Marketing communications are themeans by which firms attempt to1.)inform, Informing Persuading2.)persuade, and3.)remind consumers,directly or indirectly, about theproducts and brands they sell Reminding
• Advertising - any paid form of non-personal presentation by a sponsor• Sales promotion - short term incentives to encourage sales• Events and experiences• Public relations and publicity - building good relations with various publics• Direct marketing - short term incentives to encourage sales• Interactive marketing• Word-of-mouth marketing• Personal selling - personal presentations by a firm’s sales force
• Push strategy is directed toward the channel members • Provide incentives for those in the distribution channels to buy the product PUSH STRATEGY Manufacturer Wholesaler Retailer Consumer promotes to promotes to promotes to buys from wholesaler retailer consumer retailer Orders to manufacturer • Pull strategy is directed toward the ultimate purchaser • The focus is on creating demand at the household or ultimate consumer level PULL STRATEGY Consumer Retailer WholesalerManufacturer demands demands demandspromotes to product product product fromconsumer from retailer from wholesaler manufacturer Orders to manufacturer
Advocate channels• Personal channels Expert channels Social channels Media• Non-personal channels Sales Promotion Events and Experiences Public Relations• Integration of channels Brand Signature Media Interactions Ad retrieval Cues
Model that outlines the process for achieving promotional goals in terms of stages of consumer involvement with the message.
Awareness Interest Desire Action Very Very Somewhat NotAdvertising effective effective effective effectivePublic Very Very Very NotRelations effective effective effective effectiveSales Somewhat Somewhat Very VeryPromotion effective effective effective effectivePersonal Somewhat Very Very SomewhatSelling effective effective effective effective
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