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RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT<br />Definition of Marketing Research:  “ Systematic<br />design, collection,...
  If information generated or data collected and analyzed are to be accurate, researcher must have an objective, without e...
Objective is to facilitate the managerial decision making process for all aspect of business: Finance, Marketing, Personal...
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br /><ul><li>Segmentation
 Targeting
 Positioning</li></ul>Marketing Strategy<br />LEVEL  1<br />(Strategic)<br />Information for marketing decisions<br /><ul>...
 Price
 Promotion
 Place</li></ul>Marketing Plan<br />LEVEL  2<br />(Tactical)<br />2<br />suresh<br />
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br />Who constitutes the buyers ?<br />Why do some people b...
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br />What are the responses to various price levels ?<br />...
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br />What channels should be used ?<br />What type of store...
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br />Four stages of decision making process:<br />Identifyi...
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br />Evaluating the course of action:  Objective measuremen...
RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF  RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT            …contd<br />Determining when Research should be conducted:<br />Ti...
STEPS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS <br />Decision making:  Process of resolving a problem or choosing among alternativ...
Research may not be needed at all.
 Information about alternatives is incomplete
Research has to be done.
 Business problem is unclear
Research may be a waste of time, however  can be attractive for decision makers</li></ul>9<br />suresh<br />
STEPS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS                            …contd  <br />Problem discovery<br />Problem discovery <...
STEPS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS                            …contd  <br />Sampling<br />Selection of sample design<b...
Problem discovery<br />Problem definition (statement of research objective) <br />“The formulation of a problem is often m...
RESEARCH DESIGN<br />Research Design<br /><ul><li> Determines the extent of some phenomena in form of numbers
 Focus of research not on numbers but on words and observations</li></ul>Qualitative<br />Research<br />Quantitative<br />...
Exploratory and Descriptive research normally precede Causal research
Eg.  Will buyer purchase TV if a variable/feature incorporated in it? (COMPLETE CERTAINTY)
 Describes characteristics  a population
Determines the answers to who, what, when, where and how  kind of questions
Helps in segment and target the market.
Eg. What are the ratings given to variables? Who gave the ratings? Where (which zone/state) rating was given? (UNCERTAINTY)
 Conducted during initial stage of research process
Clarifies the thought about  research problem
Eg. What are the10 most important variable consumers use to decide while buying TV? (ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY)</li></ul>* Degree...
Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />14<br />suresh<br />Data gathered and r...
 Fact Finding: Eg. Sales, Market share of a product. </li></ul>		                    Population, age, gender (Census data)...
Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />15<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><...
 Internal and Proprietary data: E.g.. Purchase/sales volume of products for a Shopping Mall
Books and Periodicals: E.g.. Journal of Marketing research, Business week, Financial Analyst journal
 Government Sources: E.g.. Census Data (No. of members in family, gender, age etc). Economic data series like GDP, balance...
Regional Publications: E.g.. Publications generated by different banks</li></ul>    Metro political planning agencies of t...
Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />16<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><...
Media Sources: E.g.. TV channel viewership data
Market Share data: Retail sales volume data based on product movement.
Consumer attitude and public opinion research: Syndicated service for report findings from attitude research and opinion poll
Stock Market sources: E.g.. Reports provided by BSE, NSE, moneycontrol.com, </li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory re...
 Moderator (interviewer) and 6-10 participants.
Participants meet at a central location.
Moderator introduces the topic and encourages the group members to discuss.
Often used for concept and refinement . (E.g.. New name or attribute for a product)
Videoconferenced focus group allows managers to send messages to moderator
 Quickly analyzed and less expensive, however small discussion group will rarely be representative sample.</li></li></ul><...
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Research methodology

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  1. 1. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT<br />Definition of Marketing Research: “ Systematic<br />design, collection, record, analysis and reporting of data for aid in making business decisions.”<br /><ul><li>Literally Research means to “search again”. It connotes scientific investigation wherein the researcher takes another, more careful look at the data to discover all that can be known about the subject of study
  2. 2. If information generated or data collected and analyzed are to be accurate, researcher must have an objective, without engaging in a biased attempt to prove preconceived ideas.
  3. 3. Objective is to facilitate the managerial decision making process for all aspect of business: Finance, Marketing, Personal and so on. </li></ul>1<br />suresh<br />
  4. 4. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br /><ul><li>Segmentation
  5. 5. Targeting
  6. 6. Positioning</li></ul>Marketing Strategy<br />LEVEL 1<br />(Strategic)<br />Information for marketing decisions<br /><ul><li> Product
  7. 7. Price
  8. 8. Promotion
  9. 9. Place</li></ul>Marketing Plan<br />LEVEL 2<br />(Tactical)<br />2<br />suresh<br />
  10. 10. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br />Who constitutes the buyers ?<br />Why do some people buy and some don’t?<br />What are the market share of the respective brands?<br />Market & Sales Research<br />From which outlet are the product bought ?<br />What drives a consumer to buy a brand ?<br />Which alternative packaging is most preferred ?<br />What features /attributes of product is important <br />Product Research<br />3<br />suresh<br />
  11. 11. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br />What are the responses to various price levels ?<br />To what extent is sales affected by price?<br />What pricing policy should be adopted for new product introduction ?<br />Price Research<br />Which is the most effective advertising mix ?<br />How successful are discounts coupons, lucky draws ?<br />What advertising theme, appeal, slogan to use ?<br />Promotion(Advertising) Research<br />What product features should be emphasized ?<br />4<br />suresh<br />
  12. 12. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br />What channels should be used ?<br />What type of stores display the product and in what quantity?<br />Where and what volumes should the product be stocked ?<br />Place (Distribution) Research<br />
  13. 13. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br />Four stages of decision making process:<br />Identifying problems or Opportunities: Organization must determine where it wants to go and how it will get there.<br /> E.g.: Develop package for a new brand<br /> Increase the amount of repeat purchasing<br /> Allocate advertising budget geographically. <br />Diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities: Manager need to gain insights about the underlying factors causing the situation<br />Selecting and implementing a course of action: Research is often conducted to obtain specific information that will aid in evaluating the alternatives and in selecting the best course of action<br />6<br />suresh<br />
  14. 14. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br />Evaluating the course of action: Objective measurement and the appraisal of extent to which a given activity, project or program has achieved its objective<br />7<br />suresh<br />
  15. 15. RELEVANCE & SCOPE OF RESEARCH IN MANAGEMENT …contd<br />Determining when Research should be conducted:<br />Time Constraint<br />Availability of Data<br />Nature of decision <br />Benefit v/s cost<br />Is sufficient time available before managerial decision must be made ?<br />Is the information already on hand, inadequate for making the decision ?<br />Is the decision of considerable strategic or tactical importance ?<br />Does the value of the research information exceed the cost of conducting Research ?<br />YES<br />YES<br />YES<br />YES<br />NO<br />NO<br />NO<br />NO<br />Research should not be conducted<br />Conduct Research<br />8<br />suresh<br />
  16. 16. STEPS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS <br />Decision making: Process of resolving a problem or choosing among alternative<br />opportunities . Decision making situation ranges from complete certainty to<br />absolute ambiguity<br />Complete Certainty Uncertainty Absolute Ambiguity<br /><ul><li> Decision maker has all the information and exact nature of business problem.
  17. 17. Research may not be needed at all.
  18. 18. Information about alternatives is incomplete
  19. 19. Research has to be done.
  20. 20. Business problem is unclear
  21. 21. Research may be a waste of time, however can be attractive for decision makers</li></ul>9<br />suresh<br />
  22. 22. STEPS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS …contd <br />Problem discovery<br />Problem discovery <br />and definition<br />Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Experience survey<br />Case study <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />Pilot study<br />Problem definition (statement of research objective) <br />Planning the research <br />design<br />Selection of basic research method <br />Secondary data study<br />Observation <br />Survey<br />Experiment<br />10<br />suresh<br />
  23. 23. STEPS INVOLVED IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS …contd <br />Sampling<br />Selection of sample design<br />Nonprobability sampling<br />Probability sampling<br />Collection of data (fieldwork)<br />Data gathering<br />Editing and coding data<br />Data processing and analysis<br />Data processing and analysis<br />Interpretation of findings<br />Drawing conclusion and <br />preparing report<br />Report<br />11<br />suresh<br />
  24. 24. Problem discovery<br />Problem definition (statement of research objective) <br />“The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution”<br /> - Albert Einstein <br />Introduce new product<br />Design a test market to assess the likely acceptance of the new product<br />Adopt pricing strategy for a new product<br />Assess the potential levels of demand associated with various price levels<br />General statement<br />Specifically identified<br />Develop package for a new product<br />Evaluate effectiveness of alternate package design<br />Allocate advertising budget geographically<br />Determine current level of market penetration in the respective areas<br />12<br />suresh<br />
  25. 25. RESEARCH DESIGN<br />Research Design<br /><ul><li> Determines the extent of some phenomena in form of numbers
  26. 26. Focus of research not on numbers but on words and observations</li></ul>Qualitative<br />Research<br />Quantitative<br />Research<br />Exploratory <br />Research<br />Descriptive <br />Research<br />Causal <br />Research<br /><ul><li> Identifies cause-and-effect relationship among variables. Eg: Influence of price, packaging, advertising on sales.
  27. 27. Exploratory and Descriptive research normally precede Causal research
  28. 28. Eg. Will buyer purchase TV if a variable/feature incorporated in it? (COMPLETE CERTAINTY)
  29. 29. Describes characteristics a population
  30. 30. Determines the answers to who, what, when, where and how kind of questions
  31. 31. Helps in segment and target the market.
  32. 32. Eg. What are the ratings given to variables? Who gave the ratings? Where (which zone/state) rating was given? (UNCERTAINTY)
  33. 33. Conducted during initial stage of research process
  34. 34. Clarifies the thought about research problem
  35. 35. Eg. What are the10 most important variable consumers use to decide while buying TV? (ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY)</li></ul>* Degree of uncertainty of a research problem determines the research methodology<br />13<br />suresh<br />
  36. 36. Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />14<br />suresh<br />Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to the current needs of the <br />researcher. Secondary data are usually historical. <br /><ul><li>Objective for Secondary data:
  37. 37. Fact Finding: Eg. Sales, Market share of a product. </li></ul> Population, age, gender (Census data)<br /><ul><li> Model Building: Specifying relationship between two or more variables. </li></ul> Eg. Used to estimate growth, inflation for financial research<br /> Used to calculate market potential (population X per capita income)<br />
  38. 38. Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />15<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Classification of Secondary data:
  39. 39. Internal and Proprietary data: E.g.. Purchase/sales volume of products for a Shopping Mall
  40. 40. Books and Periodicals: E.g.. Journal of Marketing research, Business week, Financial Analyst journal
  41. 41. Government Sources: E.g.. Census Data (No. of members in family, gender, age etc). Economic data series like GDP, balance of Payment
  42. 42. Regional Publications: E.g.. Publications generated by different banks</li></ul> Metro political planning agencies of the city provides about population, economies, transportation <br />
  43. 43. Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Secondary (historical data)<br />16<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Classification of Secondary data:
  44. 44. Media Sources: E.g.. TV channel viewership data
  45. 45. Market Share data: Retail sales volume data based on product movement.
  46. 46. Consumer attitude and public opinion research: Syndicated service for report findings from attitude research and opinion poll
  47. 47. Stock Market sources: E.g.. Reports provided by BSE, NSE, moneycontrol.com, </li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />17<br />suresh<br />Pilot study generates primary data usually for qualitative analysis. It serve as a<br />guide for the larger study. Include focus group interviews, projective techniques and depth<br />interviews<br /><ul><li>Focus Group Interview (FGD):</li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />18<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Focus Group Interview (FGD):
  48. 48. Moderator (interviewer) and 6-10 participants.
  49. 49. Participants meet at a central location.
  50. 50. Moderator introduces the topic and encourages the group members to discuss.
  51. 51. Often used for concept and refinement . (E.g.. New name or attribute for a product)
  52. 52. Videoconferenced focus group allows managers to send messages to moderator
  53. 53. Quickly analyzed and less expensive, however small discussion group will rarely be representative sample.</li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />19<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Projective Techniques: Questioning that enable to “project” belief and feeling of a person onto a third party, which otherwise is not expressed. Objective is to discover an individual’s attitude, motivation.
  54. 54. Word Association: Frequently used in testing potential brand names.
  55. 55. Sentence Completion: Respondents are required to complete a number of partial statements. E.g.:</li></ul>High salary will help me purchasing ___________________ <br />Brand A is better than B because_____________________<br />
  56. 56. Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />20<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Third-Person Techniques:
  57. 57. Respondents are asked why a third person (e.g. a neighbor) does what he does or thinks what he thinks about a brand, company or a concept. (Providing a mask is a basic idea)
  58. 58. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): Consist of pictures or cartoon in which the Research topic is centre of attention</li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />21<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br />Respondent to tell what's happening in the picture and what the people might do next<br />
  59. 59. Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />22<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br />Or respondent to construct a story looking at series of pictures with continuity<br />
  60. 60. Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Pilot study<br />23<br />suresh<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Depth interview:
  61. 61. Interview is extensive, unstructured and undisguised (not direct questions).
  62. 62. Most of the questions are open ended
  63. 63. Respondent is free to respond the way he/she likes
  64. 64. Interpretation of such data is highly subjective</li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Experience survey<br />24<br />suresh<br /><ul><li> Issues and ideas are discussed with those having experience in subject on which Research is being done.
  65. 65. Interview is done with small no. of knowledgeable people.
  66. 66. The purpose is to help formulate the problem and clarify the concept.
  67. 67. Exploratory information from an Experience survey is not expected to be conclusive.</li></li></ul><li>Selection of exploratory research technique <br />Case study<br />25<br />suresh<br /><ul><li> Purpose is to obtain information from one or a few situation that are similar to researcher’s problem situation. </li></li></ul><li>Selection of descriptive/<br />causal research<br />Survey<br />26<br />suresh<br />Defined as a method of gathering primary data based on communication with<br />representative sample. Most surveys are descriptive but they can be also be designed to<br />provide causal explanation<br />Ways to carry out a Survey:<br /><ul><li> Door-to-Door Personal Interview: Personal interview conducted at the respondents home or the place of business
  68. 68. Mall Intercept Personal Interview: Personal interview conducted in shopping malls
  69. 69. Telephone Interviews: Contacting respondents by telephone to gather responses to survey questions.
  70. 70. Mail Survey: A self-administered questionnaire sent through the mail to respondent.
  71. 71. Internet Survey: A self-administered questionnaire posted on a web site</li></li></ul><li>Selection of descriptive/<br />causal research<br />Survey<br />suresh<br />Mall Intercept PI<br />Mail Survey<br />Door to Door PI<br />Telephone Interview<br />Interview Survey<br />Slow<br />Speed of data collection<br />Instantaneous<br />Fast<br />Very Fast<br />Moderate<br />Moderate<br />Varies<br />Moderate to Low<br />Good<br />Respondent cooperation<br />Excellent<br />Varies<br />Questionnaire length<br />Moderate<br />Moderate to long<br />Moderate<br />Long<br />High<br />High<br />Low<br />Average<br />Possibility of respondent misunderstanding<br />Low<br />None<br />None<br />High<br />Moderate<br />High<br />Degree of interviewer influence on ans.<br />Lowest<br />Low<br />Moderate to high<br />Low to moderate<br />Highest<br />Cost<br />27<br />
  72. 72. Selection of descriptive/<br />causal research<br />Survey<br />28<br />suresh<br />Classification of Survey on Temporal Basis<br />Cross Sectional Studies<br />Longitudinal Studies<br /><ul><li> Data collected at a single point in time.
  73. 73. Various segments of population are sampled.
  74. 74. Relationship among variables are investigated by cross tabulation (Profiling).
  75. 75. Eg. Ad Hoc studies, Usage</li></ul>and Attitude (U & A)<br /> studies.<br /><ul><li> Respondents are questioned at different moments in time
  76. 76. Similar group of people are expected to be in each sample.
  77. 77. Done usually through a panel
  78. 78. Eg. Consumer panel study,</li></ul> Retail panel study<br />
  79. 79. Selection of descriptive/<br />causal research<br />Observation<br />29<br />suresh<br />Business Researchers can observe people, objects, events or other phenomena by<br />assigning the task to human observer or by using machines designed for specific<br />observation tasks.<br />
  80. 80. Selection of descriptive/<br />causal research<br />Observation<br />30<br />suresh<br />Human behavior or action<br />Selection of products from a shelf<br />Verbal behavior<br />Communication of an employee with subordinates and boss<br />Expressive behavior<br />Facial expression, tone of voice while seeing demo of a consumer durable<br />Temporal patterns<br />Time taken to complete a task<br />Physical patterns<br />Footfall recorded in a shopping mall on weekend<br />Verbal and pectoral record<br />Number of illustrations in a text book<br />
  81. 81. Selection of descriptive/<br />causal research<br />Observation<br />31<br />suresh<br /><ul><li>Mechanical Observation:
  82. 82. Television Monitoring: Eg. ‘PeopleMeter’ used to obtain ratings of television program.
  83. 83. Monitoring website traffic: Recording no. of people visiting a particular website
  84. 84. Measuring physiological reactions: Eg:
  85. 85. Eye tracking monitor: Measures unconscious eye movement, used in recording the pattern of a hoarding or print ad being noticed
  86. 86. Voice Pitch analysis: Measures emotional reaction as reflected in physiological changes in persons voice
  87. 87. Optical scanner and bar codes: Used in providing sales information for particular a product</li></li></ul><li>Selection of sample design<br />32<br />suresh<br />Sampling: The process of using a small number of items or part of a large population to<br /> make conclusion about the whole population.<br />Sampling<br />Probability<br />Non Probability<br />Technique in which units of sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience. Types:<br /><ul><li> Quota
  88. 88. Judgment/purposive
  89. 89. Convenience
  90. 90. Snowball</li></ul>Technique in which every member of the population has a known, nonzero probability of selection. Types:<br /><ul><li>Simple random
  91. 91. Systematic
  92. 92. Stratified
  93. 93. Cluster</li></li></ul><li>Selection of sample design<br />Probability<br />33<br />suresh<br /><ul><li>Simple random: Each possible sample has an equal probability of being included in the sample. Each member of sample is assigned a number and sample unit is selected by random method. </li></ul> Eg. Random digit dialing for Telephone interviews or random selection of respondents from census data.<br /><ul><li>Systematic: Elements are selected from population at a uniform interval that is measured in time or order. </li></ul> Eg. Mall Intercept PI conducted every Wednesday in Bigbazaar or 2 houses skipped after every door to door interview. <br />
  94. 94. Selection of sample design<br />Probability<br />34<br />suresh<br /><ul><li> Stratified: Population divided into relatively homogeneous group, called strata. From each stratum, a specified no. of elements corresponding to the proportion of that stratum in the population is selected by simple random sampling. Eg. Out of an entire population of 50,000 of an area, if people from age group 20-24 yrs are 10,000, then after a sample of, say 200 is achieved by simple random sampling, the number people between that age group will be more or less 40.
  95. 95. Cluster: Population is divided into groups or cluster. Eg. Survey to be conducted in North and West.</li></ul>*In Stratified, each group has small variation within itself but wide variation between groups. <br /> There is considerable variation within each group but the groups are similar to each other. <br />
  96. 96. Selection of sample design<br />Non Probability<br />35<br />suresh<br /><ul><li> Quota: Various subgroup in a population are represented by sample to the exact extent that the researcher desires. Eg. Out of an entire population of 50,000 of an area, if people from age group 20-24 yrs are 10,000, then </li></ul> a Quota of 40 people should be achieved in that age group if the sample size is selected as 200.<br />Purpose is to ensure various subgroups in a population are represented<br /> by the sample. Quota sampling have a tendency to include people who are<br /> easily found within the Quota (unlike Stratified in which strata are formed<br /> and people are selected by simple random sampling)<br />
  97. 97. Selection of sample design<br />Non Probability<br />36<br />suresh<br /><ul><li>Judgment/purposive : Experienced researcher selects the sample based on his/her judgment about some characteristics required of the sample member. Eg. For a telecom company study, the proportion of people to be studied for a sample of 1000 are:</li></ul>600 (60%) those who presently use company’s sim card<br />250 (25%) those who have never used company’s sim card<br />150 (15%) those who switched after using company’s sim card<br />The above proportion of sample may be less than fully<br />representative of population<br />
  98. 98. Selection of sample design<br />Non Probability<br />37<br />suresh<br /><ul><li>Convenience : Refers to sampling by obtaining people who are most conveniently available. Eg. News reporters present reviews of a movie from people coming out of theatre, who are presumed to reflect public opinion
  99. 99. Snowball : Sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability method and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents. </li></li></ul><li>Types of question<br />38<br />suresh<br /><ul><li>Open-ended and Closed-ended :</li></ul> What do u like about Surf detergent:<br />Cleaning power<br />Fragrance<br />Dissolve easily<br />Any other (please specify)______________<br /><ul><li> Dichotomous Questions: Two alternatives given to choose </li></ul> Are you a user of Surf detergent?<br />Yes<br />No<br />
  100. 100. Types of question<br />39<br />suresh<br /><ul><li>Multiple Choice : Usually an extension of Dichotomous</li></ul> What do u like about Surf detergent:<br />Cleaning power<br />Fragrance<br />Dissolve easily<br />Any other (please specify)______________<br /><ul><li> Scaling questions (rating/ranking):</li></ul>Rating: Rate the following detergent brands on a scale of 1-10<br />
  101. 101. Types of question<br />40<br />suresh<br /><ul><li> Scaling questions (rating/ranking):</li></ul>Ranking: Rank the following brand on their ability to clean clothes: (1=best, 2=next best etc.)<br />
  102. 102. Scales used in questionnaire<br />41<br />suresh<br />Scales<br />Nominal<br />Ordinal Scale<br />Interval<br />Ratio<br />Variables used to compute statistical measures (avg, std deviation) <br /><ul><li>Eg.</li></ul> 1.Rating given to attributes of products<br /><ul><li>Permissible operation:</li></ul> 1. Mode<br /> 2. Median<br /> 3. Mean<br /> 4. Std deviation<br /><ul><li>Test of Significance:</li></ul> 1. z-test<br /> 2. t-test<br /> 3. F-test <br />Number are only used as labels<br /><ul><li>Eg.</li></ul> 1.Bank Account No.<br /> 2.No. of element in each category<br /><ul><li>Permissible operation:</li></ul> 1. Mode<br /> 2. No. of element in each category<br /><ul><li>Test of Significance:</li></ul> Chi Square<br />All arithmetic operations are possible on a ratios scale. <br /><ul><li>Eg.</li></ul> 1.Age <br /> 2. Income<br /> 3. Weight<br /><ul><li>Permissible operation:</li></ul> 1. Mode<br /> 2. Median<br /> 3. Mean<br /> 4. Std deviation<br /><ul><li>Test of Significance:</li></ul> All<br />Variable have meaningful orders<br /><ul><li>Eg.</li></ul> 1.Ranking of products<br /><ul><li>Permissible operation:</li></ul> 1. Mode<br /> 2. Median<br /> 3. Percentile <br /><ul><li>Test of Significance:</li></ul> 1. Non parametric statistical test<br /> 2. Sign test<br />
  103. 103. CASE<br />42<br />suresh<br />Background<br />Rockledge Corporation shows its presence in various sectors: Steel, Telecom, Banking, and<br />Automobile. The company has decided to diversify its portfolio by getting in Consumer<br />durable sector, beginning with manufacturing of TV.<br />Need<br />Entering in TV industry<br />
  104. 104. CASE<br />43<br />suresh<br />Research Objective<br /><ul><li>Identifying preference and potential demand among various age and income group.
  105. 105. Finding media sources used before buying TV
  106. 106. Determining appropriate price levels for sizes of TV intended to launch: 21inches and 29 inches.
  107. 107. Analyzing competition on various parameters
  108. 108. Identifying aspiration for buying TV</li></li></ul><li>CASE<br />44<br />suresh<br />Research Design<br /><ul><li>Descriptive</li></ul>Sources of Data<br /><ul><li>Primary</li></li></ul><li>CASE<br />45<br />suresh<br />Data Collection<br /><ul><li>Research approach:
  109. 109. Survey Research
  110. 110. Research instrument:
  111. 111. Questionnaire, to collect primary data
  112. 112. Sampling plan:
  113. 113. Sampling unit (Target Population): </li></ul>Male and Female<br />Above 27 years<br />Household income not lesser than 2,00,000 Rs.<br />Owning TV at home <br />Location: Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Bangalore <br />
  114. 114. CASE<br />46<br />suresh<br />Data Collection<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Sampling plan:
  115. 115. Sample size : 3500 (700 in each Metro)
  116. 116. Age Group: 28 to 39 yrs - 1250</li></ul> 40 to 51 yrs - 1250<br /> 58 yrs and above - 1000<br /><ul><li>Income Group: 2,00,000 R s to 4,00,000 Rs - 750</li></ul> 4,10,000 Rs to 6,00,000 Rs - 1250<br /> 6,10,000 and above - 1500 <br />
  117. 117. CASE<br />47<br />suresh<br />Data Collection<br /> …contd <br /><ul><li>Sampling plan:
  118. 118. Sampling procedure: Non Probability (Judgment/purposive)
  119. 119. Contact Method: Door to door personal interview</li></li></ul><li>CASE<br />48<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Identifying potential demand among various age group.</li></ul>Using Chi Square concept, at 5% significance level, there is a significant difference <br />among proportion and thus age group and purchase intention are dependent.<br />
  120. 120. CASE<br />49<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Identifying potential demand among various income group.</li></ul>Using Chi Square concept, at 5% significance level, there is a significant difference <br />among proportion and thus income group and purchase intention are dependent.<br />
  121. 121. CASE<br />50<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Finding media sources used before buying TV</li></ul>Hoardings<br /> TV Advertisement<br /> Friends<br /> Relatives<br /> Colleagues<br />Manufacturer / dealer brochure<br /> Newspaper<br /> Internet<br /> Dealer sales staff<br />
  122. 122. CASE<br />51<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Determining appropriate price levels for 21inches </li></ul>TV is cheap but of acceptable<br />quality<br />TV is expensive but will possibly<br />buy<br />
  123. 123. CASE<br />52<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Analyzing competition on various parameters </li></ul>LG<br />Sony<br />Samsung<br />Videocon<br />Price<br /> Brand Image<br /> Latest Model<br /> Features<br /> Latest Technology<br />Offers/Schemes<br />
  124. 124. CASE<br />53<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Analyzing competition on various parameters….contd</li></ul> Rating given to Brands for attribute “Latest Model” : <br />
  125. 125. CASE<br />54<br />suresh<br />Data Analysis<br /><ul><li>Analyzing competition on various parameters….contd</li></ul>Testing data by Anova at 5% significance level, there is a significant difference <br />in rating given to brands for “Latest Model”.<br />No significant difference shown on Further analysis of Sony and Samsung on<br />mean rating given for “latest Technology” at 5% significance, using 2 sample<br />hypothesis concept<br />
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