked women’s experiences and perceptions towards their reintegration had pointed out the almost same view in a broader level. His study illustrated that reintegration of trafficked survivors in Nepali community was challenging as prostitution was considered as shameful work. He presented the various understanding of trafficking among different categories of people. He found that the community people and family members stigmatized the survivors. He also pointed out that economic independence can work as a solution for the successful reintegration of survivors.
  14. 14. 44 Bangladesh Country Report (2007) gives an idea about the reintegration under the protection mechanism. It says that care to the trafficked survivors is given to recover them from psychological trauma, to make them feel important, to never leave them without care or attention. The Deputy Commissioners (DCs), Superintendents of Police (SPs), the Officers in Charge of Police Stations (OCs), representatives of NGOs and different committees at various administrative units are involved in the monitoring of rescue, repatriation, rehabilitation and reintegration according to government instruction. Their duty is to monitor the condition of reintegrated survivors and to make report to government. However, the achievement is still not satisfactory. Studies specifically focusing on reintegration of survivors in Bangladeshi society are difficult to find. Gazi, et. al. (2001) in his study about trafficking situation in Bangladesh described the challenges of reintegration of trafficked survivors in family and society. The prevalence of stigma is common due to the cultural and religious norms in Bangladesh. This article illustrates very briefly the issue of reintegration and the focus was mainly on the causes and consequences of trafficking. The reintegration issue has got the spotlight of concern recently and Shamim (2010) in her book, State of Trafficking in Women and Children and their Sexual Exploitation in Bangladesh mentions about the state of trafficking with special focus on reintegration of survivors in Bangladesh. She believes the most affected area now to be researched is the process of reintegration and attention to health risk of survivors. She has been working since the 90s with trafficking issues and this book for the first time discussed the reintegration of survivors clearly and broadly. She outlines the need for effective reintegration programs to motivate survivors psychologically to pursue a normal life. In addition, Bangladesh country report (2011) on trafficking issues has also focused on reintegration program for survivors. In this report, the state of trafficking has come out elaborately with the information about GO-NGO collaboration for effective anti- trafficking program. Moreover, national measures have been described to combat trafficking. The formation of policies also has been depicted with national laws to
  15. 15. 44 understand the prosecution program. This report also presents the activities of leading NGOs for survivors’ reintegration. It has been found that all the NGOs have been working to create the collaboration with Indian police or organizations to rescue women and process their returning to Bangladesh. Moreover, they have referred the survivors to the shelter home where physical and psychological health services were provided. The report outlines the successful reintegration of survivors in family and what have been done to empower them economically. Though the issue of reintegration in Bangladesh is a bit new, it is getting concern from the government level also. 2.4Contribution of the study This study aims to contribute to the literature on trafficking issues by exploring the experience of survivors, which has not come out in any Bangladeshi literature elaborately. To do so, this research also discusses the factors leading to trafficking. Most of the studies concentrate on the state of trafficking with focus on the causes, numbers of trafficked person, infection of STDs or HIV/AIDS or policy implementation. Bangladesh works as the source country and many survivors return to Bangladesh after working as a prostitute in Indian brothel. There is a need to identify their problems of rehabilitation or reintegration in society. The literature is not good enough to understand their experiences in brothel or in Bangladeshi shelter home after being rescued or after reintegration within family. This research intends to add knowledge about these overlooked issues to understand their needs with the help of social theories applicable to explain their life experiences.
  16. 16. 44 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the guideline or system of methods used to conduct the research and methods are the technique to accomplish the collection of information. I have followed a qualitative research methodology to conduct my study as qualitative research investigates the reasons behind the problem. According to Denzin and Lincoln (1994), qualitative research interprets the phenomena in their natural setting something which gives a sense of the situation or context of problem. Patton (2002) defined qualitative research as a process to understand the interactions to find out the in depth reasons of the issues that informants bring in a particular situation. In this chapter, firstly, I will discuss the methods of data collection, procedures of collecting data, secondly, the ethical issues and challenges and at last the data analysis process. 3.1 Study settings This study is a purposive study and I have focused on the survivors experience and the challenges they face in their reintegration. I also tried to find some background information about trafficking and the current state of trafficking. My initial idea was to do research with two NGOs who are working with survivor’s reintegration. Unfortunately I could not get access to more than one of these NGOs and I, thus, ended up working only with SHISUK . I also visited one more organization; the Centre for Women and Children Studies 5 to get insights into the media coverage and talk to experts (Media coverage here means the reports published in newspapers during the last few years Center for Women and Children studies (CWCS) has filed up all news serially according to year and month). Working with SHISUK was a good experience as they responded positively after my application urging for their help. I applied to the President of SHISUK stating my research area, prospects of my study and ethical issues that I would pay attention to. I also submitted one recommendation letter from my supervisor as a requirement of SHISUK. They called me after two days and informed me that my application had been processed with permission. I went to the office the very next day and
  17. 17. 44 started working. I had to describe my project plan to all staff members individually who helped to collect data. The coordinator of Dhaka office told the shelter in charge and reintegration officer to select the survivors and give me the necessary information. Due to some rules and regulations, I could not collect their publications, only the numbers of women they have rescued in last few years. I wanted to not only find out women’s experience or challenges but also the current state of trafficking. Through different methods I collected information from various groups to understand the current state of the problem and activities going on to reintegrate the survivors. 3.2 Sources of data This study followed a qualitative approach to collect the data for both primary and secondary sources. Target groups of primary sources of information I interviewed the following people to get primary information and I also conducted focus group discussion among the community people. Survivors were the main informants to understand the experience of trafficking and rest of the people helped to discover the reintegration process of survivors. i. Trafficked survivors who were rescued by SHISUK and are staying in shelter home. ii. Trafficked survivors who are living with family or outside the family. iii. Family members of survivors. iv. SHISUK staff. v. Shelter home in-charge of Dhaka shelter home vi. One lawyer vii. Community people viii. One expert working with trafficking issues. Secondary sources of information Secondary sources for this study were collected in the form of books, reports, research studies, newspaper articles, document available in the internet, government country reports, and NGOs newsletters. To get updated information about the trafficking situation in Bangladesh, I have collected newspaper reports on missing women, kidnapped women and trafficked women of last few years. I have also collected twenty case studies from SHISUK and Centre for women and children studies files as I could interview only 12 survivors. I wanted to understand the facts behind trafficking and get the idea of ways to reintegration. I have collected these
  18. 18. 44 cases from secondary sources to get a more clear idea about the background information; however, I did not use those cases in my research. 3.3 Methods of data collection Qualitative approach which is used in social science research gives knowledge about human being’s experience, attitudes, motivation, behavior, in a particular context. Research methods are the techniques to collect data to fulfill the research objective. To collect the information, in-depth interview, focus group discussion and case study methods help a lot with descriptive understandings of the problems. 3.3.1 In-depth interview: Kvale (1996) stated “The research interview is an interpersonal situation, a conversation between two partners about a theme of mutual interest” (p. 125). He also stated that interview is a form of human interaction which may develop the knowledge of both researcher and informants about the research subject and build an environment of trust. Millar and Crabtree (1999) described that when using qualitative interviews, the research questions are designed for gathering data from a relatively homogenous group who live in same context and share experiences. In my study, in depth interview method was one of the key methods to find out the experience and challenges towards the survivors reintegration. This study sought detailed information about survivor’s background, what they have gone through and how they are adjusting with family, society members after coming back. In depth interview served my purpose to elicit the information that I needed to conduct this study. I interviewed 12 survivors who were trafficked to different countries and came back to Bangladesh with the help of SHISUK. These survivors were rescued by NGOs and human rights organizations which communicated with SHISUK to help them return to Bangladesh. SHISUK helped me a lot to approach these women and interview them. I noted down some general information about them, (age, education, marital status) with their consent and then moved on to discuss other topics with them. Each interview lasted for almost one hour or more. I have interviewed only those survivors who were rescued from brothel and were involved in prostitution. The following table gives the idea about the survivors’ background – 3.3.2Focus group discussion: The focus group method can be understood as a flexible discussion with a group of people gathered together for the objective of study which is guided by the researcher. It is also known as a group discussion as it addresses the group rather concentrating on specific members (Krueger, 1988). With the help of SHISUK staff, I had conducted two focus group discussions in two places. I interviewed men and women separately and each group was consisted of six persons.
  19. 19. 44 The final stage is the process of identifying the core category that connects with other categories, exploring similarities and relationships between categories. Experience of survivors in brothel, impact on self, role of SHISUK and challenges to their reintegration are some examples of selective coding in this study. 3.4 Sample size A total number of 50 people were taken as respondents. Among them, persons to be interviewed were advocate, Police inspector, Executive director and program officer of ACD and local elites. In this category population at risk, victims of trafficking and local people were included. Data was collected from them using questionnaire. Sample population at a glance is given below: Category Respondent Technique used 1 Victims Questionnaire & Interview 2 Advocate Interview 3 NGO personnel at study area Questionnaire 3.5 Data Analysis Plan: The collected quantitative data has been processed and analyzed using statistical techniques and Microsoft excel application. Simple mathematical tools like tabulation, percentage, frequency has been used. This study also used some charts, graphs to present data in a graphic manner. A mixed approach of qualitative and quantitative analysis has been used to interpret the data. Qualitative findings have been narrated and used to explain the significance of general findings got through quantitative method. As regards to content analysis principle of authenticity and objectivity is maintained. 3.6 Ours role as researcher: We were really careful about my position and tried to reduce the gap between us and informants. I was there to do my academic research and my relationship with NGO staffs was quite formal. I tried to respect Shisuk regulations and faith of the workers and did not show my extreme curiosity about their work. Bangladesh is a Muslim country and in villages maintaining dress code is really
  20. 20. 44 important to get respect and honor. Our friendliness, language and behavior helped me a lot to communicate with the survivors properly. CHAPTER- 4 TRAFFICKING SCENARIO IN BANGLADESH: AN OVERVIEW Human trafficking is a 'social evil' that seems to be growing at an alarming rate throughout the world. This practice results in unimaginable human suffering and represents one of the most important human rights violations of the time, resulting in a form of 'Modern Slavery'. It is a global problem now. For Bangladesh, this condition is more acute (Chowdhury, 2004). Countries all over the world are making continuous efforts to eliminate trafficking. Despite this, human trafficking is expanding in an alarming rate. The Bengali equivalent of the word trafficking is pachar. It has a mild connotation, which means illegal transfer from one place to another. Trafficking, which is a serious problem and is considered a violation of human rights, is yet to be internalized emotionally by society at large in Bangladesh and also in other South Asian countries. The term itself does not capture the total implications for an adolescent girl to be abducted and taken to a brothel; threatened, beaten, and raped; and forced to submit to having sex with men, seven days a week, for several years until she eventually becomes ill which may sometime result in death (Hoque,2010). 4.1 Beginning of Trafficking Trafficking is not a crime starts suddenly. It has a year long old history. Till mid 20th century it was more or less a silent feature of crime. In post 2nd World War period because of extreme human rights violation and exploitation of human dignity, movements in favour of protecting human rights started. Trafficking in Persons as a crime against humanity got global acceptance at that time. Gradually UN and other organizations declare fight against it. After passing the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, 2ooo (amended in 2003) by US Congress, combat trafficking in persons took a new turn all over the world. Bangladesh like other countries has a dirty history of trafficking. Slavery, one consequence of trafficking, is a matter of dark period of colonial history. Selling and
  21. 21. 44 buying of human beings for slavery and bonded labour is not a very old phenomenon. In the 18th and 19th century slaves were imported to Bengal from Africa, Arabia, Malaya, China, Arakan and Nepal. Today the pattern of slavery of previous century has been changed but remains in society in a broader and more clandestine range. A. Internal Trafficking: Bangladeshi children and adults are trafficked internally for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic servitude, and forced and bonded labour, including forced begging. In some instances, children are sold into bondage by their parents, while others are induced into labour or commercial sexual exploitation through fraud and physical coercion. Girls and boys as young as eight years old are subjected to forced prostitution within the country, living in slave-like conditions in secluded environments. Trafficking occurs throughout the country, and the vulnerable poor are trafficked from poorer rural regions to cities. B. International Trafficking: Internationally, women and children from Bangladesh are trafficked to India and Pakistan for commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. Some Rohingyan refugees from Burma have been subjected to human trafficking in Bangladesh. Many brothel owners and pimps coerce Bangladeshi girls to take steroids to make them more attractive to clients, with devastating side effects; the drug is reported to be used by 90 percent of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 35 in Bangladeshi brothels. In 2012, nine South African labour-trafficking victims were found in Bangladesh. 4.2Very recent report on trafficking: Trafficking is the most crucial of all forms of violence against W&C. Very recent news collected here gives an alarming overview of W&C trafficking situation in Bangladesh. These clippings show the regularity of the phenomenon. Victims are rescued in these incidents and reported in media. Very few news are picked up here; news on W&C rescued or trafficked are common in daily newspapers. Monthly Status of Human Trafficking Cases 2014 Period No. of Cases Recorded No of Victims Trafficked No of Victims Recovered Rehabilitation of Recovered Victims Male Female Child Male Female Child Parents NGO Govt. Safe
  22. 22. 44 Home January 14 23 183 10 3 181 4 2 181 0 0 February.14 25 162 31 29 162 26 24 212 0 0 March.14 33 84 18 11 80 7 7 94 0 0 Total 81 429 59 43 423 37 33 396 0 0 Source: Human Trafficking Call, Police Headquarters. 4.3 Process, causes and consequences of Trafficking: In South Asia, Bangladesh and Nepal are treated as the source countries and India as the largest destination one. Geographically Bangladesh is surrounded by India on north, west and north east. Its 4222km land border out of total 4510km is with India. It makes Bangladeshi easy prey to trafficking. South Asia, suffering from severe socio-economic inequalities and weak human development indicators is home to the world’s second largest migrant population. Migration of people especially women and children in search of better economic options is often being capitalized on by the traffickers which is increasingly becoming a well- organized lucrative business. Council of Europe states that trafficking has reached epidemic proportions over the past decade with a global annual market of about $42.5 billion. Poverty and unemployment along with a demand for cheap labour in Bangladesh imply that a large number of people are still vulnerable and fall prey to traffickers who use the promises of jobs and marriage to entice the victims (Osmany, 2008). W&C are trafficked out of Bangladesh because of extreme poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, floods, cyclones, landlessness and demand for dowry according to various studies. 3rd phase Destination Destination India, Pakistan, S.Arabia, Dubai Middle East Consequences Prostitution, Rape, slavery, bonded labor, Begging concubine, Organ business, Smuggling, 2 nd phase-Transit Traffickers in border 1st phase Recruitment Traffickers in locality Victim’s parents
  23. 23. 44 Chapter: 5 DATA ANALYSIS This chapter gives a systematic discussion of collected data and an analysis of those data keeping in view research question and objective of the research. At the outset a very brief profile of the study area and respondent population is given as it is needed for validation and acceptance of data. Then relevant data with analysis is presented thoroughly. Questionnaire was in two categories. Some questions were common for all respondents and rest of them was made according to category of respondent. 5.1. Personal FACTOR To verify whether socio-economic factors like poverty, unemployment illiteracy are at all relevant to W&C trafficking in Bangladesh and whether these are considered by NGOs in performing Prevention activities- following data have been collected. 5.1.1. Age at the time of being trafficked: Age is a prime factor of trafficking. Data shows that trafficked person were within the age range of 6 to 30. Age range 16 to 30 seems most vulnerable within which 33.33% women became victims and 25% became victims within the age range of 11 to 15. Those who were trafficked fall within age range of 06 to 30. So people within this age range are most vulnerable to trafficking. Age range N % Impacts Socio-economic effect Psychological effect Effect on health (STD/ HIV/AIDS) Causes Natural disaster, Dowry Illiteracy Domestic conflict Gender Discrimination Proposals Promise of Marriage Money to parents Kidnapping Hope of better
  24. 24. 44 6 – 10 2 16.67% 11 – 15 3 25% 16 – 20 4 33.33% 21 – 25 2 16.67% 26- 30 1 8.33% 31-35 0 0% Table 5.2: Age of victims at the time of being trafficked (n=12) 5.1.2. Income before trafficked: 5.1.3 Marital status at the time of being trafficked: In comparison to married or single person are more vulnerable especially women abandoned by husband and divorcee. In total more than 66% single women became prey to trafficking whereas only 16.67% of each married and children became victims. It is natural in rural areas that divorcee and abandoned women lack guardian and live in bad economic and social condition. Traffickers take advantage of this. Married 2 16.67%
  25. 25. 44 Unmarried Divorcee Widow 2 3 0 16.67% 25% 0%Other Child 2 16.67% Table 5.3: Marital status at the time of being trafficked (n=12) 5.1.4 working skilled of Victims: 5.1.5 Profession (Before being trafficked): Occupation of family members indicates socio-economic condition of the family. Here for respondents, who were unmarried or detached from husband, occupation of parents were taken into consideration. Those who were married for them occupation of husband was taken into consideration. Hence, 44% respondent’s fathers are in agriculture. It is the largest one. 28% are day labor. On the other hand, 41.67% of their mothers are housewives. Rest of them is engaged in very low paid job like house maid, sewing and day labour. Out of 26 respondents 8 were married and three of them said their husbands were businessmen. Among three, two were trafficked by their husband. When asked what type of business their husband did, they said they did not know. The superintendent of ACD shelter home said that their husbands worked as middleman.
  26. 26. 44 Father’s Occupation n % Mother’s Occupation n % Husband’s occupation n % Agriculture 8 44% Housewife 8 44% Agriculture 2 29% Rickshaw/Van 2 11% Maid servant 4 22% Rickshaw/Van 1 14% Day labor 5 28% Sewing 3 17% Day labor 2 29% Shop keeper 1 8% Day labor 2 11% Shop keeper 0 0% Father detached/late 2 17% Late 1 8% Business 3 37.5% 5.1.6 Financial compensation: 5.1.7 Financial Loss due to trafficking:
  27. 27. 44 5.2 Social factor: 5.2.1 Monthly income of the family: Monthly family income of 30% respondents is less than 5000. Within 5000 to 10000 range fall 40% family. Only 20% family’s income is within 10000-15000 and only 10% exceeds 15000. It indicates poor economic condition of the areas. Those who were trafficked were also from very poor family. One victim said that she was sold by her brother and nobody bothered as her family hardly any income and the trafficker promised to give money regularly.
  28. 28. 44 5.2.2. Educational qualification: Education is important in conscience building. Those who are illiterate become easy target of traffickers. Data shows 10% of male and female are illiterate. Only 25% people crossed the primary level and 40% secondary level. Headmaster of a primary school said that female enrollment is not satisfactory in the schools; recently those who could pass primary entered to secondary because of government stipend for female students at secondary level.
  29. 29. 44 5.2.3 Trafficking related to social class:
  30. 30. 44 5.2.4 Financial help: Loan from government and non-government organizations now play a great role in reducing poverty. It also helps in empowering women socially and economically. In reply to the question whether they get financial help or loan and if yes from where, 58.33% said that they had not get any financial help. Government safety net programs cover only 17% and 25% has accessed loan from NGOs. People of Char and border areas are mostly deprived of any financial help or loan. Besides because of poverty those who took NGO loan could not utilize it in initiating income generation. 5.2.5 Idea about Govt. assistance:
  31. 31. 44 5.2.5 Dowry in marriage: In Bangladesh dowry is a persistent social problem which causes much vulnerability to women. Traffickers take advantage of it. 92% respondent said that provision of dowry is there and it is almost impossible to get girls married without dowry. Data presented above indicates poverty, illiteracy and vulnerability act as factors behind trafficking. This finding is supported by the following data: 5.2.6 Awareness arising organization:
  32. 32. 44 5.2.7Proposal given by traffickers: In respond to the question -“What type of proposal was given and why they agreed?” 33.33% of victims said that proposal of job was given. Job was extremely needed for them. Similarly, 33.33 percent of respondent said as there was no demand of dowry so their parents agreed for marriage. Later on their husbands sold them or took them outside the country and handed over to brothels. Sl Proposal N % Why agreed 1. Job 4 33.33% Poverty, Job needed 2. Kidnapped 2 16.66% By force 3. Marriage 4 33.33% No demand of dowry; Husband sold after marriage 4. Better job 1 8.33% More salary 5. Took to travel 1 8.33% Trafficker was known Table 5.5: Proposal given by traffickers Respondents: victims only 5.2.8 Types of incidents encountered after being trafficked: 1. Physical and mental torture 2. Unsafe work environment 3. Unsuitable place to dwell 4. Job getting according to contract 5. No payment 6. Cannot move independently 7. Forced labor 8. Hostage 9. Threat
  33. 33. 44 5.2.8 Origin and Destination of trafficking: 5.3 Legal service: Legal service is provided accordingly under this act: • Recruiting agency act- 2002 • Migration act -2002 • Emigration ordinance-1982 • Foreign employment and emigration act -2012 • Overseas employment act -2013
  34. 34. 44 5.3.1 Idea about trafficking related law: 5.4 Compensation and punishment:
  35. 35. 44
  36. 36. 44 5.5 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES Bangladesh has taken the problem of human trafficking seriously. The Constitution of Bangladesh mandates the establishment of a society based on the rule of law, justice, and the respect for human dignity and the worth of all persons. The Constitution bans forced and bonded labour (Article 34), imposes a duty on the state to prevent and suppress the prostitution of human beings, and guarantees a number of fundamental human rights (Articles 27-44).6 The government of Bangladesh has been implementing a series of activities to combat trafficking. As a result of the effectiveness of all committees and the motivational, preventive and awareness-building activities against human trafficking, Bangladesh has achieved commendable success in combating trafficking in the years 2008-11 — successes which are indeed based on earlier successes. A major anti-trafficking initiative by the government is the drafting of the new anti-trafficking statute, which has recently culminated in the enactment of the Human Trafficking Deterrence a n d Suppression Ordinance of 2011, an overview of which follows below. Before that, the Government enacted the Domestic Violence (Protection and Prevention) Act of 2010 to address the problem of violence against women. Notably on 13 July 2011 the government has in the meantime ratified the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 2000. Bangladesh has also recently ratified another ancillary international instrument, namely, the UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 1990. Ratification of this Convention is sure to have a positive impact on Bangladesh’s efforts to prevent and Combat human trafficking. Further, the process for the ratification of the most notable anti- trafficking instrument, the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons 2000 (Palermo Protocol) is currently underway. The government has also adopted three major national polices — the Policy for the Advancement of Women of 2011, the Child Labor Elimination Policy of 2010 and the Child Rights Policy of 2011 — all of which will have strong impacts on anti-trafficking measures generally. Specially, the Women’s Policy of 2011 and the Child Rights Policy of 2011 categorically spell out the government’s commitment to eradicate trafficking in women and children. Other noteworthy anti-trafficking initiatives and achievements of the government and other implementing partners are: A. Setting up of National and District Committees Anti-trafficking activities in Bangladesh have received a major boost with the formation of an interministerial committee at the national level headed by the Secretary of the Ministry
  37. 37. 44 of Home Affairs (MoHA) and committees in each District headed by Deputy Commissioners to monitor matters at district levels. Also, there are anti-trafficking committees at the upazilla (sub- districts) and Union levels. B. Setting up of Monitoring Cells: Another major device was the setting up of a monitoring c e l l at the Police Headquarters to monitor anti-trafficking actions, specifically the prosecution of human trafficking. Initially, the Cell focused on trafficking in women and children, and now its terms of reference include measures against all forms of human trafficking, including the prevention of trafficking, rescue and rehabilitation of trafficked persons and day-to-day development of the criminal cases related to human trafficking. C. Continued Awareness-Raising Programmes The Government of Bangladesh has sponsored awareness-raising activities at national and district levels and a series of specialist trainings imparted to government officials, police officials (including investigators and immigration officers), lawyers, judges, social service officials, and public prosecutors. D. Taskforce for Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation and Integration (RRRI) of Trafficked Women and Children A Taskforce for the rescue, recovery, repatri at ion and reintegration of children and women victims/ survivors of trafficking has been established at the MoHA. The initial mandate of the Taskforce — to work for the rescue, recovery, repatriation, and integration of child victims of trafficking — has been extended to cover victims of all types of human trafficking. E. Standard Operating Procedure for Repatriation of Trafficked Child Victims between Bangladesh and India The Ministry of Home Affairs and UNICEF have jointly developed a Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) to be followed by law enforcement agencies, development practitioners or rights activists receiving and sending child victims. This SOP provides for eight different forms or information sheets which are to be used in the identification of child victims and their rescue, repatriation and integration. Broadly, the SOP provides for a normative and practical framework for the identification and rescue of victims, for the entry of data regarding their particulars, for placement of victims and the collection of information, for sharing of information among the taskforces, administrative processes, permission for repatriation, physical repatriation itself, and the reception of the repatriated victims. Also, a website has been designed and put in place for the activities of the RRRI Taskforce.
  38. 38. 44 F. Reporting Trafficking Situation Annually Every year, a country report is prepared and published by the MoHA, which details actions by the governmental, non-governmental and intergovernmental implementing organizations on the prevention of human trafficking and the protection of its victims, including the successes made so far. G. Vigilant Task Force at the Ministry of Expatriate Welfare and Overseas Employment (MoEWOE) This Taskforce was established to monitor the activities of recruiting agencies so that irregular/fraudulent recruiting for overseas employment may be stopped. This institutional device is expected to check and reduce human trafficking for labour under the garb of migration. H. Legal Reforms A number of efforts for the reform of the legal framework are currently underway. The Ministry of Expatriate Welfare and Overseas Employment is currently revising the Emigration Ordinance 1982 to make it more effective against fraudulent and criminal recruitment of people for the purpose of labour. MoHA is also currently working to revise the laws relating to immigration into Bangladesh. These legal interventions are expected to further consolidate the legal tools available in the fight against trafficking. I. Increased Prosecution/Convictions and a Criminal Database During the past several years, the number of arrests, prosecutions, and convictions of traffickers has increased. This may be attributed, among other factors, to the consistent monitoring of the progress of the most serious criminal cases of trafficking. Also, the Police Authority has developed a criminal database which is based on integrated software with information about crimes, prosecution, and criminals and with additional information on trafficked victims. J. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for the Investigation of Crimes An SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) for the investigation of trafficking cases has been put into effect. The SOP is expected to help the investigators effectively investigate crimes.
  39. 39. 44 Chapter:6 CONCLUSION AND IDEAS FOR FUTURE APPROACHES 6.1 CONCLUSION The research was aimed at gathering information on human trafficking. The study concentrated on prevention of W&C trafficking. It talks about prevention measures taken and tries to highlight factors which have negative or positive implications on prevention activities. For prevention, NGOs are involved in mass awareness raising, motivational and sensitization programs. Their activities are not fully successful in bringing intended results as it is not possible by any individual organization to solve a worldwide social problem like trafficking. NGOs have their inefficiency in managing prevention activities. Besides poor socio-economic condition, lack of coordination and collaboration among stakeholders, weak implementation of policy and legal framework, absence of anti-trafficking act further affect prevention initiatives. However, what is achieved so far is not only because of NGOs alone. Government’s indirect involvement through poverty reduction and safety net programs helps in bringing the achievement. Because of international pressure and threat of withholding grants and loans in deteriorated trafficking condition, now government is also trying to reduce trafficking and focus is mainly on prosecution and rehabilitation. Prevention is a bit overlooked. Although prevention is the most long-term avenue for reducing or eliminating human trafficking, it is the least employed tactic. 6.2 IDEAS FOR FUTURE APPROACHES With this thought in mind, for effective prevention activities some implications derived from the study are given below: 6.2.1 for NGOs I Local level institution building: To prevent W&C t r a f f i c k i n g N G O s apply community d e v e l o p m e n t a n d i n v o l v e m e n t approaches. To accomplish the community approach NGOs need local level institution building. It is not possible by only employee of NGOs to go to people one by one and talk about trafficking. Rather involving local people especially teachers, imams, youth, cultural groups and social worker, a local arrangement can be established which will work as a centre of sharing and decision making at village level with respect to awareness
  40. 40. 44 raising and developmental activities. Youth is the power to change. So Youths may be organized to fight against the evil. Local cultural groups of youths may be used for awareness rising as they are most accepted to mass people having same identity. Vigilance team of young boys and girls can be made to collect information on trafficking. II Networking among NGOs Networking among NGOs working in the same territory is essential. If there is information sharing and knowledge of each other’s working then NGOs working on prevention of trafficking can motivate NGOs working in income generation to do work in most traffic prone areas for population at risk of trafficking. Moreover, NGOs may jointly do advocacy for policy direction and cooperation indicating problems and prospects. III Improvement of Resource Management and Initiation of Resource generation: NGOs have weakness in financial management. Resource constraint is focused as a problem by NGOs so inefficient management of it makes it more acute. Thoughts may be given on re- organization of regional and local offices, placing of staffs, program arrangement schedule and many others to minimize or utilize resource properly. NGOs should take self-initiated fund raising move to reduce its donor dependency. They should acquire al least ability to run any project at its awaiting period for extension or grant of fund. IV Improvement of Institutional Capacity Institutional capacity is basic to attain success. If the internal mechanism of an institution loses its spirit and objective then the existence of the institution is threatened. Improvement of this capacity is a continuous process. Trafficking is such a social malady that only routine job of employees is not enough to fight it. It requires humanistic approach. So, continuous training and motivation is needed for employees to work properly. Monitoring and supervision are also very good mechanisms to maintain quality. So that should be done in real sense not for show off only.
  41. 41. 44 6.2.2 for Integrated Approach I Improvement of socio-economic condition For sustainable achievement in anti trafficking activities, improvement of socio economic condition meaning eradication of poverty, illiteracy, gender discrimination and vulnerability (push factors of trafficking) is the first requirement. Poverty and lack of economic opportunity make W&C potential victims of trafficking. The problem is deeply rooted in the riddle of poverty and culture. So, alternative livelihood options are to be created. Self employment through credit program is to be taken as a part of prevention. Vocational and technical training along with scope of using that training is to be prioritized. Government’s Social Safety Net programs have to be strengthened. Traffic prone areas should be identified and covered by these programs. Help of NGOs can be taken to identify vulnerable population and covered by safety net programs leaving political influence and corruption. II Empowerment of Women: Women empowerment is a worthy strategy to eradicate not only threats of trafficking but also all type of violence against women. Women will never get rid of violence as long as they are financially dependent on male and are driven by male. Women empowerment tools include elimination of gender discriminating laws, access to education, scope of income generation, power to take own decision. Government took initiatives like education to girl child for free, vocational training and so on. NGOs also work through micro credit, help for income generation etc. All these initiatives are good in intention but there are problem in actualization. Besides, these are less than necessary. So GO-NGO integrated approach may be taken. III Strengthen Legal Framework: The main hindrance in prevention of trafficking is weak legal framework and more weak utilization. An exclusive law on human trafficking is the demand of all concerned. Specific definition of human trafficking, rigorous punishment, witness protection and role of different agencies should be incorporated clearly. IV Policy to monitor and manipulate NGOs At present NGOs are the main grass root level actors working on prevention. Findings of the study show that some areas are over populated by NGOs working on the same issue and some areas are not at all attained by any. NGOs choose working area by their own and sometimes driven by financial gain and benefit only. So Government intervention is
  42. 42. 44 essential. Government should make a work plan to take the whole country under anti- trafficking activities. Provision of taking approval of government to work in any place by NGOs should be made mandatory. Moreover, NGOs have experience and institutional setup for running anti trafficking activities. So government may take benefit of it. Including NGOs as medium of anti trafficking policy implementing organization, Government may provide grant or loan. It will reduce government cost of initiating activity. Government can also implement some safety net programs through these NGOs which will be effective for population at risk of trafficking. V Effective GO-NGO Collaboration: To eradicate a problem like trafficking by any individual institution is not possible. It requires a concerted effort. All measures of prevention require government intervention. Government’s policy and institutional support can be valuable contribution from the part of government. Trafficking is a transnational issue. It requires regional and inter- national approach and collaboration. Otherwise it is tough for NGOs to provide help to victims. Cooperation and coordination at local level will make the anti trafficking activity more vigilant. It will ease information sharing. Go-NGO as a body may take collaborative effort to eradicate trafficking of human beings. Government can support NGOs by providing some grants or loans and elements of awareness raising programs and scope of broadcasting their campaigns in radio and television for free. Government can also take initiatives to establish national trafficking information cell. Education material on human trafficking in school curricula is to be included to aware young girls and children. Capacity building is another important component of prevention. Now some NGOs provide a general training to LEA and LEB in a very small scale. Government can assist them by providing categorized training materials. Government in collaboration with NGOs can make comprehensive capacity building program for officials intended to ensure training to all. Trafficking of W&C is a painful reality now. Government as well as NGOs is working to reduce trafficking. Government’s direct involvement in prevention activities is low. Mainly a number of NGOs are working on it. NGOs working on it bring some changes in the society though it is not satisfactory. Concerted effort of Government and NGOs is required to face the alarming situation in Bangladesh now.
  43. 43. 44 REFERENCES: • www.ahsaniamission.org.bd • www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Child_Abuse_Exploitation_and_Trafficking. • mha.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Country_Report_2012 • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_trafficking_in_Bangladesh • www.cdrb.org/journal • www.shisuk.org/ • mha.gov.bd/wp-content • Human rights in Bangladesh • antitraffickingcell.gov.bd • www.unafei.or.jp/english • www.thedailystar.net • www.unodc.org/unodc/human-trafficking/index. • www.no-trafficking.org/resources_int_tip_laws. • http://www.bmet.gov.bd/

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