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Organizational behavior

Organizational behavior

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  • 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS T E N T H E D I T I O N© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  • 2. O B J E C T I V E S AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Describe forces that act as stimulants to change. 2. Summarize the sources of individual and organizational resistance to change.L E A R N I N G 3. Summarize Lewin’s three-step change model. 4. Explain the values underlying most OD efforts. 5. Identify properties of innovative organizations. 6. List characteristics of a learning organization. © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 19–2
  • 3. O B J E C T I V E S (cont’d) AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 7. Define knowledge management and explain its importance. 8. Describe potential sources of stress. 9. Explain individual difference variables that moderate the stress–outcome relationship.L E A R N I N G © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 19–3
  • 4. Forces for ChangeForces for Change© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19-1aAll rights reserved. 19–4
  • 5. Forces for Change (cont’d)Forces for Change (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19-1bAll rights reserved. 19–5
  • 6. Managing Planned ChangeManaging Planned Change Goals of Planned Goals of Planned Change: Change: Improving the ability of Improving the ability of the organization to adapt the organization to adapt to changes in its to changes in its environment. environment. Changing the behavior of Changing the behavior of individuals and groups in individuals and groups in the organization. the organization.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 19–6
  • 7. Resistance to ChangeResistance to Change Forms of Resistance to Change – Overt and immediate • Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions – Implicit and deferred • Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved. 19–7
  • 8. Sources of Individual Resistance to ChangeSources of Individual Resistance to Change© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19-2All rights reserved. 19–8
  • 9. Sources of Organizational Resistance toSources of Organizational Resistance toChangeChange© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19-40All rights reserved. 19–9
  • 10. Overcoming Resistance to ChangeOvercoming Resistance to Change Tactics for dealing with Tactics for dealing with resistance to change: resistance to change: •• Education and communication Education and communication •• Participation Participation •• Facilitation and support Facilitation and support •• Negotiation Negotiation •• Manipulation and cooptation Manipulation and cooptation •• Coercion Coercion© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 10
  • 11. The Politics of ChangeThe Politics of Change Impetus for change is likely to come from outside change agents. Internal change agents are most threatened by their loss of status in the organization. Long-time power holders tend to implement only incremental change. The outcomes of power struggles in the organization will determine the speed and quality of change.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 11
  • 12. Lewin’s Three-Step Change ModelLewin’s Three-Step Change Model© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 12
  • 13. Lewin’s Three-Step Change ModelLewin’s Three-Step Change Model© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19– 19-5All rights reserved. 13
  • 14. Unfreezing the Status QuoUnfreezing the Status Quo© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19– 19-6All rights reserved. 14
  • 15. Action ResearchAction Research Action research benefits: Action research benefits: Problem-focused rather Problem-focused rather than solution-centered. than solution-centered. Heavy employee Heavy employee Process Steps: Process Steps: involvement reduces involvement reduces 1. Diagnosis resistance to change. resistance to change. 1. Diagnosis 2. Analysis 2. Analysis 3. Feedback 3. Feedback 4. Action 4. Action© 20035. Evaluation 5. Prentice Hall Evaluation Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 15
  • 16. Organizational DevelopmentOrganizational Development OD Values: OD Values: 1. Respect for people 1. Respect for people 2. Trust and support 2. Trust and support 3. Power equalization 3. Power equalization 4. Confrontation 4. Confrontation 5. Participation 5. Participation© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 16
  • 17. Organizational Development TechniquesOrganizational Development Techniques© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 17
  • 18. Organizational Development Techniques Organizational Development Techniques(cont’d) (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 18
  • 19. Organizational Development Techniques Organizational Development Techniques(cont’d) (cont’d)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 19
  • 20. Organizational Development Techniques Organizational Development Techniques(cont’d) (cont’d) Team Building Activities: Team Building Activities: • • Goal and priority Goal and priority setting. setting. • • Developing Developing interpersonal relations. interpersonal relations. • • Role analysis to each Role analysis to each member’s role and member’s role and responsibilities. responsibilities. • • Team process Team process analysis. analysis.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 20
  • 21. Organizational Development Techniques Organizational Development Techniques(cont’d) (cont’d) Intergroup Problem Intergroup Problem Solving: Solving: • • Groups independently Groups independently develop lists of develop lists of perceptions. perceptions. • • Share and discuss Share and discuss lists. lists. • • Look for causes of Look for causes of misperceptions. misperceptions. • • Work to develop Work to develop integrative solutions. integrative solutions.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 21
  • 22. Organizational Development Techniques Organizational Development Techniques(cont’d) (cont’d) Appreciative Inquiry (AI): Appreciative Inquiry (AI): • • Discovery: recalling Discovery: recalling the strengths of the the strengths of the organization. organization. • • Dreaming: speculation Dreaming: speculation on the future of the on the future of the organization. organization. • • Design: finding aa Design: finding common vision. common vision. • • Destiny: deciding how Destiny: deciding how to fulfill the dream. to fulfill the dream.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 22
  • 23. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Stimulating InnovationManagers: Stimulating Innovation Sources of Innovation: Sources of Innovation: • • Structural variables Structural variables • • Organic structures Organic structures • • Long-tenured Long-tenured management management • • Slack resources Slack resources • • Interunit Interunit communication communication • • Organization’s culture Organization’s culture • • Human resources Human resources© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 23
  • 24. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Creating a Learning OrganizationManagers: Creating a Learning Organization Characteristics: Characteristics: 1. Holds aashared vision 1. Holds shared vision 2. Discards old ways of 2. Discards old ways of thinking. thinking. 3. Views organization as 3. Views organization as system of relationships. system of relationships. 4. Communicates openly. 4. Communicates openly. 5. Works together to 5. Works together to achieve shared vision. achieve shared vision.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 24
  • 25. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Creating a Learning OrganizationManagers: Creating a Learning Organization© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 25
  • 26. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Creating a Learning OrganizationManagers: Creating a Learning Organization Fundamental Problems in Fundamental Problems in Traditional Organizations: Traditional Organizations: • • Fragmentation based on Fragmentation based on specialization. specialization. • • Overemphasis on Overemphasis on competition. competition. • • Reactiveness that Reactiveness that misdirects attention to misdirects attention to problem-solving rather problem-solving rather than creation. than creation.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 26
  • 27. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Managing a Learning OrganizationManagers: Managing a Learning Organization Establish Establish a strategy a strategy Redesign the Redesign the Managing Managing organization’s organization’s Learning Learning structure structure Reshape the Reshape the organization’s culture organization’s culture© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 27
  • 28. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Knowledge Management (KM)Managers: Knowledge Management (KM) Why KM is important: Why KM is important: Intellectual assets are as Intellectual assets are as important as physical important as physical assets. assets. When individuals leave, When individuals leave, their knowledge and their knowledge and experience goes with experience goes with them. them. A KM system reduces A KM system reduces redundancy and makes redundancy and makes the organization more the organization more© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. efficient. efficient. 19–All rights reserved. 28
  • 29. Contemporary Change Issues for Today’sContemporary Change Issues for Today’sManagers: Culture-Bound OrganizationsManagers: Culture-Bound Organizations Questions for culture-bound organizations: Questions for culture-bound organizations: 1. Do people believe change is even possible? 1. Do people believe change is even possible? 2. How long will it take to bring about change in the 2. How long will it take to bring about change in the organization? organization? 3. Is resistance to change greater in this organization due 3. Is resistance to change greater in this organization due to the culture of the society in which it operates? to the culture of the society in which it operates? 4. How will the societal culture affect efforts to implement 4. How will the societal culture affect efforts to implement change? change? 5. How will idea champions in this organization go about 5. How will idea champions in this organization go about gathering support for innovation efforts? gathering support for innovation efforts?© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 29
  • 30. Work Stress and Its ManagementWork Stress and Its Management© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 30
  • 31. Work Stress and Its ManagementWork Stress and Its Management© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 31
  • 32. Too Much Work, Too Little TimeToo Much Work, Too Little Time© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19– 19-8All rights reserved. 32
  • 33. Potential Sources of StressPotential Sources of Stress Environmental Factors – Economic uncertainties of the business cycle – Political uncertainties of political systems – Technological uncertainties of technical innovations – Terrorism in threats to physical safety and security© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 33
  • 34. Potential Sources of StressPotential Sources of Stress Organizational Factors – Task demands related to the job – Role demands of functioning in an organization – Interpersonal demands created by other employees – Organizational structure (rules and regulations) – Organizational leadership (managerial style) – Organization’s life stage (growth, stability, or decline)© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 34
  • 35. Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d)Potential Sources of Stress (cont’d) Individual Factors – Family and personal relationships – Economic problems from exceeding earning capacity – Personality problems arising for basic disposition Individual Differences – Perceptual variations of how reality will affect the individual’s future. – Greater job experience moderates stress effects. – Social support buffers job stress. – Internal locus of control lowers perceived job stress. – Strong feelings of self-efficacy reduce reactions to job stress.© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 35
  • 36. Consequences of StressConsequences of Stress High Levels High Levels of Stress of Stress Physiological Physiological Psychological Psychological Behavioral Behavioral Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms Symptoms© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 36
  • 37. A Model of StressA Model of Stress© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19– 19-10All rights reserved. 37
  • 38. Inverted-U Relationship between Stress and Inverted-U Relationship between Stress andJob Performance Job Performance© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. EXHIBIT 19– 19-11All rights reserved. 38
  • 39. Managing StressManaging Stress Individual Approaches – Implementing time management – Increasing physical exercise – Relaxation training – Expanding social support network© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 39
  • 40. Managing StressManaging Stress Organizational Approaches – Improved personnel selection and job placement – Training – Use of realistic goal setting – Redesigning of jobs – Increased employee involvement – Improved organizational communication – Offering employee sabbaticals – Establishment of corporate wellness programs© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. 19–All rights reserved. 40