Motivation

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Motivation

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS T E N T H E D I T I O N© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  2. 2. O B J E C T I V E S AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Outline the motivation process. 2. Describe Maslow’s need hierarchy. 3. Contrast Theory X and Theory Y.L E A R N I N G 4. Differentiate motivators from hygiene factors. 5. List the characteristics that high achievers prefer in a job. 6. Summarize the types of goals that increase performance. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6–2
  3. 3. O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 7. State the impact of underrewarding employees. 8. Clarify key relationships in expectancy theory. 9. Explain how the contemporary theories of motivation complement each other.L E A R N I N G © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6–3
  4. 4. Defining MotivationDefining Motivation Key Elements Key Elements 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 1. Intensity: how hard a person tries 2. 2. Direction: toward beneficial goal Direction: toward beneficial goal 3. 3. Persistence: how long a person tries Persistence: how long a person tries© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–4
  5. 5. Hierarchy of Needs TheoryHierarchy of Needs Theory© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–5
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-1All rights reserved. 6–6
  7. 7. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–7
  8. 8. Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-2All rights reserved. 6–8
  9. 9. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–9
  10. 10. Factors characterizing eventson the job that led to extremejob dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction Comparison of Comparison of Satisfiers and Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Dissatisfiers © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-3 All rights reserved. 6–10
  11. 11. Contrasting Views of SatisfactionContrasting Views of Satisfactionand Dissatisfactionand Dissatisfaction Presence Absence© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-4All rights reserved. 6–11
  12. 12. ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Concepts: Concepts: More than one need can More than one need can be operative at the same be operative at the same Core Needs time. time. Core Needs Existence: provision of If aahigher-level need If higher-level need Existence: provision of cannot be fulfilled, the basic material basic material cannot be fulfilled, the requirements. desire to satisfy aalower- desire to satisfy lower- requirements. level need increases. level need increases. Relatedness: desire for Relatedness: desire for relationships. relationships. Growth: desire for Growth: desire for personal development. personal development.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–12
  13. 13. David McClelland’s Theory of NeedsDavid McClelland’s Theory of Needs nPow nAch nAff© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–13
  14. 14. Matching Achievers and JobsMatching Achievers and Jobs© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-5All rights reserved. 6–14
  15. 15. Cognitive Evaluation TheoryCognitive Evaluation Theory© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–15
  16. 16. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–16
  17. 17. Reinforcement TheoryReinforcement Theory Concepts: Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–17
  18. 18. Flow and Intrinsic Motivation TheoryFlow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–18
  19. 19. Ken Thomas’s Model of Intrinsic MotivationKen Thomas’s Model of Intrinsic Motivation Employees are intrinsically motivated when rewards an employee gets from work result from: – Choice– the ability to freely self-select and perform task activities. – Competence– the sense of accomplishment from skillfully performing chosen tasks or activities. – Meaningfulness– pursuing a task that matters in the larger scheme of things. – Progress– the feeling of significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–19
  20. 20. Equity TheoryEquity Theory Referent Referent Comparisons: Comparisons: Self-inside Self-inside Self-outside Self-outside Other-inside Other-inside Other-outside Other-outside© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–20
  21. 21. Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-7All rights reserved. 6–21
  22. 22. Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. Change inputs (slack off) 1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. 2. Change outcomes (increase output) Change outcomes (increase output) 3. 3. Distort/change perceptions of self Distort/change perceptions of self 4. 4. Distort/change perceptions of others Distort/change perceptions of others 5. 5. Choose a different referent person Choose a different referent person 6. Leave the field (quit the job) 6. Leave the field (quit the job)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–22
  23. 23. Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay: Propositions relating to inequitable pay: 1. Overrewarded employees produce more 1. Overrewarded employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. than equitably rewarded employees. 2. Overrewarded employees produce less, but 2. Overrewarded employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. do higher quality piece work. 3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce 3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. lower quality work. 4. Underrewarded employees produce larger 4. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees equitably rewarded employees© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–23
  24. 24. Equity Theory (cont’d)Equity Theory (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 6–24
  25. 25. Expectancy TheoryExpectancy Theory© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-8All rights reserved. 6–25
  26. 26. Performance DimensionsPerformance Dimensions© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 6-9All rights reserved. 6–26
  27. 27. Integrating IntegratingContemporary ContemporaryTheories of Theories ofMotivation Motivation © 20036-10EXHIBIT Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 6–27

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