ContentWhat is Electronic Waste?Electronic Equipments in E-WasteHow these become E-Waste?Generators of E-WasteWhy E-Waste a problem?Constituents of E-WasteE-Waste DisposalE-Waste in INDIAE-Waste in CHINAWEEE DirectiveWhat should be done?
What is Electronic Waste?It is the term usedto describe old,end-of-life ordiscardedappliances usingelectricity andbattery.
Electronic EquipmentsComputers Mobile Air Phones Conditioner Laptops Telephone IronsDrill Machines Treadmills Printers
How these become E-Waste?Changes and Advancement in technologyChanges in fashion, style, and statusChanging configurationAttractive offers from manufacturersSmall life of equipments
Generators of E-WasteSmall business and House hold.Large businesses,Institutions and Governmentoffices.Equipment manufacturers.
Some examples Cell phone upgrades Digital TV Conversion Software upgrades Cant change the batteryin your iPod Disposable printers
Why E-Waste A Problem?Composed of Hazardous MaterialsProducts are quickly obsolete and discardedElectronic products are difficult to recycleDiscarded electronics are managed badlyMost e-waste goes to LandfillsMost recyclers don’t recycle , they exportPrison recycling : High Tech Chain Gang
Constituents Of E-WasteHazardous materialsValuable materials
Source of e- Constituent Health effectswastes (Hazardous)printed circuit Lead (PB) •Damage toboards, computer nervous systemmonitors and kidney •Affects brain development of children.Chip resistors and Cadmium (CD) •Accumulates insemiconductors kidney and liver. •Causes neural damage.
Relays and Mercury (Hg) Chronic damageswitches, printed to the brain.circuit boards Respiratory and skin disordersMotherboard Beryllium (Be) lung cancerFront panel of Barium (Ba) MuscleCRTs. weakness; Damage to heart, liver and spleen BACK
Valuable MaterialsSource of e- Constituent Useswastes (Valuable)Cable, Housing Plastics InsulationFunnel glass in Lead, gold Metal joining,CRTs, PWB ConnectivityHousing, PWB, Mercury, Zinc Batteries,CRT switchesHousing, CRT, Aluminum, Silver Conductivity,PWB, Copper, iron magnetivityconnectors
Waste Hierarchy refers to the "3 R’s"reduce, reuse and recycle Its aim is to extract maximum benefitsfrom products and togenerate the minimumamount of waste.
E-Waste RecyclingDefinition:-Recycling is defined as theassembling, developing,promoting, or buying ofnew products, which areprepared from wastematerials.
Steps in RecyclingDismantling of E-WasteRemoval of hazardous materials such as PCB, HG, removal of plastic etc. Strong acids are used to remove valuable metalssuch as gold, lead, copper etc.
Methods for recyclingConsumer recyclingDonationTake backExchangeCorporate recycling
Advantages Recycled materials can be used in developingnew equipments Valuable Materials are retrieved Helps environment by avoiding pollution
Land fillingDefinition:-Land fill is alsoknown as dump, is asite for the disposalof waste materials byburial and is theoldest form of wastetreatment.
Disadvantages Metals like mercury, cadmium, lead leaches intothe soil and ground water making them pollutedRequires large amount of spaceIt is not a environmentally sound treatment
IncinerationDefinition:-It is a controlled andcomplete combustionprocess, in which thewaste material is burned inspecially designedincinerators at a hightemperature (900-1000oC). Incinerator
Advantages Disadvantages Reduction of waste Emission of harmfulvolume gases and residues Utilization of energy of Emission of cadmiumcombustible substances and mercury hazardous substancesare converted into lesshazardous substances
Re-UseDefinition:-It constitutes direct useor use after slightmodifications to theoriginal functioningequipment.
Advantages Electronic equipments like computers, cell phonesetc. can be re-used. This method also reduces the volume of e-wastegeneration.no wastage of time and money
E-Waste in INDIA over 2 million e-waste isgenerated every year Harmful techniques likeburning wires arecommon practice in theinformal recycling sectorsin big cities in India.
Recycle Steps in INDIA Manual Dismantling Refining and conditioning Solid waste is deposited in amunicipal landfill.
E-Waste in CHINA In 2004, China discarded 4 million refrigerators 5 million TV sets 5 million washing machines China is receiving 90%e-waste from other countries.
WEEE DirectiveWaste Electrical andElectronic Equipment Directive WEEE Symbol
WEEE Directive introduced in January2007. aims to reduce the amountof electrical and electronicequipment being produced to encourage everyone toreuse, recycle and recover it. WEEE Symbol
WEEE CategoriesLarge household appliancesLighting EquipmentElectric and Electronic ToolsToys, sports EquipmentIT and telecommunications equipmentOffice, Information & Communication EquipmentEntertainment & Consumer ElectronicsMedical devices
Did you know? The average lifespan of computers hasdropped from 6 years in 1997 to just 2 years in2005. Mobile phones have a lifecycle of less thantwo years in developed countries. 183 million computers were sold worldwide in2004 - 11.6 percent more than in 2003.
674 million mobile phones were soldworldwide in 2004 - 30 percent more than in2003. By 2010, there will be 716 million newcomputers in use. There will be 178 million newcomputer users in China, 80 million new users inIndia.
What should be done?Proper laws and policies should be madeAwareness among consumers and manufacturersRecycling should be preferredProducts should be made recyclableMake usage of recycled productsdo not throw away old equipments