Production and Operation Management


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Production and Operation Management

  1. 1. Chapter 1Production and Operations Management (POM): An Introduction 0
  2. 2. Overview• Introduction• Historical Milestones in POM• Factors Affecting POM Today• Different Ways of Studying POM• Wrap-Up: What World-Class Producers Do 1
  3. 3. Introduction• Production and operations management (POM) is the management of an organization’s production system.• A production system takes inputs and converts them into outputs.• The conversion process is the predominant activity of a production system.• The primary concern of an operations manager is the activities of the conversion process. 2
  4. 4. Organizational Model Finance Sales HRM POM QA Marketing MIS Engineering Accounting 3
  5. 5. Organization Chart-Major Elements Manufacturing OrganizationOperations Finance/Accounting MarketingFacilities Disbursements Sales PromotionProduction & & Credits AdvertisingInventory ontrol Funds Management SalesQuality Assurance Capital Requirements Market Research& ControlProcurementEngineering DesignIndustrial EngineeringProcess Engineering
  6. 6. Entry-Level Jobs in POM• Purchasing planner/buyer• Production (or operations) supervisor• Quality specialist• Production (or operations) scheduler/controller• Production (or operations) analyst• Inventory analyst 5
  7. 7. Historical Milestones in POM• The Industrial Revolution• Post-Civil War Period• Scientific Management• Human Relations and Behaviorism• Operations Research• The Service Revolution 6
  8. 8. The Industrial Revolution• The industrial revolution developed in England in the 1700s.• The steam engine, invented by James Watt in 1764, largely replaced human and water power for factories.• Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations in 1776 touted the economic benefits of the specialization of labor.• Thus the late-1700s factories had not only machine power but also ways of planning and controlling the tasks of workers. 7
  9. 9. The Industrial Revolution• The industrial revolution spread from England to other European countries and to the United Sates.• In 1790 an American, Eli Whitney, developed the concept of interchangeable parts.• The first great industry in the U.S. was the textile industry.• In the 1800s the development of the gasoline engine and electricity further advanced the revolution.• By the mid-1800s, the old cottage system of production had been replaced by the factory 8 system
  10. 10. Post-Civil War Period• During the post-Civil War period great expansion of production capacity occurred.• By post-Civil War the following developments set the stage for the great production explosion of the 20th century: – increased capital and production capacity – the expanded urban workforce – new Western U.S. markets – an effective national transportation 9 system
  11. 11. Scientific Management• Frederick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management. His shop system employed these steps: – Each worker’s skill, strength, and learning ability were determined. – Stopwatch studies were conducted to precisely set standard output per worker on each task. – Material specifications, work methods, and routing sequences were used to organize the shop. – Supervisors were carefully selected and trained. 10 – Incentive pay systems were initiated.
  12. 12. Scientific Management• In the 1920s, Ford Motor Company’s operation embodied the key elements of scientific management: – standardized product designs – mass production – low manufacturing costs – mechanized assembly lines – specialization of labor – interchangeable parts 11
  13. 13. Human Relations and Behavioralism• In the 1927-1932 period, researchers in the Hawthorne Studies realized that human factors were affecting production.• Researchers and managers alike were recognizing that psychological and sociological factors affected production.• From the work of behavioralists came a gradual change in the way managers thought about and treated workers. 12
  14. 14. Operations Research• During World War II, enormous quantities of resources (personnel, supplies, equipment, …) had to be deployed.• Military operations research (OR) teams were formed to deal with the complexity of the deployment.• After the war, operations researchers found their way back to universities, industry, government, and consulting firms.• OR helps operations managers make decisions when problems are complex and wrong decisions are costly. 13
  15. 15. The Service Revolution• The creation of services organizations accelerated sharply after World War II.• Today, more than two-thirds of the U.S. workforce is employed in services.• About two-thirds of U.S. GDP is from services.• There is a huge trade surplus in services.• Investment per office worker now exceeds the investment per factory worker.• Thus there is a growing need for service operations management. 14
  16. 16. Todays Factors Affecting POM• Global Competition• U.S. Quality, Customer Service, and Cost Challenges• Computers and Advanced Production Technology• Growth of Indian Service Sector• Scarcity of Production Resources• Issues of Social Responsibility 15
  17. 17. Different Ways to Study POM• Production as a System• Production as an Organization Function• Decision Making in POM 16
  18. 18. Production as a System Production System ConversionInputs Outputs Subsystem Control Subsystem 17
  19. 19. Inputs of a Production System• External – Legal, Economic, Social, Technological• Market – Competition, Customer Desires, Product Info.• Primary Resources – Materials, Personnel, Capital, Utilities 18
  20. 20. Conversion Subsystem• Physical (Manufacturing)• Locational Services (Transportation)• Exchange Services (Retailing)• Storage Services (Warehousing)• Other Private Services (Insurance)• Government Services (Federal, State, Local) 19
  21. 21. Outputs of a Production System• Direct – Products – Services• Indirect – Waste – Pollution – Technological Advances 20
  22. 22. Production as an Organization Function• Companies cannot compete using marketing, finance, accounting, and engineering alone.• We focus on POM as we think of global competitiveness, because that is where the vast majority of a firm’s workers, capital assets, and expenses reside.• To succeed, a firm must have a strong operations function teaming with the other organization functions. 21
  23. 23. Decision Making in POM• Strategic Decisions• Operating Decisions• Control Decisions 22
  24. 24. Strategic Decisions• These decisions are of strategic importance and have long-term significance for the organization.• Examples include deciding: – the design for a new product’s production process – where to locate a new factory – whether to launch a new-product development plan 23
  25. 25. Operating Decisions• These decisions are necessary if the ongoing production of goods and services is to satisfy market demands and provide profits.• Examples include deciding: – how much finished-goods inventory to carry – the amount of overtime to use next week – the details for purchasing raw material next month 24
  26. 26. Control Decisions• These decisions concern the day-to- day activities of workers, quality of products and services, production and overhead costs, and machine maintenance.• Examples include deciding: – labor cost standards for a new product – frequency of preventive maintenance – new quality control acceptance criteria 25
  27. 27. What Controls the Operations System?• Information about the outputs, the conversions, and the inputs is fed back to management.• This information is matched with management’s expectations• When there is a difference, management must take corrective action to maintain control of the system 26
  28. 28. Wrap-Up: World Class Practice• POM important in any organization• Global competition forces rapid evolution of POM• Decision based framework focus of course – Strategic, Operating, and Control 27