Taj Mahal


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this is a ppt to know the basic details about TAJ MAHAL

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Taj Mahal

  1. 1. • “Ismail Khan” designed the Taj Mahal’s main dome.• “Puru” from Benarus, Persia for supervising the architect.• “Chiranjilal” is the head sculptor .• “Amanat Khan” from Shiraz, Iran for calligraphy.• “Mir Abdul Karim” and “Mukkarimat Khan” of Shiraz, Iran (Persia)were responsible for managing the finances and daily production.• “Ustad Isa” of Iran, designed the Taj Mahal.
  2. 2. Location: Agra, IndiaCoordinates: 27.174799°N & 78.042111°EElevation: 171 m (561 ft)Built: 1632–1653Architect: Ustad Ahmad LahauriArchitectural style: MughalType: CulturalCost of Construction: 32crore rupees
  3. 3. • It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his thirdwife, Mumtaz Mahal.• The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as “The Jewel of Muslim art in India”.• Taj Mahal is the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style thatcombines elements from Persian, Turkish and Indian architectural styles.• In 1983, the Taj Mahal became a UNESCO(United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization) World Heritage Site.• The construction began around 1632 and was completed around 1653,employing thousands of artisans and craftsmen.
  4. 4. • Taj Mahal was constructed using materials from all over India and Asia.• Over 1,000 elephants were used to transport building materials duringthe construction.• The following Marbles/Stones are used in the construction:
  5. 5. • Sculptors from Bukhara, calligraphers from Syria and Persia, inlayers fromsouthern India, stonecutters from Baluchistan, a specialist in buildingturrets, another who carved only marble flowers were part of the thirty-seven men who formed the creative unit.• A labor force of twenty thousand workers was recruited across northernIndia.
  7. 7. • Not only just Taj, even structures along side it add to the architecturalbeauty and artistic wonder of the place.• The entire Taj complex consists of five major constituents, namelyDarwaza (main gateway), Bageecha (gardens), Masjid (mosque),Naqqar Khana (rest house) and Rauza (main mausoleum).• The exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the finest in Mughalarchitecture.• The decorative elements were created by applying paint, stucco, stoneinlays, or carvings.• The calligraphy was created by a calligrapher named Abd ul-Haq, in 1609.
  8. 8. • Much of the calligraphy is composed of florid thuluth script, made of jasperor black marble.• Floors and walkways use contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns.• On the lower walls of the tomb there are white marble that have beensculpted with realistic bas relief depictions of flowers and vines.• The inlay stones are of yellow marble, jasper and jade, polished andlevelled to the surface of the walls.
  9. 9. • The inner chamber is an octagon with the design allowing for entry fromeach face, although only the door facing the garden to the south is used.• The interior walls are about 25 metres (82 ft) high and are topped by a"false" interior dome decorated with a sun motif.• In addition to the light from the balcony screens, light enters through roofopenings covered by chattris at the corners.• Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decoration of graves. Hence, the bodiesof Mumtaz and Shah Jahan were put in a relatively plain crypt beneath theinner chamber with their faces turned right and towards Mecca.• Mumtaz Mahals cenotaph is placed at theprecise center of the inner chamber on arectangular marble base of 1.5 metres(4 ft 11 in) by 2.5 metres (8 ft 2 in).
  10. 10. • The pen box and writing tablet were traditional Mughal funerary iconsdecorating the caskets of men and women respectively.• The Ninety Nine Names of God are found as calligraphic inscriptions onthe sides of the actual tomb of Mumtaz Mahal, in the crypt including"O Noble, O Magnificent, O Majestic, O Unique, O Eternal, O Glorious... ".
  11. 11. • Before his accession to the throne, Shah Jahan was popularly known asPrince Khurram.• Shah Jahan fell in love with the beautiful Arjumand Bano Begum andmarried her, making her his third wife.• Arjumand Bano Begum was christened by Shah Jahan as Mumtaz Mahal.• Shah Jahan lost Mumtaz Mahal, when she is giving birth to their 14hchild.• For the transportation of the construction materials, more than 1,000elephants were employed.• As many as 28 different varieties of semi-precious and precious stoneswere used to adorn the Taj with exquisite inlay work.
  12. 12. • On the sides of the actual tomb of Mumtaz Mahal, 99 names of Allah can befound as calligraphic inscriptions.• Taj Mahal attracts 2-4 million visitors annually with over 200,000 fromoverseas.
  13. 13. • If you have ever visited the Taj Mahal then your guide probably told youthat it was designed by Ustad Isa of Iran, and built by the Moghul Emperor,Shah Jahan, in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.• This story has been challenged by Professor P.N. Oak, author of Taj Mahal.• Indian children are taught that it was built in 22 years (1631 to 1653) by20,000 artisans brought to India from all over the world.• The True Story, who believes that the whole world has been duped.• He claims that the Taj Mahal is not Queen Mumtaz Mahals tomb, but anancient Hindu temple palace of Lord Shiva (then known as Tejo Mahalaya),worshipped by the Rajputs of Agra city.